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LIBRARY OF MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY 

WOODS HOLE, MASS. 



Loaned by American Museum of Natural History 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 



OF PHILADELPHIA. 



VOL. III. 1846 & 1817. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

PRINTED FOR THE ACADEMY, 
By Merrihew & Thompson, 7 Carter's Alley. 

1848. 






1/ 



A 5 7 '/ 



INDEX TO VOLUME III. 



Abadie, Dr., don. to mus., 10. 
Abert, Col., don. to lib., 141. 
Abert, Lieut., don. to mus., 210. 
Academy of Sciences of Munich, don. 

to lib. of memoirs of, 78, 2(30. 
Adams, C. B., don. to lib., 9, 117, 196; 

don. to mus., 213. 
Agassiz, M., don. to lib., 117. 
Alger, Francis, don. to lib., 38. 
American Philosophical Society, don. 

of proceedings of, 89, 119, 218 
American Acad, of Arts and Sciences 

of Boston, don. of memoirs of, 98, 

142, 190, 196, 270. 
American Journal of Agriculture and 

Science, don. of by editors, 38, 50, 

184, 220, 240, 256, 309, 329. 
Annales des Mines, 68, 141. 
Ashmead, Samuel, don. to lib., 316; 

don. to mus., 329. 

Bachman, Rev. Dr., communication 

from, 184. 
Baker, Capt. H. F.,don. to mus., 303. 
Balfour, Dr. E., don. to lib., 269. 
Barratt, Dr. Joseph, don. to lib., 98. 
Beasley, Thomas, don. to mus., 193. 
Bell, John, don. to mus., 193. 
Blanding, Dr. Wm., don. to lib., 37, 

70, 208. 
Bonaparte, Chas. L., don. to lib., 232. 
Bossange, Edward, don. to lib., 261. 
Boston Society of Natural History, 

don. of proceedings of, 50, 68, 89, 

187, 237; of journal, 194. 
Boudin, Dr., of Paris, don. to lib., 14. 
Bridges, Dr. R., don. to lib., 275. 
British Association, don. to lib., 98. 
Bronn, Prof., don. to mus., 271. 
Browne, Peter A., don. to lib., 218, 

304; don. to mus., 303. 
Burmeister, Heermann, don. to lib., 

327. 
By-laws, amendments to, 128, 252. 



Calcutta Journal of Natural History, 
don. of by editors, 231. 

Cassin, John, don. to mus., 12, 239 ; 
on an instinct probably possessed 
by the Herons, (Ardea, L.,) 137, 
description of a new rapacious bird 
in the Museum of Acad, of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, 199 ; de- 
scription of a new Buceros, and a 
notice of the Buceros elatus,Temm., 
330 ; descriptions of three new spe- 
cies of the genus Icterus, Briss., 332. 

Churchman, John, don. to mus., 30. 

Cincinnati Horticultural Society, don. 
to lib., 89. 

Cincinnati Society of Pennsylvania, 
don. to lib., 237. 

Committees, Scientific, for 1846, 13; 
for 1847, 1 14. 

Committee to inquire into the con- 
dition of the bequest of the late 
Wm. Warder, Esq., to the Acad., 
195. 

Committee to examine into the expe- 
diency of converting the lecture 
room into a portion of the museum, 
252. 

Committee to confer with M. Vatte- 
mare on the subject of exchanges, 
274. 

Committee on Mr. Conrad's descrip- 
tions of new fossil and recent 
shells of the United States, 10 ; on 
a paper by Mr. Phillips, describing 
new fresh water shells, 12; on Dr. 
R. W. Gibbes' paper on the fossil 
Squalida; of the Eocen of the U. S., 
29; on Mr. E. Harris' paper on the 
difference of level between the 
waters of the Gulf of Mexico and 
those of the Atlantic Ocean, 30 ; on 
Prof. Locke's notice of a new As- 
terias from the blue limestone of 
Cincinnati, 30; on Mr. Gambol's 



IV. 



INDEX. 



" Remarks on the Birds of Upper 
California," 40; on Dr. Morton's 
description of two new species of 
Echinodermata, from the Eocene of 
the U. S., 41 ; on Dr. E. Hallow- 
ell's paper on the anatomy of the 
Harpyia destructor, 4'J ; on Dr. 
Hallowell's description of a new 
bat from Western Africa, 50; on 
Dr. Leidy's " Remarks on the ana- 
tomy of the abdominal viscera of 
the Sloth," 50 ; on Dr. Leidy's paper 
on the anatomy of Spectrum femo- 
ratum,68; on Prof. Haldeman's de- 
scription of Unio abacoides, 71; on 
Dr. Leidy's description of a new 
genus and species of Entozoa, 91 ; 
on Prof. Owen's "Observations on 
fossils from the Brunswick Canal, 
Geo., in the cabinet of the Acad. 
of Nat. Sciences of Philadelphia," 
92; on Dr. Morton's description of 
two living hybrid birds, between 
Gallus and Numida, 97 ; on Dr. 
Leidy's paper on the mechanism 
which closes the membranous wings 
of the genus Locusta, 98; on Prof. 
Haldeman's paper on several new 
genera and species of insects, 115; 
on Mr. Cassin's "Note on an in- 
stinct supposed to be possessed by 
the Herons, especially the genus 
Ardea L.." 123; on a paper by Mr. 
Grant, of Philadelphia, on hybrid ity 
in animals, 130; on Dr. Leidy's 
paper on the situation of the ol- 
factory sense in the terrestrial 
tribe of thegasteropodous mollusca, 
132 ; on a paper by Prof. Haldeman. 
describing one new genus, and 
several new species of insects, 147 ; 
on Mr. Germain's paper on some 
effects of Electricity and Galvanism, 
having seemins analogy to the puri- 
fication and circulation of the blood, 
1 17 , on Mr. Tuomey's notice of 
the cranium of Z^uododon cetoides 
found near Charleston, S. C, 14 9: on 
P. A. Browne's paper proposing a 
new nomenclature for the class 
mammalia, 192 ; on Mr. Cassin's 
description of a new rapacious bird 
in the collection ot the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 
198; on Dr. Gibbes' description o<" 
fossil remains from the Eocene 
green sand of South Carolina, 19S; 



on Lieut, Abert's description of a 
new Quail, from New Mexico, 209 ; 
on Dr. Le Conte's paper, " Frag- 
menta Entomologica, 212; on Dr. 
Hare's paper, " Objections to the 
electrical theories of Franklin, Du- 
fay and Ampere," 219; on Dr. 
Leidy's paper "on the natural his- 
tory of Belostoma," 231 ; on Major 
McCall's description of a new 
Pigeon from Mexico, 231; on Prof. 
Haldeman's "descriptions of Cole- 
optera, chiefly in the cabinet of Dr. 
J. L. Le Conte," 239; on Dr. Mor- 
ton's memoir on the position of the 
ear in ancient statuary and paint- 
ings, 243 ; on Prof. Haldeman's de- 
scriptions of new Coleopterous in- 
sects of the United States, 244 ; on 
Dr. Leidy's description and anatomy 
of a new subgenus of Planaria, 216; 
on Dr. Leidy's paper on two new 
species of Planaria, 247 ; on Dr. 
Gibbes' description of new Squa- 
lidae from the Tertiary of South 
Carolina, 250 ; on Dr. Hallowell's 
description of a new Coluber, 261 ; 
on Dr. Leidy's paper on the Fossil 
horse of America, 201 ; on Mr. 
Conrad's " Observations on the Eo- 
cene formation and descriptions of 
105 new fossils from the vicinity of 
Vicksburg, Miss.," 276; on Prof. 
Haldeman's description of a new 
Unio, 312 ; on Dr. Leidy's paper on 
a new genus and species of fossil 
Ruminant*. Poebrotherium Wilsoni, 
318; on Dr. Hallowell's paper on 
the horned viper of Western Africa, 
318; on Mr. Cassin's paper on two 
species of Buceros, probably new, 
&c, 328; on Mr. Cassin's descrip- 
tions of three species of the genus 
Icterus, presumed to be new, Sec'., 
329. 

Conrad, T. A., don. to mus..236, 239, 
255, 269; don. to lib., 256, 261 ; 
descriptions of new species of fos- 
sil and recent shells and corals, 19; 
observations on the Eocene forma- 
tion, and description of 105 new 
fossils of that period, from the vi- 
cinity of Vickrburg, Miss., 280. 

Correspondents elected : 

Aall Nicolai, Christiana, Sweden, 

48. 
Adams, Prof. C. B., Vermont, 115. 



INDEX. 



V. 



Baird, Wm. M., Reading, Pennsyl- 
vania, 48. 
Barratt, Dr. J. H., South Carolina, 

145. 
Brevoort, J. Carson, New York, 
222. 
Bromfield, Dr. Wm. A., Isle of 

Wight, 193. 
Brown, Richard, Cape Breton, N. 

S., 129. 
Chipman, Prof. Isaac L., Nova 

Scotia, 213. 
Davis, Dr. Edwin H., Chilicothe, 

Ohio, 222. 
Dawson, J. W., Pictou, N. S., 129. 
Delafield, Major Joseph, New York, 

96. 
Eyton, Thomas C, London, 139. 
Farraday, Michael, London, 349. 
Gourlie, Wm., Jr., Glasgow, 48. 
Gray, Geo. Robert, London, 139. 
Hammond, Ogden, Charleston, S. 

C, 193. 
Harden, Dr. John M. B., Liberty 

Co., Georgia, 96. 
Herschell, Sir J. F. W., London, 

349. 
Jackson, Dr. J. B. S., Boston, 115. 
Kippist, Richard, London, 139. 
Korthals, Dr. P. W., Leyden, 299. 
Lawrence, Dr. George N., New 

York, 213. 
Logan, Wm. E., Canada, 129. 
Lonsdale. Wm., London, 349. 
McCall. Major Geo. A., 222. 
Nicholson, Dr. Charles, Sydney, 

New South Wales, 14. 
NilNon, Prof., Lund. Sweden, 319. 
Reizius, Dr. Andreas, Stockholm, 

129. 
Redtield, J. II., New York, 90. 
Robb. James, Frederickton, N. B., 

129. 
Savage, Rev. Thomas S., Cape 

Palmas, Africa, 35. 
Selby, Prideaux John, Northum- 
berland, England, 340. 
Smith, Dr. J. Lawrence, Charleston, 

S. C, 9G. 
Smith, Charles Hamilton, London, 

139. 
Squier. E. George, Chilicothe, O., 

2'22. 
Sturm, Jacob, Nuremburs, 209. 
Verneuil, M. de, Paris, 88. 
Yon Gerolt, Baron. Prussia, 14. 
Wilson, Edward, Wales, Eng., 88. 



Zuccarini, Prof. Joseph, Munich, 
Bavaria, 105. 

Culbertson Joseph, dep. iji mus., 316. 

Curators, announcement by, of the 
arrival of the " Rivoli collection" of 
birds, and their deposit by Dr. T. 
B. Wilson in the Academy, 97 ; com- 
munication from, in reference to a 
mass of small black insects received 
from the Rev. Mr. McFarland, and 
collected by him from the surface of 
the snow on the 28th Dec, 1846, on 
the Broad Mountain, Schuylkill Co., 
Pa., 186; report for 1S47, 339. 

Da Costa, John C, don. to mus., 196. 

Dana, J. D., don. to mus., 31; don. 
to lib., 119, 146, 147, 187. 

Darlir.srton, Dr. Win., don. to lib., 
214, 210, 276. 

Dawson, J. W"., of Pictou, N. S., don. 
to lib., 220, 271 ; on the gypsum of 
Nova Scotia, 272. 

Dawson. Dr., of Philadelphia, don. to 
lib., 276; don. to mus., 276. 
| Davis, Alex. C, don. to mus., 129. 
! De Candolle, portrait of, received for 
lib., 217. 

De Harden, L., don. to lib., 106. 

D'Orbiirny, M. Alcide, don. to lib., 
90, 309. 

Dickeson, M. W., don to mus., 99, 
1 19, 326; deposit in mus., 109 ; re- 
marks on his collection of fossil 
bones from the vicinity of Natchez, 
106: on alligator tracks. &c. 100; 
on the mode o!" compression off e 
cranium by the Choctaw Indiam, 
308. 

Dillingham, Wm. IT., don. to lib., 277. 

Donations to museum by a club of 
members, 17, 329. 

Donnelly, Edward, don. to mus., 35. 

Duke of Northumberland, don. to lib.. 
304. 

Edwaids. Wrn. IT., don. to mus., 

210, 214. 
Edwards, Amery, don. to mus., 2 14. 
Elwyn, Dr. A. L., don. to mus., 69 ; 

don. to lib., 08,69, 122. 
Eschricht, Dr., don. to lib., 117,118. 
Eustis, Capt., U. S. A., don. to mus., 

232. 
Everest, Col., don. to lib., 256. 

Figeac, Champollion, don. to lib., 270. 



VI. 



INDEX 



Fisher, Redwood, don. to lib., 315. 
French, Benj. F., don. to lib., 1U5. 

Gambel, Wm., don. to mus., 31, 97, 
289; don. to lib., 11, 275; remarks 
on the birds observed in Upper Ca- 
lifornia, 44, 110, 154, 200; ob- 
servations on a species of Picus 
from Georgia, 278. 

Geneva Natural History Society, don. 
of memoirs of, 217. 

Gesner, Abraham, don. to lib., 106. 

Germain, Lewis J., don. to mus., 17, 
31, 38, 97, 118, 1-18, 274, 303; don. 
to lib., 256. 

Gibbis, Dr. R. W., don. to mus., 
122 ; don. to lib., 29, 187, 218, 270 ; 
on the fossil Squalidae of the United 
States, 41 ; descriptions of new 
species of Squalidae from the Terti- 
ary beds of South Carolina, 266. 

Gibbes, Dr. Lewis R., don. to lib., 
247. 

Gillis, Lieut., don. to lib., 119. 

Gliddon, George R.,don. to lib., 122 ; 
remarks on some casts of Egyptian 
tablets, 216. 

Goddard, Dr. Paul B., don. to lib., 
135, 148. 

Goodall, Dr., don to mus., 122. 

Gould, Dr. A. A don. to lib., 119, 
148. 

Graham Major J. D.,don. to lib., 142. 

Gray, Dr. Asa, don. to lib., 10, 135, 
146, 261. 

Griffith, Dr. R. E., don. to mus., 148, 
211, 214, 223, 230, 232, 236, 316; 
don. to lib., 211, 237, 2 10, 2 14, 260. 
275; deposit in lib., 226, 227, 228, 
304, 305, 306, 307, 317, 327, 328. 

Griffith, Miss, don. to mus., 210. 

Haight, Richard K., don. to lib., 37. 

Hall, Prof., don. to lib., 189. 

Haldeman, Prof. S. S., don. to mus., 
14, 70, 119, 210 ; don. to lib., 236 ; 
remarks on Unio crassus, 15; de- 
scription of Unio abacoides, 75; on 
several new genera and species of 
insects, 121; descriptions of several 
new species and one new genus 
of insects, 149; correction of 
his published papers, 318; re- 
marks on Salamandra erytbronota, 
Green, and S. cinerea, Green, 315. 

Hfllowell, l)r Edward, don. to mus., 
31, 50, 122, 192, 211 ; don. to lib., 



119, 232; description of a new 
species of bat from Western Africa, 
52 ; on the anatomy of Harpyia de- 
structor, 84; description of the lo- 
cality whence a collection of fossil 
bones presented to the Academy by 
Mr. Wm. Pancoast, had been ob- 
tained, and an enumeration of the 
same, 130; description of a new 
species of Coluber inhabiting the 
United States, 278 ; on the horned 
viper of Western Africa, 319. 

Hare, Prof. Robert, observations on 
the combustion of gum in oxygen 
gas, 210 ; on the weather of the 
spring of 1847, 216. 

Harris, Edward, don. to mus., 36, 
129; on the difference of level be- 
tween the waters of the Gulf of 
Mexico and those of the Atlantic 
Ocean, 34. 

Heerrnan, Dr. A. L., don. to mus., 
119, 232. 

Hembel, Wm., don. to lib., 90. 

Herbert, Rev. Wm.,don. to lib., 211. 

Hildreth, Dr. S. P., don. to mua., 
269. 

Histoire nat. de Pile de Cuba, don. of 
by members, 148. 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 
don. to lib., 49, 68, 89. 

Hodge, John L., deposit of an Egyp- 
tian mummy and sarcophagus, 69. 

Hodgson, Wm. B., don. to lib., 122. 

Huffnagle, Dr. Charles, deposit in 
museum, 146. 

Imperial Society of Naturalists of 

Moscow, don. to lib., 29. 
Imperial Mineralogical Society of St. 

Petersburg, don. to lib., 29. 
Ingersoll, Joseph R., don. to lib., 36, 

37, 38. 

Jackson, Dr. J. B. S.. don. to lib., 
225. 

Jaeger, Dr. G., don. to lib., 90, 91. 

Jenkins, Dr. J. C, don. to mus., 97. 

Johnson, Prof. Walter R., don. to 
mus.. 36, 108, 122, 129, 187, 1S9, 
192,210,212,230, 2 10, 269; don. 
to lib.. 36, 194; remarks on Mr. 
Piddington's 11th memoir on th? 
law of storms in India, 17; inform- 
ing the society of his having pre- 

I sented to the Library Committee 
of Congress a series of resolutions 



INDEX. 



\ 11. 



passf d by it, asking for an increased 
edition of the scientific reports of 
the exploring expedition, 37 ; re- 
marks in relation to a bill before 
Congress on that subject, 79; ob- 
servations on floating docks, 50 ; 
remarks on drift, 109 ; on the cellu- 
lose of the Borneo palm, 186 ; on 
the dust of anthracite furnace flues, 
191 ; on a new plan for representing 
geological strata on paper, 218; 
announcement of the deposit in the 
Institution of Mr. H. Seybert's che- 
mical apparatus and library of 
chemical works, 224; on a peculiar 
sediment from a steam boiler, 318; 
on some fossil bones from Berks 
Co., Pennsylvania, 318. 

Kenworthy, Dr., don. to mus., 31. 
Kern, Benjamin H.,don. to mus., 255. 
Kilvington, Robert, don. to mus., 

230, 246. 
Kinberg, J. G. H., additions to mus. 

from, in exchange, 12. 
Korthals, Dr. P. W., don. to lib., 236. 

Lambert, John, don. to lib., 304, 316 ; 
election as Recording Secretary, 
299. 

Le Conte, Dr. J. L., don. to mus., 269. 

Leeds Philosophical Society, don. to 
lib., 49, 191. 

Leidy, Dr. Joseph, don. to mus., 
148, 244 ; don. to lib., 225 ; on the 
anatomy of Spectrum femoratum, 
80 ; description of a new genus and 
species of Entozoa, 100 ; on the 
mechanism which closes the mem- 
branous wings of the genus Lo- 
custa, 104; on an Entozoon from the 
thigh of a hog, 108; on the situation 
of the olfactory sense in the terres- 
trial tribe of the gasteropodous 
mollusca, 136 ; instance of the great 
fecundity of the Cryptogamia men- 
tioned by, 195; discovery of crys- 
tals in the cellular structure of 
species of Parmelia, 210; on the 
cranium of a New Hollander, 217 ; 
on an Entozoon from the pericardium 
of Helix alternata, 220 ; request to 
change the name of an Entozoon de- 
scribed by him, from Cryptobia to 
Cryptoicus, 239 ; remarks on Squa- 
tina Dumerili, 247 ; description and 
anatomy of a subgenus of Planaria, 



248 ; description of two new species 
of Planaria, 251, on the fossil horse 
of America, 262; on the slow de- 
structibility of animal tissues in cer- 
tain states, 313; on a new genus and 
species of fossil ruminants, Poe'bro- f 
therium Wilsoni, 322; additional 
observations on the fossil horse of 
America, 328. 
Letters from : 

Abert, Col. J. J., 228. 

Adams, Prof. C. B., 12, 49, 189, 

217. 
Agassiz, M., 37. 
Bache, Prof. A. D. t 10, 91. 
Bailey, Prof., 39. 
Baird, Prof. S. F., 209. 
Baird, William M., 68. 
Barratt, Dr. J. P., 194. 
Breckenridge, Wm. D., 144. 
Bromfield, Dr. Wm. A., 228. 
Brown, Richard, 143, 229, 317. 
Clot Bey, M. D., 32. 
Cramer, Charles, 189. 
Dawson, J. W., 220. 
De Hauer, the Chevalier, 312. 
De Jonnes, M., 71. 
Delafield, Major, 98. 
Everest, Col., 259. 
Eyton, Thomas C, 192. 
Falconer, Dr., (E. India. Co.,) 

308. 
Fehlands, John, 312. 
Gourlie, Wm., Jr., 78. 
Graf, Mr., 149. 
Gray, Dr. Asa, 92. 
Haldeman, Prof., S. S., 278. 
Harden, Dr. J. M. B., 106. 
Hammond, Ogden, 197. 
Hering, Dr. E., 242. 
Hildreth, Dr. S. P., 274. 
Huffnagle, Dr. Charles, 98. 
Kinberg, J. G., 12. 
Kippist, Richard, 211. 
Lamarepicquot, M., 68. 
Land, Capt. John, 212. 
Locke, Prof., 30. 
Logan, Wm. E., 231. 
Lyell, Charles, 12, 92. 
Maclure, Alexander, 79. 
Meigs, H., 71. 
Mitchell, Dr. J. K., 191. 
Morris, Rev. J. G., 209. 
Morris, Miss M., 238. 
Norwood, Dr. J. G., 30. 
Owen, Prof. Richard, 15. 
Piddington, Henry, Jr., 16. 



V 1 1 1 - 



INDEX. 



Pitcher, Dr. Zina, 98, 132. 
Redfield, J. H., 98, 100. 
Redfield, ffm. C, 299. 
Retzius, Prof. Andreas, 210. 
Robb, James, 147. 
Rowe, M. W., 27G. 
Savage, Rev. Dr., 195, 240. 
Silliman, Benj., Jr., 15, 10. 
Seybert, Henry, 229. 
Tainnau, Dr. Frederick, 217. 
Taylor, Richard C, 78. 
Thompson, Wm., 318. 
Tremper, Judge, 12, IS, 79, 91, 

109, 191. 
VonTschudi, Dr., 91. 
Von Gerolt, Baron, 18. 
Von Jaeger, Dr. George, 231. 
Wickersham, C. P., 99, 108, 119. 
Wilson, Edward, 118. 
Wyman, Dr. J., 243. 
Letters from societies, &c. : 

American Philosophical Society, 12, 

91, 192, 219, 233. 
American Academy of Arts and 

Sciences of Boston. 18, 98. 
Boston Society of Natural History, 

238. 
British Association, 30. 
Essex Co. (Mass.) Natural History 

Society, 91. 
Imperial Mineralogical Society of 

St. Petersburg, 30. 
Linnean Society of London, 15, 

237. 
Lyceum of Natural History of New- 
York, 91. 
Royal Academy of Sciences of Mu- 
nich, 201. 
Royal Bavarian Academy, 219. 
Royal Society of Agriculture and 

Science of Lyons, 99. 
Trustees of Western University of 
Pennsylvania, 144. 
Lewis, Dr. E. J., don. to lib., 184. 
Librarian, report of, for 1847, 237. 
Life membership conferred on R. C. 

Taylor, Esq., 75. 
Lindsley, J. B., don. to mus., 10. 
Linnean Association of Pennsylvania 
College, don. of journal of, 11, 68, 
78, 105, 129, 142, 147, 184, I'M, 
209, 218, 225, 231, 2:17, 250,277, 
310, 319. 
Linnean Society of London, don. ot 
transactions of, 15; proceedings of, 
15, 129. 
Locke, Prof., description of an Asterias 



from the blue limestone of Cincin- 
nati, 32. 
Logan, Wm. E.. don. to lib., 231. 
Longchamps, Ed.de Selys, don.to lib., 

147. 
Lyceum of Natural History of New 

"York, don. to lib., 38, 105, 194, 250. 
Mactier, Wm. L., don. to mus., 270. 
Mantell, Gideon A., don. to lib., 245. 
Martins, Charles, don. to lib., 261. 
McCall, Major George A., don. to 

mus., 22 1 ; description of a supposed 
new species of Columba inhabiting 

Mexico, with sonif 1 account of the 

habits of the Geococcyx viaticus, 

Wagler, 233. 
McEuen, Dr. Thomas, don. to mus., 

210, 217. 
McMurtrie, Dr. H., don. to lib., 275. 
Meigs, Dr. Charles D., don. to mus., 

219, 255, 315. 
Melsheimer, Dr. F. E., descriptions 

of new species of Coleoptera of the 

United States, 53, 158. 
Members elected : 

Allinson, George Boyd, 205. 

Dallas, George M., 320. 

Dickeson, Dr. M. W., 115. 

Emery, Moses H., 269. 

Fisher, Coleman, Jr., 145. 

Germain, Lewis J., 48. 

Hartshorne, Dr. Edward, 213. 

Kern, Richard. 213. 

Kern, Dr. Benjamin J., 209. 

Kern, Edward M., 299. 

Lambert, John, 129. 

Lea, M. Carey, 209. 

Lennig, Charles, 299. 

Lewis, Dr. Elisha J., 8S. 

Ludlow, Dr. John L., 320. 

McClellan, Dr. John H. B., 326. 

Neill, Dr. John, 213. 

Pancoast, Dr. Joseph, 349. 

Powel, Samuel, 235. 

Rogers, Prof. James B., 299. 

Sargent, Dr. F. W., 269. 

Sergeant, J. Dickinson, 299. 

Skerrett, Dr. David C, 205. 

Thomson, Ambrose W., 115. 
Mohr, Paul, don. to lib., 270. 
Moricand, D. J., don. to lib., 217. 
Morris, Rev. Dr., don. to lib., 10. 
Morris, Miss M., don. to mus., 131, 

189, 236; remarks on the larva of 

Cicada septendecim, 132, 190. 
Morrison. John, don. to lib., 210. 
Morton, Dr. S. G., don. to mus., 38, 



INDEX. 



IX. 



183, 215 ; deposit of crania in mus., 
38, 69, 109, 135, 194, 196, 220, 276, 
303, 309, 316; don. to lib., 9, 31, 
37, 78, 184, 276, 277, 327; re- 
marks on some cretaceous fossils 
from the green sand near Burling- 
ton, N. J., 32, 39 ; on some Peruvian 
remains from the vicinity of Arica, 
39; description of two new species 
of fossil Echinodermata from the 
Eocene of the TJ. S., 51 ; on the 
position of the ear in the ancient 
Egyptians, 70; on the occasional 
union of the spheno-temporal and 
coronal sutures in the human sub- 
ject, 71; on two hybrids between 
Gallus and Numida, 101 ; paper on 
hybridity of animals, considered in 
reference to the question of the 
unity of the human species, 1 18, 
121 ; address at the first meeting of 
the society in the new library and 
meeting room, 207 ; on an aboriginal 
cranium obtained by Dr. Davis and 
Mr. Squier from a mound near 
Chilicothe, Ohio, 212 ; remarks on 
an Indian cranium found near Rich- 
mond, on the Delaware, and on a 
Chenook mummy, 330. 

Moss, Theodore F., don. to mus, 148, 
183, 187, 246 ; resignation of office 
of Recording Secretary, 2G8. 

Murchison, Roderick Impey, don. to 
lib., 49. 

National Institute, don. to lib., 131. 
Nott, Dr. J. C, don. to lib., 31. 

Oakford, Richard, don. to mus., 244. 
Officers for 1847, 138; for 1848, 

348. 
Owen, Prof. Richard, observations on 

certain fossils from the collection 

of the Academy of Natural Sciences 

of Philadelphia, 93. 

Pancoast, Wm., don. to mus., 118. 
Passerini, Carlo, don. to lib., 108. 
Pease, Wm., don. to mus., 236, 240. 
Peirce, Prof., don. to lib., 214. 
Pennock, Dr. C. W., don. to mus., 

50, 217, 219, 316. 
Percival, Thomas C, don. to mus., 

224,255. 
Peterson, T. B., don. to lib., 256. 
Phillips, John S., don. to mus., 10, 

316; description of a new fresh 



water shell, and observations on 
Glandina obtusa, PfeifT, 66. 

Piddington, Henry, Jr., don. to lib., 
16, 247. 

Pisani, Dr. Ascagne, don. to lib., 105. 

Pollock, J. R., don. to mus., 303, 
309. 

Porcher, P. Peyre, don. to lib., 316. 

Providence Franklin Society, don. to 
lib., 49, 209. 

Publication Committee of Academy 
of Natural Sciences, don. to lib., 
327 ; announcement by, of the pub- 
lication of the 1st No. of the new 
series of the Journal of the Acad., 
328. 

Ravenel, Dr. E., don. to mus., 326. 

Raymond & Waring, don. to mus., 
314: 

Read, James, don. to lib., 226. 

Recording Scretary, report of, for 
1844 and 1847, 334. 

Redfield, John H., don. to lib., 38. 

Redfield, Wm. C, don. to lib., 147. 

Regents of University of State of New 
York, don. to lib., 68, 327. 

Report of committee appointed to de- 
vise additions to the hall for ac- 
commodating Dr. Wilson's col- 
lection of birds, 79, 92 ; on Dr. R. 
W. Gibbes' paper on fossils from 
the green sand of South Carolina, 
198, 221; on Prof. Hare's paper 
entitled, " Objections to the elec- 
trical theories of Franklin, Dufay 
and Ampere," 221; on papers by 
Dr. Gibbes, Dr. Le Conte and Dr. 
Leidy, 239; on the propriety of al- 
tering the lecture room, and adapt- 
ing it to the purposes of a museum, 
259: on the subject of exchanges 
with M. Vattemare, 314. 

Report of the library committee, sub- 
mitting a plan for book cases in the 
new library, 189. 

Report of publication committee on 
Prof. Adams' proposal to publish 
his paper on the Natural History 
of Jamaica in the Journal of the 
Academy, 222. 

Report on the ornithological depart- 
ment by Mr. Cassin, 343. 

Resolutions: authorizing the geologi- 
cal committee to put up a collection 
of duplicate fossils for M. D'Or- 
bigny, 17 ; desiring the publication 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 

OF PHILADELPHIA.. 

Vol. III. JAN. AND FEB., 1846. No. 1: 

Stated Meeting, January 6, 1846. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Report on the chemical examination of Mineral Waters for 
the city of Boston. By Benjamin Silliman, Jr. Boston, 
1845. From the Author. 

First Annual Report on the Geology of Vermont. By C. B. 
Adams. Burlington, Vermont 1845. From the Author. 

Synopsis Conchyliorum Jamaiciensium, &c. By C. B. Adams. 

From the same. 
Fresh-water and land Shells of Vermont. By C. B. Adams. 

From the same. 

The Culture of Silk, or an essay on its rational practice and 
improvement ; in 4 parts. By the Rev. Samuel Pullein.. 
8vo. London, 1758. From Dr. Morton. 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, for 1844 
and 1845. From the Society. 

Two additional sheets, completing the map of the U. S. coast 

2 



10 [Jan., 1846. 

survey of New York Harbor and Bay. From the Trea- 
sury Department, through A. D. Bache, Esq. 



A communication was read from A. D. Bache, Esq., dated 
Washington, Dec. 9, 1845, presenting the above. 

Mr. Conrad read a paper, intended for publication, entitled 
"Descriptions of nineteen new species of fossil and recent 
Shells and Corals of the United States ;" which was referred 
to a committee consisting of Mr. Phillips, Dr. Pickering, and 
Mr. Harris. 



Stated Meeting, January 13, 1846. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Mr. Phillips presented specimens of the following Shells : 

Paludina apicina, Phillips, from Uraguay ; Physa princeps. 
Phillips, and Glandina obtusa, Pfeiffer, from Yucatan. 

Specimen of Unio Sowerbianus, Lea, from Nashville, Tenn. 
From Mr. J. B. Lindsley. 

Fossil bone of a Whale's ear, from the Desert of Atacama. 
Peru. From Mr. J. F. Watson. 

Recent shell limestone, from Anastasia Island, Coast of Flo- 
rida. From Dr. Abadie. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

American Journal of Arts and Sciences. No. 1. Vol. I. 2d 
Series, January, 1846. From the Editors. 

Musci Alleghaniensis, sive Spicilegia Muscorum atque He- 
paticarum quas in itmere a Marylandia usque ad Geor- 
giam per tractus montium, A. D. 1843, decerpserunt Asa 
Gray et W. S. Sullivant, &c, Columbus, Ohio, 1845. From 
the Authors. 

Contributions towards a history of Entomology in the United 



Jan., 1846.] 11 

States. By John G. Morris, D. D., Baltimore, 1845. From 
the Author. 
Literary Record and Journal of the Linnean Association of 
Pennsylvania College. No. 1. Vol. 2. From the Asso- 
ciation. 

A history of British fossil Mammalia and Birds. By Richard 

Owen, F. R. S., &c. Parts 9 and 10. From Dr. T. B. 

Wilson. 
The following works in the Hawaiian language, published 

in the Sandwich Islands, were presented by Mr. William 

Gambel : 

Ka Palapala Hemolele, 2 vols., (The Holy Bible) ; Ke 
Kanoha Hou, (The New Testament) ; Ke Kumu Hawai, 
(The Hawaiian Teacher) ; Ka Hele Malihini ana, (The 
Pilgrim's Progress) ; Hoike Akua, (A Theology) ; Ka 
Hope no ka Helunaau, (An Arithmetic) ; Ke Kumu Kana- 
wai, (The Laws of the Sandwich Islands) ; He Hoike- 
houna, (A Geography) ; He Piliolelo, &c, (A Grammar of 
the English Language ) ; Ke Kokua no ka Hawaii, &c, 
(A Primer of the English Language); Ka Mooolelo, &c, 
(A History of the Christian Church.) 

Also, from the same donor, the following in the English lan- 
guage : 

History of the Sandwich Islands. By Sheldon Dibble. La- 

hainaluna, 1843. 
Sandwich Island Gazette. Vols. 1, 2 and 31836 to 183H. 
The Polynesian. Vols. 1 and 21840 to 1841. 
A Vocabulary of the Hawaiian Language. Lahainaluna. 

1836. 

Documents relating to the restoration of the Sandwich 
Islands' Flag, 1843. 

Statistics relating to the Sandwich Islands. 



Letters were read : 

From M. C. B. Adams, dated Middlebury, Vermont, Dec. 
31, 1845, returning acknowledgements for a copy of the Pro- 



12 [Jan., 1846. 

ceedings of the Academy, from January, 1844, to October, 
1845. 

From Jacob Tremper, Esq., dated Dresden, N. Y., Jan. 8, 
1846, replying to a request from the Corresponding Secretary 
to endeavor to procure for the Society a copy of the Natural 
History of the State of New York, and stating the terms upon 
which it could be obtained. 

Mr. Phillips read a paper, intended for publication, describ- 
ing new fresh-water shells, with observations on Glandina 
obtusa, Pfeif. specimens of all of which have been presented 
by him this evening. Referred to the following Committee : 
Mr. Conrad, Dr. Leidy, and Dr. Morton. 



Slated Meeting, January 20, 1846. 

Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

% 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

The Curators exhibited a large collection of Quadrupeds 
and Birds in skin ; fishes and reptiles in spirits ; insects, plants, 
fossils and minerals, received in exchange from Mr. J. G. H. 
Kinberg, of Lund, Sweden. 

Mr. Cassin presented two reptiles from Western Africa, 
presumed to be new. 

Specimens of Indusial limestone, or Travertine of Auvergne, 
with numerous small Paludinae attached to tubes of Phry- 
geenea : from Valliere, near Moulins, France. Presented by 
Richard C. Taylor, Esq. 



A communication was read from the Secretary of the 
American Philosophical Society, dated Dec. 5, 1845, return- 
ing acknowledgments for Nos. 10 and 11 of the Proceedings. 

Mr. Cassin read a translation of a letter from Mr. Kinberg, 
dated Lund, Sweden, November, 1845, in relation to the 
collection received from him and exhibited this evening. 

The Chairman read a letter from Mr. Charles Lyell, dated 
Darien, Georgia, January 8, 1846, requesting permission from 



Jan., 1846.] 13 

the Academy to take to London for a short period, for further 
investigation and comparison by Professor Owen, the fol- 
lowing fossil specimens from the Brunswick canal, Georgia, 
presented to the Institution by Mr. J. Hamilton Cooper, of 
Georgia, viz : 

Lower incisor tooth of Hippopotamus ; fragment of same ; 
fragment, supposed to be that of a Hippopotamus ; tooth ef 
a horse ; Sus Americanus, Harlan ; supposed tibia of a Bos ; 
humerus of do. 



Meeting for Business, January 27, 1846. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

The Society having received several reports, and authorized 
the Geological Committee to loan Mr. Lyell the fossil speci- 
mens referred to in his letter, read at last meeting, proceeded 
to an election for Standing Committees for the present year, 
with the following result : 

COMMITTEES FOR 1846. 

Geological and Mineralogical. 

J. Price Wetherill, Wm. S. Vaux, 

S. G. Morton, Walter R. Johnson, 

T. A. Conrad, Samuel Ashmead, 

Theodore F. Moss. 

Zoological. 

John S. Phillips, John Cassin, 

Edward Harris, John K. Townsend, 

Wm. S. Zantzinger, Joseph Leidy, 

William Gambel. 

Botanical. 

Robert Bridges, Gavin Watson, 

Wm. S. Zantzinger. Robert Kilvington, 

William Gambel. 



14 [Feb., 1846. 

Physics. 

Isaiah Lukens, Paul B. Goddard, 

Walter R. Johnson, J. S. Phillips, 

Theodore F. Moss. 

Library. 
Robert Bridges, Robert Pearsall, 

W. S. Zantzinger, Geo. W. Carpenter, 

Samuel B. Ashmead. 

Committee on Proceedings. 
S. G. Morton. ( Corresponding and 

John S. Phillips, *{ Recording Secretaries, 

Joseph Leidy, ^ ex-qfficio. 

ELECTION OF CORRESPONDENTS. 

Charles Nicholson, M. D., of Sydney, New South Wales, 
and the Baron Von Gerolt, Prussian Minister at Washington, 
were elected Correspondents of the Academy. 



Stated Meeting, February 3, 1846. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Specimen of Unio crassus, Say, var. fasciatus, Raf., from the 

Susquehanna river. From Mr. Haldeman. 
A small collection, in skin, of European Birds. From R. C. 

Taylor, Esq. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Eighteen publications, in pamphlet form, on Medicine, Sur- 
gery, Pathology and Physiology, in the French, Italian 
and Latin languages, by the following named authors : 
MM. Huot, Bernard, Lefevre, Laveran et Millon, Pidoux, 
Rognetta, Chevalier, Parise, Mojou, Boudet, Rolando, 
Francisco Paolo de Chiara, Garbiglietti, Paolo Fabrizj, and 



Feb., 1846.] 15 

C. A. Roesch. From Dr. J. C. M. Boudin, of Versailles, 
through Richard K. Haight, Esq., of New York. 

Bulletin semestrial de la Societe Royale de Medecine de 
Marseille. l me - Annee. No. 1. 2 me - An. No. 1. and 2. 
4 me - An. No. 1 and 2. From the same. 

A dissertation upon the origin of Mineral Coal. By Charles 
Whittlesey, (late of the Geological Corps of Ohio,) Cleve- 
land, 1845. From the Author. 

The American Journal of Science and Arts. Vol. 46. No. 1. 
January, 1844. From the Editors, (in compliance with a 
request from the Academy, for completing the series in the 
Library.) 

Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Vol. XIX. 
Part 4. 4to. London, 1845. 

Proceedings of the same, from November, 1844, to June, 
1845 ; and List of the Linnean Society for 1845. From the 
Society. 



Letters were read : 

From Benjamin Silliman, Jr., dated New Haven, January 
25, 1846, accompany the donation of the No. of Silliman's 
Journal received this evening. 

From the Linnean Society of London, dated November 7, 
1845, returning acknowledgements for certain Nos. of the 
Proceeding of the Academy, and for Vol. 8, Part 1, of the 
Journal, transmitted at the request of the Society. 

From Professor Owen, of London, dated Nov. 11, 1845, 
in reference to the fossil genus Dorudon, of Dr. R. W. Gibbes, 
published in the Academy's Proceedings. He considers this 
genus to be the same as the Zeuglodon, (Basilosaurus of 
Harlan,) to which genus also belongs the very extensive 
series of bones recently brought from Alabama by Dr. Koch, 
and now exhibiting in this city. 



Mr. Haldeman offered some remarks on the specimen of 



16 [Ffb., 1846. 

Unio crassus presented by him this evening, and stated that 
it is one of those which he placed in the river Susquehanna? 
in a living state, in the year 1841, a record of which fact will 
be found at page 104, Vol. 1, of the Proceedings of the Aca- 
demy. As no western species of Unio, except U. viridis, 
Raf,, had hitherto been found in that river, Mr. Haldeman 
had no doubt that the present specimen was in reality one of 
those referred to. The growth had been inconsiderable, and 
the genera] appearance very little changed. The other indi- 
viduals of this and other species seem not to have survived. 



Stated Meeting, February 10, 1846. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Eleventh and Twelfth Memoirs with reference to the law of 
Storms in India, &c. By Henry Piddington. Calcutta, 
1845. From the Author. 



A letter was read from Mr. Piddington, dated Calcutta, 
September 8, 1845, accompanying the donation of his Me- 
moirs above announced, and calling the attention of the So- 
ciety to the Postscript to the 11th Memoir, page 64, " where 
a curious experiment will be found detailed, which sets the 
whole question of circular or converging winds (winds blow- 
ing towards a centre) completely at rest, for these seas at 
least." 

A letter was read from Benjamin Silliman, Jr., dated New 
Haven, February 6, 1846, requesting on behalf of M. Alcide 
D'Orbigny, of Paris, exchanges between him and the Aca- 
demy, both of books and specimens of Natural History, and 
suggesting especially the transmission of the publications of 
this Society for such of M. D'Orbigny 's works as may be de- 
sirable for its Library. 



Feb., 1846.] 17 

Professor Johnson then read to the Society the portion of 
Mr. Piddington's Memoir referred to in his letter, and added 
some remarks in confirmation of the correctness of the views 
of the author on the subject. 

Dr. Morton announced that he had recently received letters 
from Mr. I. G. Strain, U. S. N., a Correspondent of this 
Institution, dated from the China seas, detailing the causes of 
failure of his late expedition into the interior of Brazil. Mr. 
S. was on his return home, and expressed an ardent hope of 
being enabled to make a renewed effort to accomplish the 
objects of his undertaking. 



On motion of Mr. Phillips, Resolved, That the Geological 
Committee be authorised to put up a collection of the dupli- 
cate fossils, to be forwarded to M. D'Orbigny. 



Stated Meeting, February 17, 1846. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Prepared specimen of Orthogariscus mola, from the Capes of 
Delaware. Presented by Messrs. Phillips, Cassin, and 
Hazard. 

The following specimens, prepared and mounted, were pre- 
sented by Messrs. Haldeman, Cassin,Bridges and Morton, 
viz : 

Cebus apellus ? South America, C. hypoleucus, and two 
other species ; and Jacchus vulgaris, Geoff. 

Rib bone of a cetaceous animal found in the green sand near 
Burlington, New Jersey ; also fragments of fossil bone ; 
Baculites ovatus, and Scaphites Cuvieri, from the vicinity 
of Morristown, New Jersey. Presented by Mr. Germain, 
of Burlington, through Dr. Hallowell. 



18 [Feb., 1846. 

Letters were read : 

From the Baron Von Gerolt, Prussian Minister at Wash- 
ington, dated February 9, 1846, returning acknowledgments 
for his election as a Correspondent. 

From Jacob Tremper, Esq., dated Dresden, New York, 
February 9, 1846, calling the attention of the Society to the 
advantages and importance of the adoption by scientifiic bodies 
throughout the Uuited States, of some general rules for keep- 
ing meteorological registers for comparison, &c. 

From the American Academy of Arts and Sciences of 
Boston, dated February 8, 1846, communicating a copy of a 
letter addressed by a committee of that Society to the Joint 
Library Committee of Congress, desiring the publication of a 
larger edition of the Scientific Reports of the late U. S. Ex- 
ploring Expedition, and soliciting the co-operation of this 
Institution in the matter. 

The copy of the letter referred to was read also by the 
Corresponding Secretary. 



Professor Johnson offered the following Resolutions, which 
where adopted, and copies ordered to be transmitted to the 
American Academy at Boston, and to the Library Committee 
of Congress. 

Resolved, That the memorial of the American Academy of 
Arts and Sciences of Boston, to the Joint Library Committee of 
Congress, asking for the publication of a larger number of copies 
of the scientific volumes containing the results of the late South 
Sea Exploring Expedition, meets the cordial approval and con- 
currence of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Resolved, That in the view of this Academy, the present num- 
ber of 100 copies only, printed on public account, is utterly in- 
adequate to supply the demand for this work, especially as about 
one-half of that number is understood to be distributed in dona- 
tions to Foreign Governments, while none are allowed to Scien- 
tific Societies at home. 

Resolved, That while the results of other American Exploring 



Feb., 1846.] 19 

Expeditions, and of other scientific labors, performed in obedience 
to the requirements of Government, have, by a just and liberal 
policy, been made widely known to the public, the present course 
of printing 100 copies only of the labors of the South Sea Expe- 
dition, and which, therefore, scarcely deserves the name of a 
publication, does equal injustice to the nation which has borne 
the expense, and to the meritorious individuals who have per- 
formed the scientific duties 

Resolved, That this Academy having, by special request of the 
Navy Department, afforded its aid and counsel in the preparation 
of the Expedition, deems itself justified in complaining of the 
treatment which, in common with all the other scientific bodies 
then consulted, it receives by the existing arrangement, that of 
being compelled either to forego the possession of the works in 
question, or to pay such a price as private speculation may affix 
to public documents prepared by public officers, and the entire 
expense of which (with an exception too insignificant to mention) 
has been defrayed out of the public treasury. 



Meeting for Business, February 24, 1846. 

Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

The Committee on Mr. Conrad's paper, read 6th January 
last, reported in favor of publication. 

Descriptions of New Species of Fossil and Recent Shells and Corals. 

By T. A. Conrad. 

TERTIARY FOSSIL SHELLS. 

Cerithium ? 

Cerithium? ccelata. Plate 1, fig. 19. Turrited, whorls with four revolv- 
ing ribs on each, the superior pair large, elevated, and obliquely crenate ; 
the lower pair small, approximate, inferior one very near the suture; lines 
of growth profoundly undulated. 

Locality. Island of Huaffo, near Cape Horn. In Tertiary clay. Dr. 
James Eight?. 

This remarkable shell is imperfect in the last volution, and it is uncertain 
whether it should be referred to Turritella or Cerithium. The rib in the 



20 [Feb., 1846. 

middle of the whorls is largest, and the crente have a different direction 
from those in the superior rib. A variety occurs with only three ribs, one 
of the inferior pair being wanting 

Tellina. 

Tellina JTuaffoensis. Plate 1, fig. 20. Subtriangular ; right valve ventri- 
cose ; anterior side subcuneiform ; margin obliquely truncated, extremity 
rounded ; beaks medial ; posterior margin regularly rounded ; basal margin 
nearly straight in the middle ; surface without other lines than those of 
growth. 

Locality. Occurs with the preceding. 

These two fossils are imbedded in drab colored clay, the geological age 
of which is uncertain. I have no doubt, however, that it is posterior to the 
Eocene period. 

MIOCENE SPECIES. 

EtJLIMA. 

Eulima eborea. Plate 1, fig. 21. Subulate, whorls 9 ; suture slightly de- 
fined ; aperture somewhat oblique, ovate-acute. 
Locality. Suffolk, Virginia. 

E. migrans. Plate 1, fig. 22. Subulate, very narrow or slender ; suture 
indistinct ; aperture direct, oblong-ovate, acute. 
Locality. Occurs with the preceding. 

Odostomia. 
Odostomia limnia. Plate 1, fig. 4. Subfusiform, polished, whorls 4; con- 
vex ; suture impressed; aperture oblong-ovate, half the length of the shell ; 
columella slightly folded. 

Locality. Yorktown, Virginia. 

0. protexta. Plate 1, fig. 5. Subulate, minutely cancellated, with five 
volutions, those of the spire being subangulated near the base; labrum sub- 
angulated above the middle ; columella with a prominent fold in the 
middle. 

Locality. Yorktown, Virginia. 

Delphinula. 
Delphinula arenosa. Discoidal, whorls 3, slightly convex ; minutely 
striated longitudinally ; base regularly convex : umbilicus profound. Dia- 
meter of an inch. 

Locality. Yorktown, Virginia. 

D. lyra. Plate 2, fig. 27. Vide Journ. A. N. S. vol. vii, p. 141. 

Locality. Suffolk, Virginia. 

Bulla. 
Bulla subspissa. Plate 1, fig. 29. Oblong-oval, thick, ventricose in the 
middle ; labium rounded or ventricose ; margin of labrum straight above : 
base minutely umbilicated. 

Locality. Calvert Cliffs, Maryland. 



Feb., 1846.] 21 

Bonellia. 
Bonellia lineata. Plate 1, fig. 23. Vide Proceed. A. N. S., vol. i. p. 32. 

CALYPTILEA. 

Subgenus Dispotcea, Say. 

All the species of this genus found in the United States belongs to Say's 
genus Dispotcea, which forms a very natural and distinct group, if the cha- 
racters of the shells are any criterion of generic distinction. The following 
list of species occur in the Miocene strata of the Union : 

C. (Dispotcea) corrugata, Brod. \ Recent on the coast of Central Ame- 
D. ramosa, Con. J rica, and fossil in Virginia. 

C. (Dispotcea) costata, Say, \ Recent ; coast of Central Hmerica. 
C. rugosa, Brod. ) Fossil in Maryland. 

C. (Dispotcea) multilineata, Con. Fossil. Wilmington, North Carolina. 

C. (Dispotcea) dumosa, Con. " ' " 

Trochus. 
Trochus peralveatus, Plate 1, fig. 25. Vide Proceed. A. N. S., vol. i. p. 30. 

Myodora. 

Myodora arenosa, Con. (Pandora arenoso, Con.) Foss. Shells of Tert. 
Form., p. 4, pi. 1, fig. 3. 

Eocene species. 

Ampullaria ? 

Ampullaria ? perovata. Plate 1, fig. 16. Ovate, body whorl ventricose ; 
spire conoidal? aperture subovate, half the length of the shell. 
Locality. Claiborne. 

I possess but one imperfect specimen of this shell. It is rather elevated 
for an Ampullaria ; but to this genus or to Paludina, the form of the aper- 
ture more nearly allies it, than to any marine genus which is known to me. 

Caricella. 

Shell pyriform, with ribs or spines : spire short, apex thickened or papil- 
lated ; beak somewhat produced and slightly curved, pointed, not emarginate 
at base ; columella with four or five oblique, prominent, compressed plaits, 
decreasing in size towards the base, as in Milra. 

In my publication entitled " Fossil Shells of the Tertiary Formations,' 
I propose the above name for a group of Claiborne shells, and re- 
ferred it as a subgenus Turbinella, but the characters are sufficiently dis- 
tinctive to constitute a genus. The want of an emarginate base widely 
separates it from Mitra or Voluta. The labrum is always simple, without 
teeth, and thin. The following species may be designated: C. bolaris, 



22 [Feb., 1846. 

(Mitra,) Con. C. pyruloides, (Turbhiella,) Con. C. prozten uis, Con. 

_ . ,, f Voluta prisca, Con. 

(7. doliata, 



{ 



V. Cooperii, Lea. 
This genus, so far as I know, occurs only in the Eocene strata. 

Cardium. 

Cardium Nicolleti. Plate I, fig. 14. Vide Proceed. Acad. N. S. vol. 1 
p. 33. 

Anomia. 

Anomia jugosa. Plate 1, fig. 14. Vide Proceed. A. N. S. vol. 1, p. 310. 

POLYPARIA (SILURIAN.) 
Cyathophyllum, Lam. 

C calophyllum? pustulalum. Plate 1, fig. 24. Turbinate, somewhat 
curved towards the base, and with numerous elevated pustules, most of 
which have a central perforation: 

Locality. State of Ohio, in Silurian limestone, Dr. Riley. 

The rays are visible on only a small portion of the specimen, the rest 
being imbedded in compact gray limestone. 

EOCENE SPECIES. 

TtlRBINOLIA. 

Turbinolia elaborate,. Plate 1, fig. 30. Subcuneiform ; base acute, in- 
curved, lamellae thin, numerous, branched, smooth becoming very irregular 
or sinuous where they approach the centre; sides profoundly sulcated or 
ribbed, the ribs densely and distinctly porous, many of them divaricated, 
the intervals with remote transverse lamella. 

Locality. Near City Point, Virginia. 

T. pileolus. Plate 1, fig. 26. Vide Proceed. A. N. S., vol. 1, p. 327. 

Madrepora. 

Madrepora vermiculosa. Ramose, branches cylindrical ; cells remote, un- 
equal, a little prominent, interstices with thick, equal, vermicular striae, 
minutely granulated. 

Locality. Occurs with the preceding. 

This is a rare species ; the undating striae are large and ornamental. 

DEVONIAN SHELLS. 
Monotis, Bronn. 
This genus occurs in the Devonian shales. I have not observed a species 
in any other formation. 

Monotis radians. 
Syn. Plerninca radians. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. vol. viii. p. 252, pi. 15 
fig. 1. 



Feb., 1846.] 23 

Monotis Poulsoni. Plate 1, fig. 32. Suborbicular, ventricose, not oblique, 
ribs about 44 in number, obtusely rounded, interstices nearly flat, about as 
wide as the ribs, with minute transverse wrinkles ; umbo broad and the 
summit prominent; anterior and posterior margins rounded. 

Locality. Jersey shore, Lycoming county, Pennsylvania. (Devonian 

shale.) 

This beautiful species occurs in a dark shale of the same geological age 
and appearance as the shale of the Chemung Narrows in New York, which 
i3 a part of the Devonian System. 

It is dedicated to my friend Charles A. Poulson, Esq , to whose splendid 
collection it belongs. 

M. elevata. Plate 1, fig. 31. Obliquely oval, somewhat ventricose, ribs 
about 42 in number, prominent, acutely rounded, interstices very narrow, 
except towards the anterior hinge margin, where the ribs are larger ; an- 
terior and posterior margins nearly straight ; anterior side very short. 

Locality. Occurs with the preceding species in the same rock. 

Cabinet of Mr. Poulson. 

SILURIAN SPECIES. 

AVICULA. 

Avicula ferruginea. Plate 1, fig. 28. Subrhomboidal ; left valve pro- 
foundly ventricose ; anterior side profoundly contracted ; umbo very promi- 
nent ; extremity of anterior wing angulated ; the margin beneath slightly 
emarginate ; margin of posterior wing straight and direct. 

Locality. Jersey shore, Lycoming county, Pennsylvania. 

Cabinet of Mr. Poulson. 

This speeies abounds in the Fossiliferous iron ore of the Middle Silurian 
series. 

CARBONIFEROUS SPECIES. 
Strophomena. 
Strophomena nassula. Hinge area wide ; valve3 with approximate acute 
radiatiDg strise, and finer concentric lines ; one valve flat, with three or four 
large concentric undulations. 

Locality. Jersey shore, Lycoming county, Pennsylvania. Mr. Poulson. 

RECENT SHELLS. 
Cyrena. 
Cyrena Floridana. Plate 1, fig. 1. Triangular, subequilateral, ventricose : 
summits prominent, concentrically striated ; posterior side with an obtust 
fold near the margin ; color whitish, varied with violaceous, both externally 
and internally. 
Locality. Tampa Bay, Florida. 



24 [Feb., 1846. 

Venus. 

Venus cuneimeris. Plate 1, fig. 13. Inequilateral, triangular ; ventricose 
anteriorly ; flexuous and compressed posteriorly ; posterior side cuneiform ; 
surface with obtuse concentric ribs, profound on the umbo, and with minute 
radiating raised lines ; color yellowish, varied with fulvous or brown, some- 
times in spots, in other specimens with rays ; within purple and white, with 
a whitish margin. 

Locality. Tampa Bay. 

Nucula. 

Nucula eborea. Plate 1, fig. 4. Ovate-acute, ventricose, with minute, 
concentric, very regular lines ; surface highly polished, ivory white ; ante- 
rior side rostrated, pointed, rather longer than the posterior side. 

Locality. Keys of Tampa Bay : rare. 

Modiola. 

Modiolapapyria. Plate 1, fig. 8. Ovate-oblong, extremely thin, pellucid ; 
ligament margin long, rectilinear ; posterior margin obliquely truncated ; 
basal margin slightly contracted ; color greenish with browu angular spots. 

Locality. Tampa Bay. 

ASTARTE. 

Astarle flabella. Plate 1, fig. 3. Ovate-triangular, profoundly compressed, 
and having ten flattened radiating ribs ; posterior basal margin obliquely 
truncated ; color white, with fulvous spots. 

Locality. Bgmont Key, Tampa Bay. 

This species approaches A. radians, Con., a Miocene fossil, but it is not 
so fiat, and has fewer, wider, less prominent ribs. 

A. triquclra. Plate 1, fig, 6. Very small, triangular, elevated, equilateral 
and symmetrical, ventricose, polished, white, sometimes brown or purple on 
the disk in form of a broad ray. 

Locality. Tampa Bay. 

Osteodesma, Desk. (Ltonsia, Turton.) 
Osteodosma hyalina ? Plate 1, fig. 1. A variety of the northern species, 
more elongated than those of the eastern coast. I have some doubts of the 
specific identity. 

Solecurtus. 

Solecurtus fragilis, var. Plate 1, fig. 10. Oblong, straight, color viola- 
ceous, rayed with bluish white ; epidermis olive, the rays visible upon it ; 
interior rib oblique; teeth two in each valve, very unequal in size. 

Locality. Egmont Key, Tampa Bay. 

LUCINA. 

Lucina nassula. Lentiform, equilateral, with concentric lamelliform striae, 
distant above, approximate towards the base: and with approximate radiating 
prominent lines ; posterior side compressed towards the margin, and with 



Feb. 1846.] 26 

one or two of the radiating striae larger than the rest; lunule large, ovate- 
acute, prominently striated ; inner margin deeply crenulated. 
Locality. Tampa Bay, Florida. 

Corbcla-. 

Corbula limatula. Plate 1, fig. 2. Subtriangular, inequilateral, polished, 
concentrically striated, the striae of the lesser valve finer and less distinct 
than those of the opposite valve ; posterior extremity truncated ; summits 
prominent ; color whitish, tinged with pale brown on the umbo. 

Locality. Gulf of Mexico. Dredged up on the sounding lead in deep 
water off the coast of Florida. 

Pollia. 

Pollia tincta. Plate 1, fig. 9. Short, subfusiform ; whorls 7, somewhat 
channelled or contracted above ; longitudinal ribs large, remote ; revolving 
lines robust, alternated with fine lines ; lines of growth well defined, be- 
coming prominent wrinkled lines on the spire ; color greenish-white, varied 
with large irregular brown or ferruginous spots j aperture half the length 
of the shell; labrum striated within, margin plicated; labium with a prom- 
inent fold near the summit, and somewhat corrugated towards the base. 

Locality. Mouth of Manatu river, of Tampa Bay, Florida, inhabiting 
sand bars. 

P. cancellaria. Plate 1, fig. 12. Fusiform, with longitudinal plicae, and 
more elevated, distant, undulated, revolving costse, and intermediate fine 
lines ; whorls longitudinally rugose ; aperture half as long as the shell ; la- 
brum with distant, acute, prominent lines within : columella distinctly 
plaited at base : beak recurved ; color cinereous. 

Locality. Ship Island, Gulf of Mexico. 

Murex cellulosa. Short-fusiform, with large, prominent revolving lines or 
costas, the interstices with transverse wrinkled lines, largest on the varices, 
and giving the shell a cellular aspect; beak much curved ; color cinereous ; 
aperture small, obovate, purplish within. 

Locality. Tampa Bay. Inhabits oyster beds. 

M. Tampaensis. Fusiform, with acute varices, and distant revolving cas- 
tas, about eight in number, from angle of body whorl to base ; spire scalar - 
iform ; whorls with two revolving ribs on each ; labium with obtuse teeth : 
color cinereous, with purplish brown. 

Locality. Occurs with the preceding species. 

M. ostrearum. Fusiform, with revolving ribs alternated in size, and with 
longitudinal wrinkles ; spire elevated, scalariform : base umbilicated : 
within livid. 

Locality. Occurs with the preceding. 

3 



26 [Feb., 1846. 

MaEGINELLA. 

Marginella succmea. Plate 1, fig. 17. Elevated; labrum sinuous, aperture 
contracted above, comparatively wide at base ; columella 4-plaited ; color 
amber; margin of labrum entire. 

Locality. Tampa Bay. Very rare. 

M. albilabris. Short-subovate, of an olive color, with a white, much 
thickened margin, extending over the base ; labrum straight, denticulate 
within: columella with one obscure plait at base. 

Locality. Tampa Bay. 

Oliva. 
Oliva mulica. Plate 2, fig. 34. Common in St. Joseph's Bay, Florida, liv- 
ing in the tand in shoal water, leaving a trail by which its habitat can 
readily be discovered. 

Trochus. 

Trochus 2'ampaensis. Plate 2, fig. 35. Conical ; whorls 6 1 , concave ; 
with revolving, approximate, densely beaded lines, alternated in size ; base 
flat, striated, lines crenulated by transverse wrinkles ; umbilicus moderate, 
forming a rather deep canal behind the labium ; color whitish-brown and 
dark purple, variegated. 

Locality. Tampa Bay. 

Triton lineolatum. Plate 1, fig. 18. Elevated, with brown revolving lines ; 
spire scalariform, with numerous varices or costaj on the body whorl ; they 
are generally smaller, and crenulate the revolving lines; labrum with four 
teeth within. Length | of an luch- 

LocaWy. Tampa Bay. 

Cerithium protextum. Subulate, elongated, with longitudinal curved 
acute costae, and fine revolving lines; whorls 15, slightly convex; ribs di- 
vided and somewhat dislocated by an impressed line below the suture ; 
color purplish-black ; within the same. 

Locality. Tampa Bay ? 

The specimen described is more than three-fourths of an inch long, but 
the usual size is less than half an inch. 

Bulla. 

Bulla succinea. Plate 1, fig. 5. Cylindrical, very thin, diaphanous, of an 
auiber color, and marked with crowded, minute, revolving, wrinkled lines ; 
columella copcave or channelled towards the base ; labrum straight ; sum- 
mit above the line of the apex. 

Locality. Tampa Bay. 

Crepiddla. 
Grepidula maculosa. Subovate ; anterior side flattened ; back acutely 



Fmk. 1846.] 2T 

rounded ; umbo compressed ; color white, with irregular brovrn opots aonis- 
what iu ray-like series. Length 1 inch. Breadth | inch. 
LncaXUy Mullet Key, Tampa Bay. 

Dkntauum. 

Dentalium cboreum. Curved above, inclining to be straight interiorly, 
thin, translucent, very slender, very gradually tapering to a very acute apex ; 
white, without lines, highly polished. Length | inch. 

Locality. Southern coast of Florida. 

Dr. Morton offered the following, which was adopted : 
Hemlved, That the 8th Vol. of the Journal of the Aeadeoi y 
be presented to M. D'Orbigny, of Paris, 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 

OF PHILADELPHIA.. 
Vol. III. MARCH AND APRIL, 1846. No. 2. 



Stated Meeting, March 3, 1846. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Bulletin de la Societe Imperiale des Naturalistes de Moscou, 

Nos. 2 and 3, for 1843. From the Society. 
Verhandlingen der Kaiserlich-Russischen Mineralogischen 

Gesellschaft zu St. Petersburg. 2 vols. 1843 and 1844. 

From the Society. 
A Memoir of James De Veaux, of Charleston, S. C. By 

Robert W. Gibbes, M. D., of Columbia, S. C. 8vo. From 

the Author. 



Dr. Morton presented a paper by Dr. Robert W. Gibbes, of 
Columbia, S. C, " On the fossil Squalidae of the Eocene of 
the Southern States," which was read and referred to a 
committee consisting of Mr. Phillips, Dr. Morton and Dr. 
Hallowell. 

A paper by Mr. Edward Harris, " On the difference of 
level between the waters of the Gulf of Mexico and those of 

5 



30 [March, 1846. 

the Atlantic Ocean," was referred to the following committee : 
Dr. Elwyn, Dr. Pickering and Mr. Phillips. 



Letters were read : 

From the Imperial Society of Naturalists of Moscow, ac- 
companying the Nos. of the Bulletin of that Society presented 
this evening. 

From the British Association for the advancement of 
Science, announcing that a copy of Herschel's Catalogue of 
Stars had been adjudged to the Academy by the Association 
and stating the mode in which it could be obtained. 



Stated Meeting, March 10, 1846. 

Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

The Chairman read a letter from Prof. Locke, dated Medi- 
cal College of Ohio, Feb. 2, 1846, containing a notice of a 
fossil Asterias from the blue limestone of Cincinnati, with a 
drawing of the same. Referred to the following committee : 
Dr. Leidy, Dr. Morton and Dr. Pickering. 

The Chairman also read a portion of a letter from J. G. 
Norwood, M. D., of Madison, Indiana, dated Feb. 25, 1846, 
desiring the communication to the Academy of an accompany- 
ing printed description and figures of a new fossil fish from 
the Palsezoic rocks of Indiana, by Drs. Norwood and D. D. 
Owen, for which they propose the name Macropetalichthys 
rapheidolabis. 

" This is (as far as is known to the describers) not only the 
first instance of finding scutcheoned fishes in this country, 
but also the lowest position in which remains of vertebratae 
have been found, if we except defensive fin bones, which 
occur in New York, nearly in the same geological position, 
viz : in the corniferous group and the scales of fishes, 
which the Professors Rogers traced throughout the Clinton 
group of Pennsylvania and Virginia." 



March, 1846.] 31 

Stated Meeting, March 24, 1846. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Specimen, in spirits, of Loligo Bartramii, Lesueur, from 
Caraccas. Presented by Dr. H. McMurtrie. 

Sterna of fourteen species of N. American birds. Presented 
by Mr. William Gambel, 

Specimen of Septaria, from the vicinity of Fort Barber, Bar- 
ber Co., Alabama. From Dr. Charles Kenworthy, through 
Dr. Watson. 

A fine collection of fossils, from the green sand near Burling- 
ton, N. J., consisting of Baculities ovatus, Ammonites pla- 
centa, A. Delawarensis, Scaphites Cuvieri, Nautilus De- 
kayi, with undertermined casts of Strombus, Cardium, 
Pina, Inoceramus, Cuculloea, Turritella, Panopcea, &c. 
From Mr. Germain, of Burlington, through Dr. Hallowell. 

A collection of marine and fresh water shells. From Dr. 
Hallowell. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Structure and classification of Zoophytes. By James D. Dana, 
A. M., Geologist of the U. S. Exploring Expedition, during 
the years 1838, '39, '40, '41 and '42. 4to : Philadelphia. 
From the Author. 

Memoir on the probable constitution of matter and laws of 
motion, &c. &c. By J. L. Riddell, M. D. From the Au. 
thor. 

On the Nile alluvium of Nubia, (extracted from the Proceed- 
ings of A. N. S.,) being a letter from Prof. Lepsius of Ber- 
lin, and an analysis by Prof. W. R. Johnson. From Dr. 
Morton. 

On the Unity of the Human Race, (from the Southern Quar- 
terly Review, No. 17, Jan., 1846.) From Dr. J. C. Nott. 



32 [March, 1846. 

A letter was read from Clot Bey, M. D., dated Cairo, 
Egypt, Jan 21, 1846, acknowledging the reception of his 
diploma as a correspondent, and expressing his desire and 
intention to further the objects of the Academy. 

Dr. Morton offered some observations (intended for publi- 
cation in the American Journal of Science) on the Ethno- 
graphy and Archaeology of the Aboriginal race of America. 

Dr. Morton called attention to the cretaceous fossils pre- 
sented this evening by Mr. Lewis Germain, and especially to 
the numerous fine fragments of Ammonites Delawarensis, of 
which only a single specimen had hitherto been discovered in 
the cretaceous beds of New Jersey or Delaware. Even that 
specimen had been lost or mislaid, and there remained no 
voucher for the species, excepting an uncertain fragment from 
Alabama, which is now identified with the A. Delawarensis, 
by means of Mr. Germain's collection. 

The SeapJtites Cuvieri is more perfect than any other hitherto 
found, excepting only the specimen in Mr. Conrad's cabinet, 
and which is figured in Dr. Morton's synopsis of organic re- 
mains. 

The Bacuiitcs ovatus of Say, heretofore a very rare species, 
is here represented by nearly twenty finely characterised 
specimens. The Nautilus Dekayi is also almost perfect ; and 
the Ammonites placenta, Pholadomya occidentalis, Pecten 
quinquecostatus, a Strombus, Turritella, and various other 
genera, are found in this remarkable series, which was 
obtained from a single marl excavation, about five miles east 
of Burlington, in New Jersey. 



Meeting for Business, March 31, 1846. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

The Committee to whom was referred the following notice 
by Prof. Locke, (contained in a letter addressed to Dr. Mor- 
ton, and read at the meeting of March 10th,) of an Asterias 
from the blue limestone of Cincinnati, reported in favor of 
publication. 

"I herewith send you a drawing of an Asterias from the blue 
limestone of Cincinnati. It seems to be five-rayed and free, thu? 



March, 1846.] 



3o 



differing essentially from the " Agelacrinites" (Asteriacrinites) 
of the New York reports, which is also found here, attached, 
almost always, to a Strophomena or some other large shell, but 
rather rare. This last it will be recollected, has five rays ex- 
tended on an acicular disk, reaching even beyond the rays. The 
specimen from which this drawing has been made, i3 so far as I 
know, the only one which has been found here ; it is therefore 
rare. Whether it be identical with an Asterias described by Dr- 
Troost as occurring in the rocks of Tennessee, I cannot say, as I 
have never seen his account. 




Asterias antiquata. Blue limestone, Cincinnati. 

a, An entiochite. 

b, Atrypa minnta? 

c, Ceriopora milliporacea. Locke. 



34 [March, 1846. 

" I saw in the proceedings of your Society a notice of Dr. Tay- 
lor's specimens, describing them as from the carboniferous lime- 
done. Mr. Featherstonhaugh and Dr. Troost have given authori- 
ty, I believe, for calling this limestone the carboniferous, and in 
a paper read before our geological Association, I maintained the 
same views chiefly from Lithological characters. The more ac- 
curate test by the fossil remains, I am convinced determines our 
limestone to be the equivalent of the Lower Silurian. With this 
view it is interesting to find the Asterias at so low a point in the 
geological column ; as it was formerly supposed not to extend 
below even the secondary rocks." 



The Committee on Mr. Edward Harris's paper on the dif- 
ference of level between the waters of the Gulf of Mexico 
and those of the Atlantic Ocean, reported in favor of pub- 
lication. 

On the Difference of Level between the Waters of the Gulf of 
Mexico and those of the Atlantic Ocean. 

By Edward Harris. 

While on a passage along the coast of Florida in the spring of 
1844, in the U. S. Revenue Cutter Nautilus, Capt. Waldron, 
having on board Mr. Stacy, U. States Commissioner for the in- 
spection of the Lighthouses, we stopped on the 28th of April to 
examine at Key Biscayne, the ruins of the lighthouse burnt by 
the Indians in 1836. The next day we took the boats with kegs 
to procure water for the vessel ; passed inside of Cape Florida, 
and ascended the Miami River about five miles to where it issues 
from the Everglades. I was surprised to find that the water 
from the everglades falls into the river over an exceedingly 
porous limestone rock resembling Travertine, so open, that in nu- 
merous places at the foot of the rapids, which are about two 
hundred yards in length, the water spouts up from the small 
round holes in the rock, in little natural fountains of from one foot 
to eighteen inches in height. I estimated the fall at from seven 
to eight feet, which cannot be far from the truth, as there is a mill 
at their foot for grinding the Coontic root, {Zamia integrifolia , 



April, 1846.] 35 

from which the Florida arrow root is made,) having a dam six feet 
high, with a fall in the tail-race to high water in the river, of not less 
than 18 inches. There had been a severe drought of five months, 
and the bed of the everglades was quite dry, with the exception of 
the brook running over the rapids, which, as far up as I explored it, 
lay upon the travertine rock, at about eighteen inches below the 
level bed of the everglades of hard sand, and covered with a strong 
wiry grass from two to three feet high. This fact of the fall of the 
waters of the everglades into the Atlantic, has, so far as I can as- 
certain, hitherto remained unpublished ; nor have I been able to 
learn that it was known to our officers during the war. Their op- 
erations were principally on the Gulf side of the Peninsula, where 
they entered and passed long distances into the everglades without 
meeting with obstruction to the boat navigation. It appears to me 
that, considered in connection with the great rapidity of the Grulf 
6tream in passing through the Straits of Florida, indicating a flow 
from a higher level, this fall is a very strong link in the chain of 
evidence which goes to prove that the sea is at a higher level on the 
Western than on the Eastern coast of the peninsula of Florida. 



ELECTION. 



The Rev. Thomas S. Savage, M. D., of Cape Palmas, 
Africa, was elected a Correspondent. 



Slated Meeting, April 7, 1846. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

A large collection of Reptilia, in spirits, from Brazil. Pre- 
sented by Mr. Edward Donnelly, through Mr. Cassin. 

A very fine collection of African shells, presented by the 
Rev. Dr. Savage, of Monrovia, through Mr. Phillips, con- 
sisting of the following : 



36 

Solen Guineensia 

Thracia : 

Mactra Saulii 
M. exoleta ? 
Lucina 



[April, 1846. 



Cerithiuni granulatum 
Melania aurita 

Melanipus 

Pleurotoma 



L. columbella 
Psammobia galathea ? 
Tellina strigosa 



Cancellaria cancellata 

Triton : 

Fusus nifat 
Buccinum 



Oyrena 

Venus plicata 
Venus 



V. rotundata 
Oytherea floridella 
C prostrata 
Cardium ringens 
C. costatum 
Cardita ajar 
Area senilis 

Pecten 

Helix Blandingiana 
Achatina involuta 
Pupa capitata 
Cerithiuni muricatum. 



Purpura coronata 
P. neritoidea 
Terebra senegalensis 
Cassis fasciata 
Murex cornutus 
Strombus bubonius 

Turritella 

Marginella cornea 
M. Adansonii 
M. persicula 
Oliva acuminata 
0. hiatula 
Voluta Neptuni 
Conus papilionaceus 



Mounted specimen of Strix nyctea, from the vicinity of Phila- 
delphia. From Mr. John Churchman, through Mr. Cassin. 

Two specimens of fossiliferous iron ore, from the vicinity of 
Cumberland, Md. From Prof. Johnson. 

Albino specimen of Scalops Canadensis, from Moorestown, 
N. J. From Mr. Edward Harris. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Report of the Exploring Expedition to the Rocky Mountains 
in 1842, and to Oregon and California in 1843 and 1844. 
By Brevet Capt. J. C. Fremont. Washington : 1845. From 
Jos. R. Ingersoll, Esq. 

Another copy of the same. From Prof. Johnson. 



April, 1846.] 37 

Report on Atlantic Mail Steamers, by the Committee of Con- 
gress on Post Offices and Post Roads. Read March 27th, 
1846. From Jos. R. Ingersoll, Esq. 

Seventeenth Annual Report of the Inspectors of the Eastern 
State Penitentiary of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, 1846. 
From Dr. Morton. 

The London Athenaeum for Aug. and Sept., 1843, containing 
several papers of interest in Natural Science. From Dr. 
Wm. Blanding. 

The following pamphlets were received from Richard K. 
Haight, Esq., of New York. 

Memoire sur le traitement de l'alienation mentale, par M. le 
Dr. A. Petit. Paris, 1843. De la meningite cerebro- 
rachidienne, et de l'encephalo-meningite epidemiques : par 
J. F. Rollet. Paris, 1844. Nouvelle methode de traite- 
ment de l'empoisonnement par l'arsenic, &c. : par M. Rog- 
netta, D. M. P. Paris, 1840. 



The Chairman read an extract of a letter from M. Agassiz, 
dated from Neufchatel, Switzerland, acknowledging the re- 
ceipt of his notice of election as a Correspondent, and an- 
nouncing his intention of visiting this country for scientific 
purposes during the present year. 



Prof. Johnson informed the Society that he had presented 
in. person to the Chairman of the Joint Library Committee of 
Congress, a copy of the resolutions passed at a recent meeting 
of the Society,* asking for an increased edition of the scien- 
tific reports of the late South Sea Exploring Expedition, and 
stated that the committee were favorably disposed towards 
the measure. 

*See page 18 of last number. 



38 [April, 1846. 

Stated Meeting, April 14, 1846. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Fine specimen of Pecten Mortoni, Ravenel ; from the 
Miocene of Soutb Carolina. From Dr. Morton. 

An additional series of fossils from the green sand near Bur- 
lington, N. J., including also fine specimens of Clypeaster 
florealis, and Trochus leprosus ; also a large and a small 
tooth and two vertebrae of Mosasaurus occidentalis. From 
Mr. Lewis Germain, of Burlington. 

Dr. Morton deposited ten mummied Peruvian crania, and 
two entire mummied bodies in their wrappings ; collected 
by Mr. William A. Foster, of this city, at the cemetery of 
Arica. 

Specimen of Pholadomya occidentalis, from the cretaceous 
deposits of New Jersey. From Dr. Morton. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

American Quarterly Journal of Science and Agriculture ; by 
Drs. E. Emmons and A. J. Prince. Vol. 2, No. 2. Albany, 
1845. From the Editors. 

American Journal of Science and Arts. 2d Series, No. 2. 
March, 1846. From the Editors. 

Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York. 
Vol. 4, No. 5. New York : 1846. From the Lyceum. 

Notices of new localities of rare minerals and reasons for 
uniting several supposed distinct species. By Francis 
Alger. (From the Boston Journal of Natural History.) 
From the Author. 

Descriptions of some new species of shells. By John H. Red- 
field. (From the 4th vol. of Annals of Lyceum of Natural 
History of New York.) From the Author. 

Mineral lands of the United States. A message from the 
President of the United States in reply to a resolution of 



April, 1846.] 39 

the House of Representatives of 6th of January last, con- 
cerning the mineral lands of the United States. From 
J. R. Ingersoll, Esq. 



Dr. Morton read the following extract of a letter addressed 
to him by Prof. Bailey, of West Point. 

" I have lately hit upon some processes for revealing vege- 
table structure in anthracite coal, which have yielded results 
of unhoped for interest and beauty. I get, not mere traces 
of parenchymatous tissue, as by Schultz's process, described 
in Silliman's Journal, No. 1, new series, but I readily obtain 
surfaces of several square inches, entirely covered over with 
dotted or scalariform vessels, (bothrenchyma) in so perfect 
a state, that their minute markings may be seen as easily as 
upon the vessels of a recent plant. 

"I can prepare these, either as opake or transparent 
objects, and all to whom I have shown them, including Tor- 
rey, Gray, Prof. Henry and others, think them very beautiful. 

" A brief notice of these will appear in the forthcoming 
number of Silliman's Journal." 

Dr. Morton offered some remarks upon the additional 
fossils from Burlington Co., N. J., presented this evening by 
Mr. Lewis Germain. Among the most remarkable are three 
specimens of Olypeaster florealis, of which only a single im- 
perfect specimen had hitherto been found, and which had 
served the purpose of specific description. The series also 
contains a fine specimen of the Trochus leprosus, not before 
found, north of the cretaceous beds of Alabama. The cha- 
racteristic species, Pecten quinquecostatus, and Baculites 
ovatus, are also among Mr. Germain's collections, together 
with a very large and a small tooth, and two vertebrae of the 
Mosasaurus occidentalis, in admirable preservation. 

Dr. Morton also made the following observations on the 
Peruvian remains deposited by him this evening. 

These ten crania and two mummied bodies, were exhumed 
from the Indian cemetery at Arica, under the direction of our 



40 [April, 1846. 

member, Mr. Wm. A. Foster, now resident in Lima. " This 
cemetery/' observes Mr. Foster, "lies on the face of a sand-hill, 
sloping towards the sea. The extent of surface occupied by these 
tombs, as far as we explored, I should say was five or six acres. 
In many of the tombs three or four bodies were found clustered 
together, always in the sitting posture, and wrapped in three or 
four thicknesses of cloth, with a mat thrown over all." 

The most interesting circumstance connected with these heads 
is the fact that with two exceptions they present the artificial 
form of horizontal elongation, though in very variable degrees. 
The most casual notice will convince any one, that this conforma- 
tion has been in part produced by compresses on the forehead, 
and partly, as Dr. Goddard has suggested, by the use of simple 
rotary bandages. Thus a double compress has been applied to 
the forehead, one bearing on each side of the frontal suture of in- 
fancy ; these have been kept in their places by a bandage brought 
from the base of the occiput obliquely over the forehead ; while the 
parietal bones have been depressed by carrying the same band- 
age alternately over the top of the head, immediately behind the 
coronal suture. 

Any person who is acquainted with the form and pliableness 
of the infant head at or soon after birth, will readily conceive how 
effectually the above plan would operate in moulding the cranium 
into the elongated or cylindrical form ; for while it prevents the 
anterior portion from rising, and the sides from expanding, it al- 
lows the occipital region an entire freedom of growth ; and thus 
without diminishing the volume of the brain, merely forces it into a 
different, though unnatural direction, and preserves, at the same 
time, the symmetry of the whole structure. 

The series of skulls presents, in a most satisfactory manner, 
all the grades of this process ; leaving no longer a doubt as to the 
. precise means by which it has been accomplished. 



Stated Meeting, April 21, 1846. 

Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

Mr. Gambel read a paper containing remarks on 
the birds of Upper California, which was referred to a com- 



April, 1846.] 41 

mittee consisting of Messrs. Cassin, Townsend and Wood- 
house. 

Dr. Morton read a description of two new species of fossil 
Echinodermata from the Eocene of the United States. Re- 
ferred to Prof. Johnson, Mr. R. C. Taylor and Dr. Zantzinger. 



Meeting for Business, April 28, 1846. 

Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

The Committee to whom was referred the following paper, 
read 3d of March last, reported in favor of publication. 

On the Fossil Squalidce of the United States. 
By Robert W. Gibbes, M. D., of Columbia, South Carolina. 

Upon a careful comparison of the descriptions and plates of the admirable 
work of Agassiz, u Sur les Poissons Fossiles," belonging to the Library of 
the South Carolina College, I have identified in my collection a large num- 
ber of the teeth of Squalides. I have three which I cannot refer to any of 
his species, and therefore consider them probably new. 

1. Charcharodon megalodon, Agassiz. Eocene, S. C. 

Agassiz refers this to the Miocene, as Lord Enniskillen has a specimen 
from the "molasse" of Switzerland, and Mr. Charlesworth notices it from 
" the crag " of England. My finest specimen measures six inches in length, 
and five across (he root. 

2. Charcharodon rectideus, Agassiz. Post Pliocene, S. C, from Eocene. 
This measures five inches in length, and four and a quarter inches across 

the base of the root. It was sent to me as found in an excavation on the 
suburbs of Charleston, for the foundation of a building at the rail road depot. 
Beds of Post Pliocene underlie that city, and among the shells of that forma- 
tion these teeth (two) were found. If no mistake occurred, (as my friend 
had them twelve years,) and they were actually found here, they were pro- 
bably washed down from the Eocene marl, which is only a few miles off. 
A. fine C. megalodon was found in the harbor of Charleston, and occasionally 
other Eocene and Miocene remains are found on the beaches close by. 

I have classed it with my Eocene specimens, as Agassiz, from a specimen 
in the " Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris," has referred it to this 
period. He says : " La nature des fragmens attaches a 1' os basilaire d' un 



42 [April, 1846. 

de ces dents me fait presumer que c'est du calcaire grossiere." Note, p. 250, 
torn. iii. 

3. Charcharodon leptodon, Ag. Eocene, S. C. Locality unknown. Ag. 

4. Charcharodon megalotis, Ag. Eocene, S. C. Tertiary. Ag. 

5. Charcharodon productns, Ag. Eocene, S. C. Swiss molasse. Eocene 

Ag. 

6. Charcharodon sidcidens, Ag- Eocene, S. C. Tertiary. Ag. 

7. Chorcharodon angusiidens, Ag. Eocene, S. C. Tertiary of Kressen- 

burg. Ag. 

8. Charcharodon heterodon, Ag. Eocence, S. C. Tertiary of Normandy. 

Ag. 

9. Charcharodon semis err atus, Ag. Eocene, S. C. Isle of Malta. Ag. 

10. Charcharodon turgidus, Ag. Eocene, S. C. Sands of Flonheim. Mio- 

cene. Ag. 

11. Charcharodon lanceolalus, Ag. Eocene, S. C. Ferruginous sand, Kres- 

senburg. Ag. 

12. Charcharodon poli/gurus, Ag. Eocene, S. C. Swiss molasse. Eocene. 

Ag- 

13. Charcharodon auriculatus, Ag. Eocene, S. C. Dax. Miocene. Ag. 

14. Charchorodo?i Mortoni, Gibbes. Eocene, S. C. New. 

This tooth is four inches long, three inches across the root, an inch and a 
half thick from the most prominent part of its anterior surface ; it is inequi- 
lateral, with fine uniform dentelures ; both the anterior and posterior sur- 
faces are convex, though the former trebly so ; the enamel is thin and 
cracked in striae, similar to the Lamna elegans ; the root or basilar bone i3 
very thick and concave ; the right extremity slightly exceeding the left. 

I propose to name this fine species after Dr. S. G. Morton, who was the 
first to illustrate our Tertiary Geology. 

15. Corax (galeus) pristodontus, Ag. Eocene, S. C. Chalk of Maestricht. 

Ag- 

16. Corax ("galeus) (new?) Eocene, S. C. 

IT. Oaleocerdo minor, Ag. Eocene, S. C. SwiBS molasse. Ag. 

18. Galeocerdo latidens, Ag. Eocene, S. C. Unknown. Ag. 

19. Hemipristis serra, Ag. Eocene, S. C. Swiss molasse. Ag. 

20. Hemipristis paucidens, Ag. Eocene, S. C. Unknown. Ag. 

21. Lamna elegans, Ag. Eocene, S. C. Crag and London clay. Ag. 

22. Lamna crassidens, Ag. Eocene, S. C. Inferior oolite, &c. Ag. 

23. Lamna Hopei, Ag. Eocene, S. C. Isle of Sbeppy. Eocene. Ag. 

24. Lamna cuspidala, Ag. Eocene, S. C. Swiss molasse. Ag. 

25. Otodus macroius, Ag. Cretaceous, N. J. London clay. Ag. 

26. Otodus appendicular, Ag. Eocene, S. C. Chalk. Ag. 

27. Otodus apiculatus, Ag. Eocene, S. C. Calcaire de Veteuil. Eocene ? 

Ag. ' 

28. Otodus obliquus, Ag. Eocene, S. C Characteristic of London clay. 

Ag. 



April, 1846.] 43 

29. Oxyrrhina ziphodon, Ag. Eocene and Miocene, S. C. Gypsum of 

Montmartre. Ag. 

30. Oxyrrhina hastalis, Ag. N. Jersey, and Eocene, S. C. Swiss molasse 

Eocene, Ag. 

31. Oxyrrhina mantelli, Ag. Eocene, S. C. Chalk of England. Ag. 

32. Oxyrrhina, (new ?) Eocene, S. C. 

33. Oxyrrhina, (new ?) Eocene, S. C. 

34. Oxyrrhina retrofiexa, Ag. Miocene, S. C. Locality unknown. Ag. 

35. Pristis acutidens, Ag. Eocene, S. 0. Bagshot, England. Eocene. Ag. 

Rays. 

36. 1. Myliobates micropleurus, Ag. Eocene, S. C. London clay. Ag. 
2. Myliobates Owenii, Ag. Eocene, S. C. London clay. Ag. 

Palatum Piscium. 

I have several specimens of what is figured by W. Smith among the spe- 
cimens from the crag of England (in his prints on colored paper of " Strata 
Identified by Organized Fossils," 1816,) as palates of fishes. I suppose 
these are what Mr. I. Lea speaks of (in Contributions to Geology, p. 203,) 
as found in the sand of Claiborne, and as figured by Brander. Some of them 
are mineralized by iron, and others calcareous ; all which I hare are from 
the Eocene. 

Among my collection from the Eocene of South Carolina, I have several 
fragments of claws and casts of varieties of Cancer. Two specimens are 
well marked, and resemble closely Cancer punctulatus, Desmarest, and 
Cancer Leachii, Desm. 

I have lately procured a tolerably good specimen of the remarkable fossil 
sent to the Academy by Dr. E. Ravenel, of S. Carolina, resembling somewhat 
a Belemnite. I would respectfully suggest the probability of its being the 
spine of Myriacanthus paradoxus, (Agassiz,) deprived, by attrition, of its 
tubercles. Agassiz, pi. 6, vol. iii, and p. 38, vol. iii. 



44 [April, 1846. 

The Committee on Mr. Wm. Gambel's paper, read at last 
m eeting, reported in favour of publication. 

Remarks on the Birds observed in Upper California. 

By William Gambel. 

ACCIPITRES. 

Cathartes Californianus, Shaw. Californian Vulture. 

This immense and interesting bird, rivalling the condor in size, and con- 
fined exclusively to the Pacific coast, is particularly abundant in California 
during winter ; when they probably come from Oregon, as they are said to 
disappear from the region of the Columbia at that time. 

It is not always so shy and difficult of approach, as has been reported, and 
like the Turkey buzzard, it is most so when solitary, but often ventures to the 
neighbourhood of the towns without much fear of man.* 

It is very voracious, and nothing less than the carcase of a horse or cow can 
make a meal for many of them ; but such food is abundant, at least in the fall 
of the year, where the dry pasturage has been destroyed by fire, accidentally 
or intentionally, by the Indians. These fires extend over large tracts of coun- 
try, and in consequence many cattle perish, as well as from the summer 
drought. 

It is not uncommon to see them assemble with the gulls, and greedily 
devour the carcase of a whale which had been cast ashore ; they will also 
frequently pursue wounded game. 

The male in perfect plumage has the skin of the head and neck orange- 
yellow, and the irides carmine. 
Cathartes aura, Linn. Turkey Vulture. 

The Turkey buzzard is quite as abundant and familiar in California as it 
is in the southern parts of the United States. It is seldom molested, on ac- 
count of its usefulness in ridding the neighbourhood of the towns and farm 
houses of the refuse of the cattle, which are slaughtered in great numbers. 

*I may mention here an instance of the great disposition in the Vultures to 
become domesticated, and to show how much they differ in character from 
the other Accipitres with which they are classified. A Condor, which I saw 
in Valparaiso, Chili, during the early part of last year, was allowed to roam 
the city at large, and from its remarkable docility received kind treatment 
from every one. It would follow and walk alongside of a person like a dog, 
for a considerable distance, and offer no resistance to being handled or have 
its feathers or wings smoothed down. It would ascend a long hill leading to 
a part of the city where the foreigners resided, and when tired of the place, 
or after having obtained all it could procure to eat, it would spread its large 
wings and soar down to the city, alighting perhaps on a steeple or other 
lofty point. It would receive the caresses of children, and permit them to 
beat it with switches, or even to attempt to get upon its back. It was fond 
of thrusting its bill into my pocket, and under the straps of my pantaloonB, 
at the same time shutting its eyes and allowing me to rub and scratch its 
head. In fact, I think that I have never met with any bird which exhibited 
more tameness or greater confidence in man than this large and remarkable 
Condor. I was informed that several other similar instances had been known 
there. 



April, 1846.] 4. r > 

The Carrion Crow (C. atratus, Wils.) is very common about the Gulf o! 
California, and at Mazatlan, particularly, may be seen around the town in 
large gangs. In company with them I think I have also seen that new and 
perfectly distinct species detected in the collection of the Academy, and 
described by my friend Mr. Cassin.* Probably both may be found in 
Upper California. 
Haliatus leucocephalus, Linn. Bald Eagle. 

Abundant ; in winter feeding on the ducks and geese which cover the 
plains in immense flocks. 

I have found the nest on high isolated rocks along the coast, containing 
eggs as early as the middle of February. 

An interesting circumstance connected with this noble eagle, as the em- 
blem of our country, is, that it was held sacred by the native tribes of Indian? 
of the coast and interior of California, as I have frequently been informed. 

Another large brown Eagle, the Aguila rial, (probably the bird of Wash- 
ington,) is said by the Indians and others to be occasionally observed here. 
Pandion Carolinensis, Gmel. Fish Hawk. 

Common along the coast, particularly the rocky islands, where they 
breed. At Santa Catalina I found them nesting on the precipitous cliffs, 
in February, along with the bald eagles. 
Butaetes Sancti Johannis, Gmel. Rough-legged Buzzard. 

Common in the prairie-valleys during winter, keeping much on the 
ground. The adult in his dark livery, although frequently seen, is much 
less common than the young. 
Buteo borcalis, Gmel. Red-tailed Buzzard. 
Very abundant; as also in the interior in the ranges of the Rocky mountains. 
Buteo lineatus, Gmel. Red-shouldered Buzzard. 

The shrill kee ou of this handsome species may be heard at all timet 
around the vineyards and farms of the lower portions of Upper California, 
where it is more abundant than about Monterey. 
Bnteo Swainsoni, Bonap. Rocky Mountain Buzzard. 
Buteo viontana, Nutt. Man., p. 112, 2d ed. 
B. vulgaris, Aud., pi. 372, et auc. 

This species was first brought from the far countries by Richardson, who 
considered it identical with the European Buteo vulgaris. 

Bonaparte in his comparative list of the birds of Europe and America, dis- 
tinguishes it by the specific name of Swainsoni, quoting Audubon's descrip- 
tion and plate of the specimen brought from Oregon by Townsend. 

My friend Nuttall retains the common buzzard as an inhabitant of the fur 
countries, on the authority of Richardson, and refers Bonaparte's synonym 
to that species, describing this, which he considers sufficiently distinct, un- 
der the name of White-throated Buzzard, Buteo montanus. 

Richardson describes the nest as containing-from three to five eggs, equal 

*Cathartes Burrovianus, Cassin, Proc. Acad, Nat. Sciences, vol. 2, p. 212. 

6 



46 [April, 1846. 

in size to those of the common fowl, and of a greenish white colour, with 
n few dark brown blotches at the thick end. Townsend, who brought it 
from the Rocky mountains, found it breeding there in July, the nest con- 
Mining two white eggs. 

A. L. Heermann, M.D., during a recent trip to the prairies, found this 
species breeding near the Platte River, and also procured the eggs, of which 
he kindly furnished me with a drawing and description. It is considerably 
smaller than that of the European buzzard, and differs from it in being pure 
white, with a few dark brown blotches on the smaller end, while the latter is 
of a bluish or greenish tinge, with faded marks of a neutral tint, apparently 
sunk into the shell, and scattering blotches of dark brown. The account 
given me of its nest by Dr. Heermann agrees so exactly with that of Rich- 
ardson, that I have no doubt of its being the same bird. 
Elanusleucurus, Bonap. White-tailed Elanus. 

This active, beautiful hawk, is not unfrequent in California. At the mission 
of St. John, between Monterey and St. Francisco, I procured three specimens 
in one day. It flies low and circling over the plains in the manner of a 
marsh hawk, feeding on the small birds which are so abundant on the 
ground. It is easy of approach when perched on trees, and utters a very 
loud shrill cry, particularly when wounded and caught, fighting viciously. 

Falco anatum, Bonap. Peregrine Falcon. 

Occasionally seen along the coast, nesting on cliffs near the sea. 
Falco Columbarius, Linn. Pidgeon Falcon. 

Common throughout the Western coast. 
Cercneis Sparverius, Linn. Sparrow Hawk. 

This familiar little species is abundant throughout the country. 

Astur Fuscus, Gmel. Sharp-shinned hawk. 

Our pugnacious and daring little marauder appears to be distributed 
over the whole of N. America. 

Astur Cooperii, Bonap. Cooper's Hawk. 

The most remarkable similarity exists between the plumage of this spe- 
cies and the former in every age ; and although the great difference in size 
renders it impossible to mistake them, I think that if we depended upon 
the plumage alone, no sufficiently distinguishing marks could be given. 
We find, in fact, in every department of natural science, that those cha- 
racters, which in one genus or family can be relied upon as showing 
specific differences, are, in others, almost useless, or at best perplexing. 

This bird is common throughout the Pacific coast. 

^trigiceps uliyinosus, Gmel. Marsh Hawk. 

In low valleys or marshes throughout California, the Rocky mountains, 
and New Mexico, we are sure to find this widely disseminated species. 
Bubo Vii-ginianus, Grmel. Great Horned, or Cat Owl. 

Common in the wooded regions of Upper California, 



April, 184b\] 47 

Athene aocialis, Nobis. Burrowing Owh 

Sfrix cunicidaria, Bonap., Aud., Nutt. 

This bird, which hitherto has been considered the same throughout the 
wide range of North and South America,may,I think, be separated on as good 
grounds as many of the owls which are generally admitted to be distinct. It is 
unnecessary to repeat here the excellent descriptions which have been given 
by Bonaparte and Audubon of N. American specimens of the burrowing owl 
I shall merely state wherein I think ours differs from the S. American species 

1 conceive it to differ in the general colour, being lighter in our species, 
with the markings and quills usually of a pale yellowish or cinnamon hue 
while in the other the colour is always much deeper and approaching dusky. 

The most marked difference exists in the feet and legs, which are in ours 
slender and delicate, while in the other they are longer and much stouter. 

The wing3 are shorter, and have the first and fifth quills equal, if any- 
thing, the first longest: in the S. American the fifth quill is considerably 
ionger than the first. 

The bill in ours is smaller in every way, and of a dusky horn colour, ex- 
cept at the ridge and edges ; in the other it appears to be dusky only at the 
base. 

But how can either of these agree with the description given of the Co- 
'juimbo owl, by Brisson, as being so much larger, with the tail of a dirty- 
white colour and immaculate ? 

I have seen this bird in New and Old Mexico, on the Rocky mountains, 
and in California ; in each place presenting little difference in its habits. It 
always lives in burrows in the ground, either solitary, as I have frequently 
seen it, or in small companies. If it can avail itself of the labours of othe? 
animals, it will always do so, so that it is a constant interloper in the habi- 
tations of the prairie dogs, and in California in those of the large ground 
squirrel, which is there so very common. It however often digs for itself, 
and lives in scattered companies of four or five. 

Xuttall is, I think, mistaken with regard to its migrating from California 
in August. I have seen it there at all periods of the year. 

On the prairies its note is said to resemble that of Marmots, with which it 
is associated. The account which Yieillot gives of its nocturnal habits and 
note, has been doubted by Bonaparte and my friend Nuttall. During the 
breeding season, while sleeping near their burrows, I have been awakened 
by its low, measured and solemn cry, uttered much in the manner of its 
^on^eners, but peculiarly solemn. 
Nyctale Acadica, Gmel. Little Night Owl. 

I procured but one specimen of this species at Monterey in October. 

Strix pratnicola, Bonap. Barn Owl. 

This delicate feathered and familiar fowl, which, hitherto, I believe has not 
been known to exist west of the Atlantic coast, I found very abundantly in 
California, and presenting all the habits ascribed to its European relative. Its 
favorite resort is in the neighborhood of the towns and ruined Missions, al- 
though it may he found also about farm houses, and occasionallyin the prairie 
valleys, which furnish it with abundance of mice and other small animals for 



48 [April, 1846. 

subsistence. It makes its nest under the tiled roofs of the houses of the towns, 
numbers under one roof, and shows but little fear when approached. I have 
scarcely ever visited a mission without disturbing some of these birds, which 
were roosting about the altar, chandelier, &c, of the chapel, and hearing 
the bendition of the Padre for drinking all the oil out of the lamps. Every 
where in California, when speaking of it, we are sure to be told of its pro- 
pensity for drinking the sacred oil ; with what truth I cannot say. 

The specimens which I have examined agree in every respect with those 
from this side of the continent, and present the constant characters given 
by Audubon to distinguish it from the European species. 

(To be continued.) 



The following gentlemen were elected Correspondents of 
the Academy. 

William M. Baird, of Reading, Pa. 

William Gourlie, Jr., Esq., of Glasgow, Scotland. 

Nicolai Aall, of Christiana, Sweden, 

And Mr. Lewis Germain, of Burlington, N. J., was 
elected a Member of the same. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 

OF PHILADELPHIA. 

Vol. III. MAY AND JUNE, 1846. No. 3. 

Stated Meeting, May 12, 1846. 
Mr. Phillips in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

A History of British fossil mammalia and birds. By Richard 
Owen, F. R. S. Part xi. London : Dec., 1845. From 
Dr. Thomas B. Wilson. 

Bulletin of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Vol. 1, 
No. 5. From the Society. 

Proceedings of the Providence Franklin Society. Vol. 1, 
No. 1. From the Society. 

A Geological map of England and Wales. From Roderick 
Impey Murchison, Esq., of London, through Professor 
Silliman. 

Annual Report of the Leeds Philosophical Society for 1844 
and '45. From the Society. 



Dr. Hallowell read a paper, entitled ' Some account of the 
Anatomy of the Harpyia destructor, or Harpy Eagle of S. 
America.' Referred to a committee consisting of Drs. Morton, 
Bridges and Leidy. 

8 



50 [May, 1846. 

Dr. Hallowell also read a description of a new species of 
bat from Western Africa, which was referred to Mr. Cassin, 
Drs. Leidy and Zantzinger. 

Dr. Leidy read a paper entitled " Remarks on the Anatomy 
of the abdominal viscera of the Sloth, Bradypus tridactylus, 
L.," accompanied with two drawings representing the uterus 
containing an embryo, and the embryo with its membranes. 
Referred to Drs. Morton, Hallowell and Goddard. 



Stated Meeting, May 19, 1846. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 
Specimen, in spirits, of Pteropus Haldemani, Hallowell, a 

new species of bat from Western Africa, described by Dr. 

Hallowell in a paper read at last meeting. Presented by 

Dr. Hallowell. 
Jaw of a Shark, taken off Cape Island, N. J. ; also the beak 

or muzzle of Squalus pristis, Linn., (common Saw-fish,) 

from the same locality. Presented by Dr. C. W. Pennock. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, Jan., 
1846. From the Society. 

A Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. By David 
Humphreys Storer, M. D. 4to. Cambridge: 1846. From 
the Author. 

American Journal of Arts and Sciences. Vol. 1, No. 3. New 
series. From the Editors. 

American Quarterly Journal of Agriculture and Science, con- 
ducted Drs. Emmons and Prime. Vol. 3, No. 2. From 
the Editors. 



Prof. Johnson offered some observations on the subject of 
floating docks, illustrating, by means of models and drawings, 
the principles of construction, and their application to prac- 
tical purposes. 



May, 1846.] 51 

Meeting for Business, May 26, 1846. 

Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

The Monthly Report of the Corresponding Secretary was 
read and adopted. 

The Committee to whom was referred the following, re- 
ported in favor of publication. 



C5> 



Descriptions of Two New Species of Fossil Uchinodermata, from 
the Eocene of the United States. 

By Samuel George Morton, M. D. 

Genus Cidaris. 

C. Alahamensis. Compressed, pentagonal, the angles rounded 
so as to form a ten-sided figure. Ten rows of tubercles, with 
nine or ten in each row. Ambulacra arranged in five pairs, 
with delicate, slightly oblique fissures separated by a double ele- 
vated line. Surface between the tubercles and ambulacra finely 
granulated. 

Genus Galerites. 

G. ? Agassii. Elevated, hemispherical, with four pairs of am. 
bulacra which diverge from the apex and meet at the margin, 
having each two rows of pores connected by transverse fissures. 
Surface marked by numerous, distinct granulations, which are 
continued over the whole base of the fossil. 

I have much pleasure in dedicating this remarkable species to 
M. Louis Agassiz, whose profound researches into this class of 
organized beings have thrown much new light on their structure, 
affinities and geological relations. 

Both these fossils were found by Dr. Albert Koch, in the Eocene 
strata of "Washington Co., Alabama, and by him politely submit- 
ted to me for description. 



52 [May, 1846. 

The Committee to whom was referred a description of a 
new bat from Western Africa, by Dr. Hallowell, reported in 
favor of publication. 

Description of a New Species of Bat from Western Africa. 

By Edward Halo well, M. D. 

PTEROPUS Haldemani. 

Description. General expression ferocious; head resembling 
that of a dog ; ears of moderate size, smooth for the most part, 
obtuse at the tip, hairy at base externally ; there is no tragus ; body 
dark brown above; neck, occiput and vertex same color, but 
lighter than upon the back ; wings and interfemoral membrane 
of a sienna brown color above and below; thorax and upper 
part of abdomen and sides brown ; the rest of the abdomen is 
white; there are two long and thin hairs upon the muzzle; lips 
full, nostrils prominent, their margins being surrounded by a fold 

of the skin ; eyes rather large, irides ; wings long ; that portion 

of the membrane included between the phalanges naked, the re- 
mainder more or less hairy above and below ; upper surface of 
the interfemoral membrane hairy, with the exception of a small 
part at its posterior extremity which is naked ; under surface also 
hairy, but much less so than upper ; no tail ; tibia and fibula in- 
cluded within the membranes; four slender toes, compressed, of 
nearly equal length, the outer one being a little shorter than the 
others; they are sparsely furnished with thin hairs, varying in 
length ; the terminal phalanx of each is provided with a robust, 
sharp and ineurvated nail. The index finger like the thumb is 
also furnished with a short and ineurvated nail. 

Measurements. Inches. 

Total length, 3 

Length of head, ..... If 

Distance between anterior margin of nostril and ante- 
rior canthus of eve, - - - - - I J_ 

10 

Distance between angle of mouth and anterior can- 
thus of eye, - f 

Length of neck, body and tail, ... 3 

Length of forearm, ..... 3 

Length of tibia, - ... . . - lj 

Spread, 14} 

Length of thumb. | 



May, 1846.] 53 

Dental Formula. 

Incisors. Canines. False Molars. Molars 

2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 



-1 



This species I have named after my esteemed friend, S. S. Haldeman, 
Esq., author of the N. American Liinniades, who obtained it with 
other African animals from Dr. Groheen, Physician to the American 
Colonization Society. 

Descriptions of New Species of Coleoptera of the United States. 

By F. E. Melsheimer, M. D. 

(Continued from Vol. 2. page 318. ) 

Cantharida, Leach. 

Cantharis, Geoffr. 

Lytta atrata. Body black, immaculate, Fabr. Syst. El. ii. 70. 

Var. ? a. Black, with the head obscurely rufous. 31 1. long. Lytta convolvuli, 
Melsh. MS. 

It is much smaller than the atrata, and differs from that species, aside of other 
characters, in being more obviously ashy-pubescent on the lateral margins of the 
elytra. 

Both occur on the flowers of bind weed, {Convolvulus sepium, L.) 

C. nigricornis. Blackish, clothed with a dense yellowish-ashy pubescence. 
3 1. long. Alabama. 

Blackish or dark brownish, densely yellowish pubescent ; head with the medial 
impressed line distinct ; antennae longer than the thorax, slightly thickened in 
the middle, with the second joint a little smaller than the fifth; black, glabrous ; 
eyes blackish ; labrum and palpi black; thorax with the sides almost parallel, 
with the dorsal line distinct; beneath and feet as above. 

Zonitis, Fabr, 

Z. lineata. Testaceous-yellow ; elytra pale testaceous, with a broad vitta and 
tibiae dusky. 4 1. long; 1^1. wide. Pennsylvania. 

Crioceris lineata, Melsh. Catal. 

Testaceous-yellow; head deeply and densely punctured, with the vertex im- 
punctured, shining; mandibles with the apical half piceous-black; palpi dull 
testaceous ; antenna? : two basal joints brownish ; thorax transverse, round- 
ed, glossy, with a few scattered punctures ; medial line feebly impressed : scu- 
tellum color of the thorax, densely punctulate, with the tip impunctured ; elytra 
testaceous, rugulose, somewhat distantly punctulate ; each with a broad, lon- 
gitudinal reddish-brown band in the middle, which attains neither the base nor 
the apex ; two or three narrow, obsolete, raised lines : beneath, femora, and 
tarsi color of the thorax and head ; tibiae and knees dusky ; tarsi simple ; claws, 
besides being cleft, are distinctly pectinate, and each claw furnished with along 
hair from near the base. 

2. Z. mandibular is. Crioceris mandibular is, Melsh. MS, Form and size of the 
preceding. 



54 [May, 1846. 

Color of the head, palpi, mandibles, body beneath, femora and tarsi, as in the 
preceding ; eyes as in the preceding, black ; head and thorax punctured as in 
the preceding; the latter each side of the middle with a short, longitudinal 
profound impression; scutel as in the preceding; elytra uniform, very pale 
testaceous, lessrugulose, and more closely and distinctly punctured than in the 
preceding, otherwise as in the preceding; tibiae darker than the femora, and 
each, as in the preceding, with two spines at tip ; claws as in the preceding. 

Nemognatha, Illig. 

N. bimaculata. Black ; thorax yellow, with two blackish spots. 3 1. long. 
Pennsylvania. 

Black, densely black hirsute : head profoundly and densely punctured ; an- 
tennae black, filiform, with the second joint smallest, the following subequal, 
first and second joint rather hirsute ; eyes black ; a triangular dull rufous spot 
between the antennae ; mandibles testaceous, with the tips and labrum piceous : 
thorax yellowish, much and finely punctured, narrower than the head, narrower 
at base than before the middle ; angles rounded ; basal edge straight ; sides 
straight from the base to the anterior curve ; each side of the middle before the 
base, with a roundish oval brownish spot: elytra finely shagreened, with two 
longitudinal, oblique, raised lines before the middle, very obscurely defined ; 
wings fuliginous : beneath as above ^posterior and intermediate feet blackish : 
anterior ones brownish. 

CEdemeridce, Leach. 

ISCHNOMBKA, Steph. 

I. unicolor. Black ; elytra with three faint longitudinal raised lines. 3 1- 
long. Pennsylvania. 

Necydalis unicolor, Melsh. MS. 

Black, opake : head very minutely punctured and wrinkled, with the front 
dull cyaneous ; tip of the clypeus testaceous ; labrum black ; antennae fuscous> 
with two basal joints and palpi dull testaceous : thorax punctured like the head, 
each side before the middle somewhat depressed ; sides behind the anterior mar- 
gin abruptly deflexed, and there on the lateral margins a fine, short, transverse 
raised line ; medial space somewhat flattened, with an obsolete raised dorsal line : 
elytra finely shagreened, with three fine, rather obsolete lines, beneath black- 
cyaneous : feet blackish-brown, tibiae and tarsi paler, all with a bluish reflexion. 

Nacerda, Stev. 

1. N. lateralis. Rufo-testaceous, eyes, lateral margins of the thorax and 
elytra, and abdomen, blackish. 4 1. long ; 1 1. wide, Pennsylvania. 

Rufo-testaceous, finely ashy-pubescent, finely shagreened : antennae ; la- 
brum long, indented at tip; palpi testaceous ; eyes large, round, deep black : 
thorax rather oblong, narrowed posteriorly ; faintly impressed in front of the 
scutel, and even less so each side of the middle behind the anterior margin ; 
sides each with a black spot, much dilated at the anterior margin, and acute 
towards the hind angles, which it does not attain : elytra paler than the thorax 
and head, with the sides parallel ; a broad blackish vitta, which does not 
cover the lateral edge and tip ; general color of the entire sutural space not as 
broad as one of the vittae : abdomen brownish : pectus and feet testaceous- 
yellow. 



May, 1846.] 55 

2. N. dorsalis. Pale testaceous, with a spot on the vertex, a dorsal band, and 
two elytral vittse, fuscous. 4| 5 1. long ; 1^ 1. wide. Carolina? 

Pale testaceous, clothed with a very fine ashy down, very minutely sha- 
greened : head with a brownish band in the face ( $ ), or only obvious on the 
vertex (<^) ; antennae and palpi testaceous, the former with the two terminal 
joints equal, both together about as long as the tenth (J^); eyes large, deep black , 
emarginate at the base of the antenna? ; thorax, as is common, widest before, 
with the sides slightly sinuate or retuse in the middle ; each side of the middle 
with two roundish impressions, placed quadrangularly, obvious in the <^, less so 
in the $ ; a brownish entire dorsal band ; sides in the middle obsoletely brown : 
elytra slightly narrowed behind, each with two longitudinal brownish bands, 
confluent before the apex : beneath and feet color of above, or in a $ specimen 
with the three terminal segments brownish. 

Xylophilus, Latr. 

X.fasciatus. Black ; antenna?, palpi, feet, and base and apex of the elytra, 
testaceous. 1 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Black, ashy-pubescent : head minutely punctured, with the mouth dull tes- 
taceous ; antennae and palpi testaceous ; the former as long as the thorax, slightly 
thickened towards the apex, with the second and third joints subequal in length, 
the second rather more robust than the third ; maxillary palpi with the terminal 
joint large, securiform: thorax not wider than the head, suborbiculate, with the 
sides parallel ; more coarsely punctured than the head ; medial line obsolete : 
scutellum black, coarsely punctured : elytra wider than the thorax, punctured, 
punctures large, profound, vicinal, testaceous-yellow, with a common, broad, 
blue-black fascia in the middle ; scutellar region dusky ; feet testaceous : abdo- 
men piceous : pectus black, rough with large punctures : posterior femora 
rather clavate. 

Melandryidce, Leach. 

Mklandrya, Fabr. 

"Black ; thorax with grooves ; front with an impressed dot ; elytra striate 
and punctured." Melandrya striata, Say, Narrative of an Expert. App. p. 286. 

Var. a. Sculptured as in the preceding, dull rufous, with the eyes and elytra 
black ; palpi and tarsi testaceous ; tibise testaceous-yellow ; body beneath and 
femora, like the thorax, dark dull rufous. Serropa/pus thoracicus. Melsh. 
Catal. 

Var. b. Sculptured as in the type, with the frontal impression slight, almost 
obsolete ; black above, beneath and femora chestnut-brown ; tibia?, tarsi and 
palpi testaceous, the two former tinged with rufous. 4^ 1. long ; 1^ 1. wide 
or only about half as large as the type, or preceding variety. It is Serropalpus 
bicolor, Melsh. Catal. 

1. M. ? umbrina. Fuscous, ashy-pubescent ; antenna? and feet rufous. 5 1. 
long ; 1^ 1. wide. Pennsylvania. 

Serropalpus umbrinus, Melsh. Catal. 

Elliptic, brown, densely ashy-pubescent, finely and densely punctured : head 
with the clypeus broad, obtusely rounded and glabrous at tip ; labrum trans- 
verse, almost covered by the clypeus ; each side between the antenna? with an 



56 [May, 1846. 

obtuse impression ; antennae longer than the thorax, filiform, rufous ; first joint 
clavate, second one-third smaller than the third, which is slightly longer than 
the fourth ; joints 5 10, subequal, terminal joint longest, rather fusiform; 
palpi brown, pilose, with the terminal joint robust, obliquely truncate at tip or 
slightly securiform ; eyes black, transverse, slightly emarginate ; thorax sub- 
trapezoidal, as wide at base as the elytra, with the anterior edge truncate, and 
the posterior one slightly bisinuate ; sides very feebly rounded ; hind angles 
rather acute ; each side of the middle at base with a small and profound impres- 
sion ; scutellum small, transverse-oval : elytra more than four times longer 
than the thorax ; an obtuse sutural groove behind the middle ; beneath darker ; 
feet dull rufous ; tibia? armed with two moderate spurs at tip ; tarsi long, very 
slender, simple, with the posterior pair 4-jointed, first joint longer than the 
following ones taken together. 

Var. a. As the preceding, but much lighter tinted. Serropalpus fuscus, 
Melsh. Catal. This species, in consequence of having the palpi not serrated, 
cannot be placed in the genus Serropalpus, nor in that of Melandrya ; perhaps 
it ought to be referred to the genus Scotodes, Esch., of which I have as yet 
seen no definition. 

Hypulus, Payk. 

H. trifasciatus. Rufous ; head and three elytral bands black. 2J 1. long. 
Pennsylvania. 

Pubescent, densely and finely shagreened : head black, densely granulate, 
sometimes with the cranial and frontal sutures very distinct; apex of the clypeus, 
and mouth rufous ; antenna? rufous, robust, very slightly longer than the thorax ; 
palpi prominent, rufous, with the terminal joint compressed: thorax rather quad- 
rate, slightly widest before the middle, with the anterior edge truncate, and 
bisinuate at the posterior one ; a profound fovea each side of the middle at base ; 
rufous, sometimes with the middle of the anterior margin dusky ; elytra rufous, 
with three common, black fascia? ; the first is on the base, broadest on the scu- 
tellar region, where it sends off a branch towards the middle fascia, which it 
nearly reaches ; middle or second fascia, is placed beyond the middle, the third 
or posterior one is immediately before the apex which it almost covers : feet and 
beneath more decidedly rufous than the elytra. 

Scraptia, Latr. 

S. palUpes. Dark fuscous, feet testaceous : 1 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Dark brown above, minutely punctured, and shagreened : head black, mi- 
nutely and deeply punctured, with two longitudinal impressions ; mouth dusky ; 
palpi testaceous ; antenna? long, filiform, fuscous; thorax short, transverse, trun- 
cate in front and behind, with the sides rounded ; a large and obtuse impres- 
sion eaoli side at base ; medial line obsolete : elytra widest behind the middle ; 
beneath pale brown : feet pale testaceous. 

Var. a. Chestnut brown ; head and thorax darker ; frontal impressions ob- 
solete ; lateral thoracic impressions small, an obvious one in front of the scutel- 
lum. Hallomenus minutus, Melsh. Catal. 

Var. b. Size and form of the type ; head black, with the frontal impressions 
as in Var. a : antenna? as in the type ; thorax impressed as in Var. a, dull tes- 



May, 1846.] 57 

taceous; elytra dull testaceous, indeterminately black at apex and lateral 
margins; beneath dusky ; feet as in the type, Sallomenus plagiatus, Melsh. MS. 

Kallomencs, Payk. 

1. H. scapularis. Fuscous; antenna?, feet and humeri testaceous. 1^ 1. long. 
Pennsylvania. 

Hallomenus humeralis, Melsh. Catal, 

Oblong-ovate, dark dull reddish-brown, pubescent, finely and densely 
wrinkled; bead finely and con fertly punctured, with the eyes deep black, lunate; 
antenna?, palpi and feet testaceous ; mouth piceons : thorax each side of the 
middle at base with a small fovea: elytra with the anterior exterior angles 
rufo-testaceous : pectus as above: abdomen palish brown. 

2. H. ? quadripustulata. Blackish; elytra with four testaceous spots, lj 1. 
long. Pennsylvania. 

Elliptic, blackish, pubescent, densely and obviously shagreened or wrinkled, 
somewhat glossy: head punctulate ; eyes transverse, black; antennae short; 
testaceous, with the apical half black and arcuated; second and third joints 
subequal, palpi testaceous, terminal joint of maxillary large; thorax tranverse, 
widest in the middle, rounded at the sides, with the edges margined ; basal 
edge subtruncate, with the hind angles acute; anterior edge truncate, with the 
anterior angles deflexed ; an obsolete impression each side towards the hind 
angles ; scutel, small, black : elytra with a large testaceous spot at base, and 
a rather transverse-oval similarly colored one midway the apex and middle: 
feet pale brown, or testaceous, the femora sometimes piceous. The antennae, 
which are somewhat thickened towards the apex, and the thorax in its outlines, 
differ greatly from those of the preceding species, which is a true llallomenus. 
It might perhaps be placed more correctly in the genus Xilita. 

Orchesia, Latr. 

1. 0. sericea. Testaceous; eyes black. 2 1. long. Pennsylvania. 
Rufo-testaceous, yellowish sericeo-pubescent, densely and finely rugose - 

punctured : beneath rather glabrous, and deeper colored. Perhaps identical 
with micans, Illig., or only a local variety of that species. 

2. 0. castanea. Fuscous; antennae, palpi and feet rufous. 1\ 1. long; | 1. 
wide. Pennsylvania. 

Hallomenus castaneus, Melsh. Catal. 

Slender, brown, yellowish-sericeous, densely shagreened : head, dull, dark 
rufous, with the labrum, palpi, feet and antennae, rufous; eyes black: thorax 
with the two basal foveas distinct: abdomen color of the feet: pectus darker, 
in a certain light blackish. 

3. 0. gracilis. Fuscous; eyes plumbeous. 2 1. long; 1. wide. Pennsylvania. 
Hallomenus gracilis, Melsh. Catal. 

.Slender, brown, pubescent, densely and finely shagreened : head as in the 
preceding; eyes lead color; antennas, palpi, feet and beneath, as in the 
preceding species : thorax, with the basal foveas somewhat obsolete. Closely 
allied to the preceding species, but it is always smaller, comparatively more 
slender, and with a coarser vesture. 

9 



58 [May, 1846 



EUSTROPHUS, IlHg. 

1. E. 4-maculatus. Dull rufous ; elytra black, with four fulvous spots. 2J 
1. long ; lj 1. wide. Pennsylvania. 

Dull rufous or chestnut red, finely pubescent, finely rugose-punctured : head 
color of the thorax ; antennas and palpi rufous, the former with the last joint of 
the clava paler ; eyes black : thorax each side of the middle at base with a 
short, acutely impressed line; scutellum transverse, rounded at tip, punctulate: 
elytra black, with very faint traces of longitudinal obtuse, raised lines ; each 
with two large fulvous spots, of which the first is posted on the humeral angle, 
and extends obliquely to the subsutural margin, where it is narrower than 
at its origin ; second or posterior spot is a little before the apex, and is 
transverse, and reaches nearly to the suture : abdomen paler than the thorax ; 
feet and pectus, densely sericeous. 

2. E. niger. Black above ; beneath reddish brown ; elytra punctate-striate. 
2\ 1. long ; 1 \ 1. wide. Pennsylvania. 

Mycetophagiis niger, Melsh. Catal. 

Black, very minutely and densely punctured, ashy-pubescent ; mouth piceous ; 
antennae, palpi and feet rufous ; thorax each side of the middle at base with an 
obsolete obtuse impression: scutellum as in the preceding: elytra punctate- 
striate, striae very fine, punctures approximate: beneath' dusky reddish-brown. 

This species differs from bicolor, Fabr., which it resembles by its striate elytra, 
in the outline of the body ; that of bicolor is like quadrimaculatus, nob., obovate, 
and that of niger is rather elliptic. 

Cistelidce, Leach. 
Eryx, Steph. 

"Sanguineous; head, elytra and feet black." Cistela amcena. Say, Journ. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. iii. 268. 

Var. a. As the preceding, with the suture and lateral edges of the elytra 
rufous. 

Allkcula, Fabr. 

A. pilosa. Fuscous; antennae, palpi and tarsi testaceous. 4 1. long; 1^1. 
wide. Pennsylvania. 

Cistela pilosa, Melsh. Catal. 

Oblong elliptic, dark brown above, ashy-pubescent ; head stronglj' and densely 
punctured, with the frontal suture distinct; clypeus obtusely rounded, and 
piceous at tip ; labrum, antennae and palpi testaceous ; the former rather piceous ; 
the latter with the last joint of the maxillary distinctly securiform ; thorax 
transverse, as wide at base as the elytra, where it is wider than at apex, with 
the sides rounded ; basal edge rather straight ; anterior edge together with the 
anterior angles obtusely rounded ; regularly and deeply punctuate ; each side 
of the middle towards the hind angles with an obsolete shallow transverse 
impression ; medial line fine, impunctured ; a small obtuse triangular impression 
in front of the scutel, which is transverse, with a few transverse series of 



May, 1846.] 59 

punctures: elytra elongate, with sides almost parallel; punctate-striate, the 
striae and punctures very fine; interstices convex, punctulate and rugulose : 
beneath and feet dark chestnut-red, glossy; tarsi testaceous. May be placed 
in the new genus Cteniopus, Solier. 

Mycetocharus, Latr. 

1. M. niger. Black above ; feet rufous. 2} 1. long. Pennsylvania. 
Cistela nigra, Melsh. Catal. 

Black above, slightly pubescent, rather glossy: head densely punctulate; 

palpi : antennae reddish brown, with two basal joints paler: thorax 

punctured, punctures not dense, rather shallow : elytra punctate-striate, with 
the striae obtuse and the punctures minute, the interstices transversely rugose : 
beneath chestnut-red ; feet rufous. 

2. M. ruficornis. Fuscous; antenna, palpi, feet and base of the elytra 
testaceous. 2 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Cistela axillaris, Melsh. Catal. 

Brown, pubescent, densely punctulate; antennas, labrum, palpi and feet 
testaceous ; thorax at base each side of middle with a small and profound 
impression; dorsal impression obsolete: scutel brown: elytra densely rugulose; 
towards the suture with faint traces of the interstices ; base broadly and 
indeterminately testaceous : beneath pale brown: femorarather pale testaceous. 
This species is distinct from the fraterna, Say, which is not. as Say states, the 
axillaris of M. Catal. i 

Cistela, Fabr. 

1. C.fuliginosa. Dark fuscous ; antennas and tarsi dull rufous. 5-6 1. long ; 
1^-2| 1. wide. Pennsylvania. 

Cistela fuliginosa, Melsh. Catal. 

Dark brown or blackish, finely ashy-pubescent ; head densely punctulate, 
with the frontal suture distinct; clypeus and labrum dull rufo-piceous ; palpi 
dark piceous ; antennae dull dark rufous, long, slender in the J very slightly 
serrate: thorax with the outlines as is common ; very finely rugose-punctured 
punctures confluent; basal margin each side of the middle with a slide 
impression; transversely and obsoletely indented in front of the scutellum- 
sides befpre the hind angles slightly indented ; 9 with numerous small, obsolete 
impressions on the disk, and a large one each side behind the anterior angles : 
scutellum finely and densely punctured ; elytra punctate-striate, striae profound 
with the punctures minute, the insterstices convex, wrinkled, and numerously 
and minutely punctured : beneath somewhat piceous ; tarsi color of the antennas. 

C. punctulata. Black, strongly punctured ; palpi and tarsi rufous. 4J 1. long ; 
2 1. wide. Pennsylvania. 

Cistela picipes, Melsh. Catal. 

Black, clothed with a fine but not dense ashy-pubescence ; head with large, 
profound and rather distant punctures ; frontal suture very distinct and 
profound ; clypeus at tip, and labrum dull rufo-piceous ; palpi yellowish- 
rufous ; antennae long, slender, dull reddish-brown: thorax punctured as the 
head, with the punctures rather larger, deeper, and less vicinal ; the ordinary 



60 [May, 184(1 

basal impressions obsolete ; scutellum with a longitudinal impunctured space 
in the middle : elytra strongly punctate-striate, the interstices rugose, and with 
distant punctures : pectus punctured and colored as the thorax ; abdomen 

: femora dull chest nut -red ; tarsi color of the palpi ; tibia? darker. 

Distinct from the picipes, Fabr. 

3. C. fuscipes. Fuscous; three basal joints of the antennae and feet 
testaceous, 4 1. long ; U 1. wide; J*; 5} 1. long; 1| 1. wide. Pennsylvania. 

Cistela fuscipes, Melsh. Catal. 

Brown, clothed with a fine, dense, ashy-pubescence : head very minutely 
and confluently punctured, with the front somewhat indented ; a longitudinal 
impressed line, extending from the vertex to the apex of the clypeus, very 
distinct in the ; frontal suture obsolete ; clypeus at tip, labruni and palpi, 
dull testaceous : thorax punctured, punctures intensely minute and crowded ; 
basal impressions obscure ; anterior edge dull rufous ; posterior angles promi- 
nent and acute, particularly in the V : scutel punctured as the thorax : elytra 
punctate-striate, with the stria? profound and the punctures transverse and 
close set, the interstices punctured as the thorax, and in the rather alternately 
wide : beneath as above ; feet pale yellowish-testaceous, the tibia? and tarsi 
rather deeper. The specific name is somewhat inappropriate. 

C. brevis. Black ; antenna?, palpi and feet rufous. Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. 
Sc. hi. 269. It may be added to the above character that the antenna? are 
serrate, mostly fuscous, with three basal joints testaceous. 

C. sericea. Pale testaceous, immaculate ; elytra absolutely striated near 
the suture. Length about one-fifth of an inch. Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. 
iii. 270. Long's Expedit. App. p. 285. 

Var. ? a. Fuscous, antennae, palpi, tibia?, tarsi and suture of the elytra, 
rufous ; the stria? of the latter almost entirely effaced. Length somewhat 
less than the preceding. Cistella pulla, Melsh. MS. 

Var. ? b. Dull rufous, with the head and throat above blackish ; stria? of 
the elytra feebly defined. Length of var. a. Smaller, but altogether like 
thoracica, Fabr., variety of murina, Fabr. 

4. C. nigrans. Black-brown ; elytra punctate striate. 33 1. long ; 1 L wide. 
Pennsylvania. 

Cistela atra, Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. v. 242. 

Black-brown, ashy-pubescent ; head deeply and not closely punctured ; 
frontal suture distinct ; eyes closely approximating above ; antenna? fuscous ; 
palpi piceous ; thorax subquadrate, slightly widest in the middle, with the 
sides obtusely rounded ; truncate in front, slightly waved behind ; punctured, 
punctures profound, numerous, but not crowded ; an obtuse impression in 
front of the scutellum : elytra deeply punctate-striate, the interstices convex, 
rugose ; beneath and feet piceous. The specific name atra has been applied 
by Fabricius to a different species. 

Var. a. As in the preceding, with the antenna?, palpi and feet testaceous ; 
sometimes the antenna?, tibia? and tarsi, dull rufous. 4 1. long. Alabama. 



May, 1846.] 01 

Helopidcej Steph. 

IlELors, Fabr. 

H. tumidus. Black-brassy; elytra gibbose. 65 1. long; 3\ 1. wide. Penn- 
sylvania. 

Helops ovatus, Melsh. Catal. 

Ovate, convex, brassy-black, glossy : head densely rugose-punctured, trans- 
versely obtusely indented between the antennae, with theclypeus honey-yellow 
and impunctured at tip ; labruui piceous at tip ; antenna half the length of the 
body, filiform, dull reddish-brown, with the basal joints piceous ; first joint cla- 
vate, second short, obconic, third joint as long as the two following ones united, 
cylindric, fourth joint shorter than the fifth, the three penultimate joints obconic, 
slightly thicker than the preceding ones ; palpi piceous : thorax subquadrate, 
somewhat wider than long, slightly wider behind than before, where it is not 
strongly emarginate ; posterior edge truncate ; angles subrectilinear, edges finely 
margined, convex, punctured as the head ; scutellum obtuse-triangular, polished 
with sparse punctures : elytra at base not wider than the thorax, in the middle 
nearly twice as wide as at base, with the sides rounded ; apex acuminate ; 
above strongly convex, punctate-striate, with the strke fine and slightly im- 
pressed, and the punctures small, oblong, and deeply impressed ; interstices 
flat, distantly punctulate : beneath and feet pitchy-black ; tarsi mostly, tibiae 
sometimes, ferruginous ; anterior femora clavate, with a small tooth towards 
the tip. This insect, on account of its very frequent occurrence, has been 
doubtless already described. I should not hesitate to consider the H. cisteloides 
of Germar identical with the present species, if that accurate entomologist had 
not stated that the thorax of cisteloides was " postice paullo angustior, " which 
is not the case in our species, but in numerous specimens before me the 
thorax is in every instance postice paullo latior. 

Diaperidce, Westeo. 
Tkachyscelis, Latr. 

T.Jlavipes. Black; feet testaceous. 1 1. long. Virginia. 

Ovate, black, glossy : head impunctured, transversely sulcate between the 
antennae ; labrum, mouth, palpi and antennas, rufo-testaceous, the clava of the 
last pale testaceous ; a small, round indentation on the vertex ; thorax short, 
transverse, moderately convex, impunctured, shining, slightly emarginate in 
front, behind obtusely rounded, with the sides strongly rounded ; angles round- 
ed ; scutellum obtuse-triangular, piceous : elytra as wide at base as the base 
of the thorax, widest in the middle, with the sides rounded ; above moderately 
convex, punctate striate, with the two or three sutural striae wider and deeper 
impressed than the lateral ones ; interstices fiat, impunctured ; beneath and 
feet clothed with a long ashy pile, latter rufo-testaceous. 

Neojiida, Ziegl. 

1. N. sanguinicollis. Dull sanguineous ; elytra black, punctate-striate ; head 
mutic. 1| 1. long. Pennsylvania. 
Diaperis bicolor, Melsh. Catal. 



62 [May, 1846. 

Ovate, dull sanguineous : head minutely punctured, margined and obtusely 
rounded at apex ; eyes black ; antennae color of the head, thickened towards the 
tip, with the fourth joint longer than the third, the second joint shorter than 
any of the other joints ; terminal joint thickest, subglobose : thorax glossy, mo- 
derately convex, short, transverse, feebly notched in front, slightly bisinuate 
behind, where it is wider than at apex, and as wide as the base of the elytra ; 
sides feebly rounded ; above very minutely and distantly punctured ; each side 
of the middle at base with an obsolete impression ; hind angles subrectilinear : 
scutellum- triangular, color of the thorax : elytra black, tinged with rufous, par- 
ticularly at the sides, base and tip; punctate-striate, with the striae fine and 
slightly impressed ; interstices flat, polished, impunctured : beneath deeper 
colored than the thorax, coarsely punctured ; feet rufo-testaceous. Sometime? 
the thorax is dusky sanguineous, and the elytra entirely black. 

2. N. rafa. Dull rufous, shining ; beneath and feet rufo-testaceous. 2J 1. 
long ; 1 J 1. wide. Pennsylvania. 

Short, ovate, dull rufous ; glossy : head very minutely punctured, rounded 
at apex, an arcuated impressed line between the antennae, and a small obtuse 
indentation on the vertex; antennae rufo-piceous, slightly thickened towards the 
tip, with the third joint longest, and second shortest ; terminal joint ovate ; eyes 
black ; terminal joint of the palpi triangular ; thorax formed like in the preced- 
ing, shining, punctured as the head ; each side of the middle at base with an 
obtuse impression : scutel triangular : elytra punctate-striate, striae fine, punc- 
tures small, close set ; interstices flat, almost impunctulate : feet and epipleiiifie 
testaceous-yellow. Resembles much in the outlines of the body Diaperis rufi- 
conris, but that species is black and opake, and is also somewhat differently 
sculptured. 

Platydema, Laporte. 

P. picilabrum. Black ; antennas, labrum, palpi and feet rufo-piceous. If 
2\\. long ; f 1 1 -5th 1. wide. Pennsylvania. Numerous. 

Oblong, deep black, sometimes with a greenish reflection, shining ; head con- 
fertly punctulate ; mouth, palpi and basal joints of the antennas rufo-piceous, 
the latter with the clava frequently testaceous yellow ; transversely indented 
between the antenna' : thorax transverse, notched in front, bisinuate behind, 
where it is wider than before, with the sides feebly rounded ; angles subob- 
tuse ; above deusely punctulate ; a profound impression each side of the middle 
at base : scutellum subtriangular, impunctured : elytra punctate-striate, the 
interstices flat, very minutely and obsoletely punctured : beneath black, some- 
what piceous ; two terminal abdominal segments impunctured : feet dark rufo- 
piceous. 

Tenebrionidee, Steph. 

Hypophlceus, Fabr. 

1. H. nilidus. Castaneous ; feet rufous. 3 1. long ; 1. wide. Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Hypophlcem nilidus, Melsh. Catal. 

Cylindric, dark chestnut-red, shining ; head deeply punctulate, bitransversely 
impressed : antennae color of the thorax, with the tip and mouth rufous : thorax 



May, 1846.] 63 

convex, oblong-quadrate, slightly narrowed posteriorly, with the sides almost 
rectilinear and finely margined ; truncate before and behind ; surface numerously 
yet not densely punctulate ; posterior edge depressed ; scutellum transverse, 
coarsely punctured : elytra cylindric, with the sides parallel ; somewhat obso- 
letely punctulate, punctures placed in series : feet lighter than the body beneath. 

2. H. parallelus. Ferruginous-red, shining ; feet paler. II 1. long. Penn- 
sylvania. 

Parallel moderately convex, rusty-red, shining, very minutely punctured 
and wrinkled ; head bi-transversely impressed, the anterior impression is 
profound, and between the antennae and the eyes, the posterior one is slight 
and betweeu the eyes, which are black ; antenna? color of the head or slightly 
paler ; thorax quadrate, truncate behind, slightly bisinuate in front, with the 
sides rectilinear and almost parallel ; hind angles rounded, anterior ones promi- 
nent, acute ; margined : scutellum transverse, elyti-a obscurelypunctulate with 
the punctures ranged in regular and approximate series : feet rufo-testaceous. 

3. H. thoracicus. Rufous ; elytra black. 1 1. long. Pennsylvania. 
Hypophlaus thoracicus, Melsh. Catal. 

Rufous, shining : head obscurely rugose-punctulate, with a transverse 
impressed line between the antennse ; an obsolete impression between the 
eyes ; mouth and antennae, testaceous-yellow : thorax subquadrate, posteriorly 
slightly narrowed, with the sides almost rectilinear ; anterior and posterior 
edges truncate, with the angles subobtuse ; surface finely, profoundly and 
distantly punctured ; a small shallow longitudinal impression on the middle 
of each of the lateral margins : scutellum, black, transverse : elytra hardly 
more than twice as long as the thorax, black, with the suture narrowly and 
obsoletely rufous ; cylindric ; very minutely and distantly punctured, punctures 
scarcely ranged in series, and at apex obsolete ; abdomen dusky, tinged with 
rufous : feet and pectus rufous. 

4. H. 1 niger. Black ; feet castaneous ; elytra punctate-striate. 4.1-5 1. 
long ; 1-1 \ 1. wide. Pennsylvania. 

Ilypophloeus castaneus, Melsh. Catal. 

Elongate, cylindric, rather deep black, glossy : head subtriangular, flattened 
and impressed in the middle, distinctly, deeply and distantly punctured ; 
mandibles robust, prominent, and with a strong tooth at tip; eyes orbiculate, 
plane, antenna? piceous, hardly longer than the head, with the clava three 
jointed, compressed, serrate on one side, basal joint and palpi dark rufo-piceous, 
the latter filiform ; thorax longer than wide, wider at apex than at base, with 
sides almost straight and finely margined ; basal middle almost truncate, with 
the basal lateral third slightly obliquely truncate ; apex slightly tri-emarginate ; 
angles subacute ; surface punctured as the head ; scutellum large, sparsely 
punctured and rounded at apex : elytra remote from the thorax, as wide as 
the base of thorax, with the sides parallel to near the apex ; deeply striate, 
with edges of the stria? crenate, the interstics rather convex, eacli with a row 
of minute, oblong, distant punctures : beneath blackish, or dark-chestnut ; 
the femora chestnut-red ; the tibia? and tarsi blackish ; the latter pentamerous ; 
the former compressed, and dilated towards the tip, and spinous on the outer edge. 
5. H. ? nigellus. Dark reddish-brown ; femora chestnut-red. 31. long; \ 1. 
wide. Pennsylvania. 



64 [May, 1846. 

Hypophlaus nigellus, Welsh. MS. 

Form entirely of the preceding, blackish, strongly tinged with reddish-brown : 
head not longitudinally indented in the middle, formed and punctured as in 
the preceding : eyes, palpi and antenna? as in the preceding : outlines of the 
thorax as in the preceding, with the punctures much more dense : scutellum 
and elytra formed and sculptured as in the preceding ; beneath and feet 
entirely as in the preceding. 

6. H. ? teres. Castaneous. 2 1. long ; J 1. wide. Pennsylvania. 
Hypophlaus teres, Melsh. MS. 

Form of the two preceding species, chestnut-red : head formed as in the 
preceding, and similarly punctured, with an obsolete impi-essed line between 
the eyes, which are as in the preceding ; mandibles formed as in the preceding, 
piceous ; antennae and palpi rufous ; outlines of the thorax as in the preceding, 
the punctuation as in that of niger : elytra cylindric, slightly narrowed from 
the base towards the apex, not as wide at base as the apex of the thorax ; 
sculptured as in the two preceding : beneath and feet dark rufo-piceous ; form 
of the tibia? and tarsi as in the preceding species. The three last described 
species cannot with any propriety remain in this genus ; they are more fitly 
placed in the genus Trogosita. 

Ulojia, Megerle. 

1. U. impressa. Castaneous ; head and thorax profoundly impressed. 5 1. 
long ; 2 1. wide. Pennsylvania. 

Tenebrio impressus, Melsh. Catal. 

Subparallel, chestnut-brown, glossy: head much and strongly punctured, 
flattened, with a profound lunate impression before, behind which is a narrow 
transverse indented line, joined to the former by a short medial indentation ; 
antenna? dark rufo-piceous, clothed with yellowish pile; palpi testaceous: 
thorax transverse, plano-convex, widest in the middle, where it is wid<>r than 
the base of the elytra, strongly emarginate in front, slightly waved behind, 
with the sides obtusely rounded, and finely margined ; angles subobtuse ; 
surface minutely and densely punctured, strongly and irregularly impressed on 
the middle of the anterior margin ; a small obtuse indentation in front of scutel, 
and frequently an obsolete one on each hind angle ; scutel rounded at apex ; 
elytra moderately convex, with sides almost parallel and straight, very slightly 
widest in front of the apical curve ; crenate-striate, the interstices impunctured ; 
feet and beneath somewhat darker than above, with the femora lighter and 
clearer. Distinct from the culinaris, Fabr., but resembles retusa, Fabr., in 
size, convexity, and impression of the middle of the anterior thoracic margin ; 
from which, however, it differs in other essential characters. 

2. TJ. picea. Blackish-piceous above ; feet castaneous ; elytra narrowed at 
tip. 3\ 1. long; 1 1. wide. Pennsylvania. 

Tenebrio piceus, Melsh. Catal. 

Ovate, blackish, tinged with reddish-brown, picous : head finely mgose- 
pnnctured ; slightly convex and hardly transversely indented, between the eyes 
and antenn:e, anteriorly obtusely rounded ; month and palpi testaceous-yellow ; 
antenna* rathermore slenderthanis common, pale In-own, with two nasal joints 
and tip of the terminal one paler: thorax transversly subquadrate, slightly 



May, 1846.] 65 

emarginate in front, feebly bisinuate behind, with the sides slightly rounded ; 
very slightly widest before the middle ; above moderately convex, densely 
punctulate ; an obtuse impression each side of the middle towards the base, and 
another obsolete one on each area of the bind angles ; anterior edge rufo-pice- 
ous: scutellum rufo-piceous : elytra convex, widest in the middle, narrowed to 
the tip, which is acutely rounded; crenate-striate, the interstices flat and scarce- 
ly punctulate ; the fourth and fifth striae abbreviated and confluent near the 
apical third : beneath strongly punctured, dark reddish-brown-piceous ; feet 
dark rufous, glossy. The antennae sometimes testaceous. 

Iphthinus, Dej. 

I. areus. Black-brassy above ; beneath and feet simply deep black ; femora 
strongly clavate. 1$ 1. long ; 2f 1. wide. Pennsylvania. 

Tenebrio cereus, Melsh. Catal. 

Black, with a greenish brassy tinge, shining : head opake, hardly convex, 
densely and finely punctured or granulate, obtusely rounded in front ; mouth 
and palpi piceous ; antennae blackish-piceous ? first joint short, clavate, second 
shorter, obconic, third longest, subcylindric, the three following ones decreasing 
in length, obconic, the four penultimate joints transverse, subglobular, terminal 
joint short ovate, dull ferruginous : thorax transverse quadrate, moderately con- 
vex, truncate before and bisinuate behind, where it is narrower than before the 
middle ; sides slightly rounded to near the posterior contraction ; posterior 
angles rectilinear, anterior ones obtusely rounded ; distinctly margined ; surface 
irregularly and sparsely punctured, strongly indented behind towards the hind 
angles ; a small impression in front of the scutellum ; medial line obsolete and 
punctulate ; anterior edge slightly elevated iu the middle : scutellum triangular, 
impunctured : elytra wider than the thorax, convex, rather more strongly so 
behind the middle, where it is also somewhat wider than before; shining, finely 
crenate-striate, the interstices broad, minutely and very obscurely punctured ; 
the fourth, fifth and sixth spaces confluent near the apical third, leaving the 
two intermediate lines unconnected ; tips widely and very obtusely sinuate, 
conjointly acutely rounded : beneath and feet deep black, glossy, with the fe- 
mora strongly clavate towards their tips ; anterior tibiae simple, curved. This 
species may prove to be the Helops americanus of Pal. de Beauvois, Ins. p. 122, 
pi. 30, fig. 6. The antennae of the present specimen, and the only one in my 
collection, are entirely coated with a gummy substance, in consequence of 
which its true color cannot be determined. 

Blapstinus, Dej. 

1. B. mcestus. Black ; feet slightly paler. 2 1. long ; 1 1. wide. Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Oblong-suboval, black : head strongly punctate, with a feeble arcuated im- 
pression between the antennae ; clypeus slightly emarginate at apex ; antennae 
blackish, with the second and fifth joints equal ; third joint longest ; joints of 
the clava transverse, with the apical one short-ovate ; palpi piceous-black : 
thorax transverse, emarginate in front, bisinuate behind, rather wider at base 
than at apex, with the sides slightly rounded and finely margined ; angles sub- 

10 



66 [May, 1846. 

acute ; surface profoundly and rather densely punctulate ; each side of the 
middle with an obsolete basal impression : scutellum small, transverse, rounded 
at tip: elytra punctate-striate, the interstices flat, minutely and distantly punc- 
tured : beneath glossy ; femora tinged with reddish-brown, piceous ; tibiae and 
tarsi paler, piceous. 

2. B. ceneolus. Black-brassy ; feet as in the preceding. Pennsylvania. 

Slightly shorter and narrower than the preceding, which it much resembles, 
but it differs from that species, apart of being somewhat shorter and distinctly 
narrower, and of its brassy color, in having the thorax shorter and more pro- 
foundly emarginate in front, and more strongly bisinuate behind ; in the elytra 
being less profoundly punctate-striate, and the interstices more convex, and 
less, and more obscurely punctulate. 

To be continued. 



The Committee to whom was referred the following paper 
by Mr. Phillips, read 13th of January last, reported in favor of 
publication. 

Description of a Neiu Fresh-water Shell, and Observations on 

Grlandina obtusa, Ffeif. 

By John S. Phillips. 

Physa princeps. Testa elongata conica, luteo vel griseo cornea, 
nitida, lineis albis interrupts longitudinalibus picta ; anfractibus 
5 6-subconvexis ; suturis appressis distinctis ; apice acuto ; 
apertura elongata ; plica columellari obsoleta. 

Shell elongated, conic, yellow or grey horn color, highly 
polished, with white, somewhat interrupted lines of growth fol- 
lowing the marks of growth ; whorls 5 6, slightly convex ; su- 
tures appressed distinct ; spire conic ; apex acute ; aperture elon- 
gated, regularly rounded below, acutely angular above, columellar 
fold obsolete. 

Length 1^-, breadth 5jL , length of aperture ^5 of an inch. 

See plate I, fig. 11, in No. 1. 

This beautiful Physa was brought from Yucatan, Central 
America, by my friend Mr. Norman, the enterprising traveller 
and author of " Rambles in Yucatan," &c. 

Among other species brought by Mr. Norman from Yucatan, 
were some specimens of a Glandina, of which I have found no 
description that would at all apply, except that of G. obtusa, Pfeif., 
from Nicaragua, (Proceedings of the Lond. Zool. Soc, 1845.) 



May, 1846.] 67 

If this species from Yucatan be the G. obtusa, Dr. Pfeiffer has 
described a young shell, the dimensions of the Nicaragua shell 
being, length 9| lines, diameter 5 lines ; last whorl rather longer 
than spire of the Yucatan shell ; d. 14 lines ; diameter 5^ lines ; 
aperture 5J lines. The character of the surface in Gr. obtusa is 
not noticed. The specimens from Yucatan are minutely striated 
longitudinally,thestria3 the strongest near the sutures and becoming 
"weaker towards the aperture ; these striae are crossed by very 
minute revolving lines, giving the shell under a good glass a 
slightly granular aspect. The Gr. obtusa is described as " ovata 
utrinque attenuata ;" these adult shells have the two last whorls 
almost cylindrical. 

See plate 1, fig. 33, in No. 1. 

Should it prove to be distinct from the Nicaragua species, I 
would propose the name of 

G-landina (Achatina) cylindracea. Testa sub-cylindracea, apice 
obtusa, solidula, pellucida, pallidissime carnea, longitudinaliter 
tenue striata, striis decussatis lineis exilissimis, anfractibus 7, vix 
convexiusculis ; sutura crenulata, apertura mediocre, spira bre- 
viore ; columella basi contorta, et subito truncata ; peristomate 
simplici ; marginibus callo tenuissimo vix junctis ; dextro medio 
non dilatato. 

Length 1 *1 diameter i!L , length of aperture 51. 

100 100 ' & r 100 

Shell subcylindrical, apex obtuse, moderately thick, pellucid, 
very pale flesh color, finely striated longitudinally, the striae 
crossed by very minute lines ; whorls 7, slightly convex ; suture 
crenulate ; aperture moderate, shorter than the spire ; columella 
curved at the base, and suddenly truncated ; outer lip thin ; not 
dilated in the middle; inner lip scarcely covered by a slight callus. 



The Monthly Report of the Corresponding Secretary was read 
and adopted. 

On motion of Prof. Johnson : Resolved, That a copy of Har- 
lan's Med. and Phys. Researches be presented to the Essex Co. 

(Mass.) Nat, Hist. Society. 



68 [June, 1846. 

Stated Meeting, June 2, 1846. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Annales des Mines. 4 me - Serie, Tome 7, Livs. 1, 2 and 3 de 1845, 
and Tome 8, Liv. 4 de 1845. In exchange. 

Proceedings of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Vol. 1, 
No. 4. From the Society. 

Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History. April, 
1846. From the Society. 

The Literary Record and Journal of the Linnean Association of 

Pennsylvania College. Vol. 2, No. 7. From the Associa- 
tion. 

Fifty-ninth Annual Report of the Regents of the University of 
the State of New York. Albany, 1846. From the Regents. 

Dr. Elwyn presented a large number of "works, chiefly on subjects 
of Natural Science, originally forming part of the collection 
of the late Dr. James Mease. 



A letter was read from Win. M. Baird, Esq., dated Reading, 
June 1st, 1846, acknowledging the receipt of his notice of elec- 
tion as a Correspondent. 

Dr. Leidy read a paper intended for publication, entitled 
"Anatomy of Spectrum femoratum, Say," with numerous 
drawings, representing the different parts and organs of the 
insect. Referred to Mr. Haldeman, Drs. Hallowell and God- 
dard. 

Dr. Morton presented a letter from M. Lamarepicquot, a 
French naturalist, who has established his residence on the 
Upper Mississippi, with the view of investigating the habits, 
&c, of the Mammiferse of that region. The letter was ad- 
dressed to F. Markoe, Jr., Esq., Corresponding Secretary of 
the National Institute, and by him referred to the Academy 
through Dr. Morton, with a request to examine into the state- 



June, 1846.] 69 

merits which it contained. These were in reference to a discov- 
ery made by the writer and supposed by him to be new, of three 
distinct excretory passages, a urethral, a vaginal, and an anal, 
in the female Gopher, (Geomys bursarius ?) A number of speci- 
ments had been examined, and this peculiar conformation found 
to be constant. 



Stated Meeting, June 9, 1846. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

A large collection of minerals, chiefly from New Hampshire, 
Presented by Dr. Elwyn. 

Mr. Hodge, of Philadelphia, deposited in the Hall a perfect 
Egyptian mummy, enclosed in its original Sarcophagus, from 
Catacombs of Thebes. 

Dr. Morton deposited two Indian crania from mounds in the 
vicinity of Chilicothe, Ohio, presented to him by Dr. Davis and 
Mr. Squier of that city ; and two others from mounds in Bun- 
combe Co., N. Carolina, from Dr. Hardy, of Ashville in that 
State. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Notice sur l'Eurypterus de Podolie, et le Chirotherium de 

Livonie, par G. Fischer de Waldheim. From Mrs. L. W. 

Say. 
A portion of the Plates of Blainville's Malacology. From 

the same. 
Carte Geognostique des districts de Mines de l'Etat de 

Mexico : par Frederick cle Gerolt et Charles de Berghes : 

with a pamphlet explanatory of the same. From Baron 

Gerolt. 
Dr. Elwyn presented an additional collection of works from 

the Library of the late Dr. James Mease, including 31 Nos. 

of the Bulletin de la Societe Geographique : 7 Nos. of Til- 



70 [June, 1846. 

loch's London Philosophical Magazine and Journal, Transac- 
tions of the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec, Vol. 
3, Part 2 ; First Supplement to the Philadelphia Med. and 
Phys. Journal, by Benj. Smith Barton, M. D., and a num- 
ber of addresses, memoirs, lectures, &c, chiefly on subjects 
of Natural Science. 



Dr. Morton made some remarks on the position of the ear in 
the ancient Egyptians. 



Stated Meeting, June 23, 1846. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

A collection of organic remains, reptilia, and fresh water shells. 
Presented by Dr. William Blanding. 

A collection of Reptilia and fishes from Western Africa. Pre- 
sented by Dr. Blanding and S. S. Haldeman. 

Specimen, in skin, of Mustela , from East Tennessee. 

Presented by Mr. Haldeman. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Statisque de l'Espagne : par Alex. Moreau de Jonnes. Paris, 
1834. Statisque de la Grand-Bretagne et de 1' Irian de : par 
Alex. Moreau de Jonnes. 2 vols. Paris, 1837 and 1838. 
Recherches statisques sur l'esclavage Colonial et sur les 
moyens de le supprimer : par Alex. Moreau de Jonnes. Paris, 
1842. From the Author. 

Lexicon Physico-Medicum, or a new Medicinal Dictionary. 
Auctore J. Quincy. Taken from the British at the storming 
of Stoney Point, July 16th, 1770.) From Collinson Steven- 
son, M. D. 

Geological Survey of Canada ; Report of Progress for 1844. 
Montreal, 1846. From Richard C. Taylor, Esq. 



June, 1846.] 71 

A letter was read from H. Meigs, Esq., Secretary of the 
local committee of the Association of American Geologists and 
Naturalists, dated New York, June 5, 1846, transmitting a 
number of printed circulars of that Association for distribution 
among the members of the Academy. 

A letter from M. Alex. Moreau de Jonnes was read, accom- 
panying his works presented this evening. 

Mr. Haldeman read a description of Unio abacoides, a new 
species, which being intended for publication, was referred to a 
committee consisting of Dr. Hallowell, Mr. Phillips and Mr. 
Conrad. 

Mr. Fisher made some remarks on the comparative ra- 
pidity of growth of plants at different periods of their exist- 
ence. 

Dr. Leidy exhibited recent leaves of the common Elm, (Ulmus 
fulva,) each having on the upper surface several large pyriform 
excrescences, which were hollow and impervious, and contained 
multitudes of Aphides in different stages of development, from 
the larva to the perfect insect. 

Dr. Morton made some observations on the occasional union 
or continuation of the spheno-temporal and coronal sutures in 
the human subject. He finds it frequent in the Negro, occasional 
in the Hindoo, Egyptian and aboriginal American, but has found 
no instances of it in the European. He proposes to continue 
his observations, and to present the precise results at a future 
meeting of the Society. 

Dr. Morton also exhibited casts of some remarkable human 
effigies, and other relics taken from Indian mounds in the vicinity 
of Chilicothe, Ohio, by Dr. Davis and Mr. Squier, of that 
city. 



Meeting for Business, June 80, 1846. 

Vice President Wetherill in the Chair. 

The Committee on Dr. Leidy's paper on the Anatomy of 
Bradypus tridactylus, reported in favor of publication. 



72 [June, 1846. 



Remarks upon the Anatomy of the Abdominal Viscera of the Sloth, Bradypus 

tridactylus, Linn. 

By Joseph Leidt, M. D. 

A living specimen of the three-toed sloth, which was lately brought to this 
city from South America, having died a short time since, I have been enabled, 
through the kindness of Mr. Wood, preparer of specimens in natural history, 
to procure the greater part of the abdominal viscera and the uterus. 

Descriptions of the anatomy of this animal have been given by several authors, 
but unfortunately not without a great deal of discrepancy in the statement of 
the simplest matters of fact, which I cannot account for in any other way than 
by suspecting several species to have been indiscriminately described as the 
same. Such cases of discrepancy are by no means unfrequent in Zootomy, 
arising, no doubt, in many cases, from the too exclusive attention in tbe 
preparation and preservation of the exterior, to the careless examination, or 
even total neglect of the interior. 

Regretting exceedingly that I have not been able to extend my observations 
to the whole anatomy of the animal, I must be content to give a few cursory 
remarks upon the material obtained, which I proceed to do at once. 

The stomach, according to Cuvier, in his Regne Animal, Tome I. p. 217, 
"is divided into four sacks analogous enough to the four stomachs of the 
ruminantia, but without folds or other salient parts in the interior/' Dr. 
Harlan,* in his account of the anatomy of this animal, writes, "the stomach 
consists of a large paunch, in no way furnished with compartments like that 
of the ruminantia, as is asserted by Buffon, who also errs in attributing 
ruminating faculties to the animal ; but this organ presents a structure differing 
from that of any other animal with which we are familiar, being furnished 
with numerous, long, conical cul-de-sacs." 

The specimen of the stomach which I have investigated agrees with the 
account, so far as it goes, of Cuvier. Taken as a whole, this organ is irregular 
in shape, large, capacious, and sacculated. It is evidently divided into four 
compartments, or distinct portions, by contractions, partitions, and difference 
of structure. The first compartment is the largest and corresponds to the paunch 
of the ruminantia ; it is separated from the second compartment by a well marked 
and prominent ridge, is lined by a soft mucous membrane, having in it nu- 
merous follicles of a large size, is, comparatively with the other portions, thin in 
its parietes, and has projecting upwards from it, possessing the same structure, 
a " long, conical cul-de-sac, " the only one found in connection with the stomach 
in this specimen. The second and third compartments are next in size, and 
are separated from each other by a partition of the same structure projecting 
from each side of the cavity of the organ. The oesophagus opens into the 
second compartment, but as it was cut off close to the stomach I am unable to 
say anything about it. The lining mucous membrane of these two latter com- 
partments presents a rigid, rough and thick epithelia, surface resembling in 

Observations on the Anatomy of the Sloth, Bradypus tridactylus* Linn. Medical 
and Physical Researches, p. 544. Philadelphia, 1836, 



June, 1846.] 73 

structure the cuticular lining of the gizzard of birds. A deep fold of the lining 
and intermediate or muscular membrane passes from the left of the opening of 
the oesophagus into the second compartment, transversely along the side of the 
third compartment into the fourth, being somewhat analogous to the arrange- 
ment in the ruminantia for conducting the ruminated food into the fourth 
stomach. The fourth compartment is narrow and intestiniform ; the muscu- 
lar tunic at its inferior half obtains a sudden increase, being extremely thick 
and strong. The internal surface at the commencement presents a patch of 
soft mucous membrane extending about two-thirds round the circumference of 
the cavity, and about an inch in width, and is surrounded by an abrupt, thick- 
ened, and papillated ridge of the epithelial structure, giving it somewhat the ap- 
pearance of an excavated ulcer. The remaining part of the surface is formed 
of the same epithelial structure as in the second and third compartments, but is 
thicker, and is thrown into numerous transverse and longitudinal folds, and has 
at its commencement several large and deep follicles, with mouths from one to 
two lines in diameter. The pylorus is small, and presents no valvular arrange- 
ment, but is capable of being perfectly closed by the agency of the very thick 
muscular tunic and the approach of the internal longitudinal folds. 

The duodenum comes off from the stomach by a very abrupt thinning in 
structure. Its lining mucous membrane is soft and villous, but has no valvule 
conniventes. The openings of the hepatic and pancreatic ducts into it are 
about one inch apart. 

The other part of the small intestine is, comparatively, rather short, and 
appears to be pretty uniform in diameter, although it has a gradual increase 
downwards, being the reverse in this point in man and some other animals. 
The muscular coat of the small intestine is rather thin; the mucous coat pre- 
sents a structure like that of the duodenum. 

The distinction between the small intestine and colon is pretty well marked 
but the latter does not extend beyond the former to a sufficient degree to form 
a ccecum. The commencement of the colon is about ten lines in diameter, but 
decreases as it passes forwards or ascends, until at its anterior part, the diameter 
is less than that of the small intestine ; it gradually increases again as it de- 
scends, until it emerges in the extremely dilated rectum. It is not at all saccu- 
lated, which appears to have been otherwise the case in Dr. Harlan's specimen. 

The liver is formed of large acini, is very little lobulated, and has no gall 
bladder. 

The pancreas and spleen present nothing of interest. 

The kidnies are small, and present internally but a single papilla renalis pro- 
jecting into the pelvis of these organs. 

The uterus in this individual is in a pregnant condition, being probably 
about four or six weeks advanced. Its size in this condition is a little more 
than one half that of the unimpregnated adult human uterus, and is pyriform 
in shape. The ovaries are about the size of a coffee-grain, and at one extremi- 
ty are in contact with the uterus. The Fallopian tubes are correspondingly 
short. In structure the uterus is fibro-muscular ; the cavity of the neck is 
lined by a mucous membrane thrown into numerous longitudinal folds. The 
cavity of the body contains a single embryo. The two portions of the mem. 
brana decidua, the reflexa and vera, are combined, forming a thickness of five 

11 



74 



[June, 1846. 



or six lines, and possesses a decided vascularity. The chorion is connected to 
the decidua by its shaggy surface, but an amnion is not distinguishable, being 
probably not yet formed. 

Passing from the sides of the cavity of the chorion, is a delicate cellular tissue, 
filled with a transparent serous fluid, the corpus reticulare, in which the embryo 
is suspended by the duct of the allantois and vessels to the upper part of the 
chorion, at the point where the future placenta is formed. The embryo, in its 
curved position, measures six lines in length, and exhibits the cerebrum, cere- 
bellum, chorda dorsalis, the rudimentary vertebne, ribs, and extremities, and 
the heart, the liver, the stomach and urinary bladder. 

Conceiving the pregnant uterus at this stage to be of more than ordinary 
interest, I present the following figures of the same as it appeared on dissection. 

Fig. 1. 




Fig. 1, Represents the uterus laid open, the size of nature, exhibiting : 1, The 
decidua; 2, The chorion; 3, The corpus reticulare; 4, The embryo. 
Fig. 2. 

Fig. 2, Represents the embryo, twice the size of nature. 

1, The cerebrum; 2, The cerebullum ; 3, The chorda dorsalis; 

>A 4, The rudimentary vertebrae; 5, The ribs; 6, The extremi- 

ties; 7. The heart; 8, The liver ; 9, The stomach; 10, The 




v a urinary bladder. 



June, 1846. ] 7 5 

The Committee on the following description of a new species 
of Unio, by Mr. Haldeman, read at last meeting, reported in 
favor of publication. 

Description of Unio abacoides, a new species. 
By S. S. Haldeman. 

Shell subovate, obtusely and regularly rounded posteriorly, disks 
approximate, chestnut brown and pale green, with green radiating in- 
terrupted capillary lines, and a tendency to form a submedial nodulous 
ridge: primary teeth robust, their inner margin nearly at right angles 
with the short lamellar teeth : pallial and muscular impressions well 
marked : nacre white, roseate posteriorly. 

Length 2|, height 2, diameter 1& inches. 

Allied to U. dromas, Lea, and U. intermedius, Conrad, but is pro- 
portionally longer than either. In its outline and small transverse 
diameter it resembles U. abacus. I am indebted for this interesting 
shell to the liberality of Dr. Foreman, who received it from Eastern 
Tennessee. 



The Monthly Report of the Corresponding Secretary was read 
and adopted. 

The Society then unanimously conferred a Life-Membership 
on Richard C. Taylor, Esq., of this city. 

Dr. Morton offered the following : 

Whereas, Dr. Thomas B. Wilson has purchased the magni- 
ficent collection of Birds called the Rivoli collection, now in 
Paris, embracing 10,000 specimens, mounted and named, and 
Dr. Wilson having expressed a wish that they should be arranged 
in the Hall of the Academy, and his fellow members warmly and 
cordially seconding his proposition, it is hereby 

Resolved, That a committee of five members be appointed to 
devise such additions to the present building as may be necessary 
for this purpose, and to report a plan of the same to the Academy 
without delay. 

The preamble and resolution were unanimously adopted, and 
the Committee appointed to consist of Dr. Morton, Mr. Vaux, 
Dr. Bridges, Mr. Pearsall and Dr. Wilson. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 

OF PHILADELPHIA. 

Vol. 3. JULY AND AUG., 1846. No. 4. 

Stateed Meeting, July 7, 1846. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

The chairman announced that the extensive and valuable 
collection of Fossil organic remains, deposited in the Academy 
by Richard C. Taylor, Esq., had been purchased by Mr. J, 
Price Wetherill and Dr. Thomas B. Wilson, and is now pre- 
sented by them to the Society. 

A full notice of this collection will be found at page 261, 
Vol. 2, of the Proceedings. 

Mr. J. Price Wetherill presented the entire collection of or- 
ganic remains, hitherto, deposited Jby him in the Academy, and 
embracing two distinct series, as follows : 

1. The Steinhaur Collection, which was made in England 
nearly forty years ago by the late Rev. Henry Steinhaur. It 
is particularly rich in fossil plants from the coal basin of York- 
shire, and in Testacea and Zoophytes from the lias, oolitic, 
and cretaceous formations of various parts of Great Britain. 

2. The Clifford Collection, which was made by the late in- 
defatigable Mr. Clifford of Cincinnati, and purchased from his 



78 [July, 1846. 

heirs by Mr. Wetherill. It contains an extensive and beautiful 
series of fossil remains of the Carboniferous deposits of the Val- 
ley of the Mississippi ; together with the skeleton of the Mega- 
lonyx laqueatus of Dr. Harlan, and numerous bones and teeth 
of the Mastodon, Elephant, &c. 

The whole number of specimens is nearly 3000 ; which, 
added to those previously in the Society's possession, and the 
beautiful collection of Mr. Taylor, now the property of the 
Academy, constitute an extensive and most instructive geo- 
logical cabinet. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Some observations on the Ethnography and Archaeology of 
the American Aborigines. Ry Samuel George Morton, M. D. 
New Haven, 1846. From the Author. 

Abhandlungen der Mathem: Physikalischen classe der 
Koeniglich : bayerischen AkademiederWissenschaften. 4to. 
Munchen, 1845. Bulletin der Koenigl : Akademie der Wis- 
senschaften, (from September 17, 1844, to January 7, 
1846.) Almanack do. do. From the Academy. 

Andentungen zur characteristic der organischen libens nach 
seinem auftreten in den verschiedenen erd periodeden. Fes- 
trede gelesen in der offertlichen sitzung der Kgl : bayer: 
Akad : der Wissensch : zu Munchen zer feier ihres sich- 
sund achdzigsten stiftungages au 28 Marz, 1845. Von Dr. 
A. Wagner. From the Anthor. 

American Journal of Science and Arts, second series, Vol. 1. 

No. 4. July, 1846. From the Editors. 
Literary record and Journal of the Linnean Association of 
Pennsylvania College, Vol. 2. No. 9. From the Associa- 
tion. 



A letter was read from William Gourlie, Jr., Esq., dated 
Glasgow, June 2, 1846, acknowledging the receipt of his notice 
of election as a correspondent. 

A communication from Mr. Richard C. Taylor, dated July 
3d, 1846, returning thanks to the Society for the Life-mem- 
bership conferred on him at last meeting. 



July, 1846.] 79 

The Committee appointed at last meeting, to devise such 
additions to the present building as may be necessary for 
accommodating the splendid collection of mounted birds, re- 
cently purchased in Paris by Dr. T. B. Wilson, reported a 
plan, which was adopted ; and on motion of Prof. Johnson it 
was 

Resolved, That the Committee be continued, and that they 
be aiithorised and instructed to carry into effect said plan, as 
submitted by them this evening. 

On motion of Dr. Morton, Resolved, That the thanks of 
this Society be presented to John Price Wetherill, Esq., for 
the extensive and valuable collection of British and American 
Fossils presented by him liiis evening ; a collection which is 
admirably adapted to convey instruction in the most pleasing 
departments of Geological Science, and which is accepted by 
his fellow members as one of many proofs of his regard for 
the interests of this Institution. 



Stated Meeting, July 14, 1846. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

A letter was read from Jacob Tremper, Esq., dated Dresden, 
N. Y. July 6, 1846, containing some general meteorological 
observations made by himself in his vicinity ; and requesting 
the transmission to him of Vols. 1 and 2 of the Proceedings. 

The chairman read an extract of a letter from Mr. Alexan- 
der Maclure, dated, New Harmony, Ind., July 6, 1846, stat- 
ing his intention to transfer to the Academy all his right, title, 
and interest in certain Virginia lands. 

Prof. Johnson read some extracts from a printed copy of a 
bill now before Congress, from -the Library Committee, pro- 
viding for the publication of an additional number of copies of 
the Scientific reports of the late South Sea Exploring Expe- 
dition. 

Prof. Johnson made some remarks in relation to the bill, 



80 [July, 1846. 

and congratulated the Society, on the prospect of a copy being 
soon obtained for its Library. 



Meeting for Business, July 8, 1846. 

Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

The Committee on Dr. Leidy's paper on the Anatomy of 
Spectrum femoratum, Say, reported in favor of publication. 

On the Anatomy of Spectrum femoratum, Say. 
By Joseph Leidy, M. D. 

Spectrum femoratum is one of those singular insects which from their 
appearance, in localities where they are found, are commonly known under 
the name of " Walking Sticks." 

This species was first described by the distinguished naturalist, formerly 
in connection with our Society, Thomas Say, and a description and drawing 
of it will be found in the third volume of his American Entomology. Indi- 
vidual specimens have been found in most parts of the United States, but I 
have not learned of any place where it i3 abundant, excepting in the State 
of Iowa, from whence I obtained my specimens, through Dr. B. J. Kern, 
who informs me they are found in considerable numbers, frequenting high 
bluffs or dry exposed situations, creeping on the ground or on decaying 
timber. 

It belongs to the order Orthoptera, family Mantidas. The male insect 
measures 2 inches 9 lines in length, and one line in breadth ; the female, 
3 inches, 7 lines in length, and 2 lines in breadth at the thorax, and 3J 
lines at the abdomen. 

The head is oval; the eyes are somewhat protuberant. It has no sim- 
ple eyes. The antennae, in the male, are about 2 inches in length ; in the 
female, 1 inches ; setaceous, and numerously jointed, the joints (Fig. 1.) 
being long, oval and hirsute. 

The thorax has three segments, the two posterior of which form full one 
third the length of the whole body. The smallest rudiment of wings does 
not exist. The anterior and posterior pair of legs, in the male, are two 
inches in length, the intermediate pair one and one-half inches ; in the 
female they are all about half an inch shorter. They are narrow, and 
much separated in the walking position. The thighs of the central 
pair of legs in the male are comparatively thick and the thighs of the central 
and posterior pairs, have at their distal extremity an acute projecting 
spine, long in the male, short in the female. The tarsus (Fig. 2.) 
is five jointed, each joint being furnished with stiff hairs and at the under 
part of the distal extremity, a pair of hard, smooth, shining black tuber- 



July, 1846.] 81 

cles. The last joint is armed with two hooked phalanges having placed be- 
neath them a round and thick soft pad. The abdomen has nine segments. 
The last abdominal segment, in both sexe3, is furnished with two short 
eaudal appendages. The external part of the sexual apparatus is articulated 
with the ventral plate of the seventh abdominal segment. 

Of the digestive apparatus. The oral organs are mandibulate or masticatory. 
The labium (Fig.3,) is in fourpieces,two of which are external and one longer 
than the internal. They are somewhat claviculate in shape,have each a black 
spot at the extremity and articulate with the mentum, properly a fifth piece 
to the labium. The labial palpi (Fig. 3, a,) articulate with the mentum, are 
hirsute, and three-jointed, two of the joints being oval and the third lanceo- 
late in shape. The tongue, (Fig. 4.) which is internal as regards the mouth 
and is generally considered to belong to the labium, is fiat from side to side, 
of a curved triangular form, corneous in structure, and ciliate upon its upper 
edge. 

The maxilla? (Fig. 5,) are tridentate and slightly hairy. The maxillay palpi 
(Fig. 5, a.) are five-jointed and hirsute ; the first two joints are subrotund, 
the next two conical, and the last one lanceolate in form. The niandibuke 
(Fig. 6,) are very hard, short, and strong, and present a triangular molar 
surface, with two of the sides raised into trenchant, sharp edges, resembling 
very much a gouge, and well adapted for cutting the harder vegetable sub- 
stances. The labrum (Fig. 7,) is slightly convex and emarginated. The intes- 
tinal canal (Fig. 8,) extends in a straight line, the length of the body, from 
the mouth to the anus, and is broad and capacious throughout. The pharynx 
is almost null. The cesophagus, at first narrow, after a few lines of its course 
almost abruptly dilates into a tube of large calibre, extending nearly one half 
the length of the whole canal, and may be considered in the light of a com- 
bined crop and cesophagus, as it appears to be a receptacle of the food, in 
which the latter undergoes some change preparatory to being received into 
the stomach, and I will, hence, call it the oesophageal crop. (Fig. 8, a.) Its in- 
ferior part (Fig. 9,) becomes contracted in shape like the neck of a Florence 
flask, and projects into the cavity of the stomach. The orifice'opening into 
the stomach is narrow, and has a valve-like appendage connected to its lip. 
The exterior or muscular tunic of the oesophageal crop is thick and strong i 
its transverse fibres are well marked. The epithelium is comparatively 
thick and tightly adherent to its basement membrane. 

Thi3 portion of the alimentary canal I found to be full of coarse particles 
of decaying wood, which I infer to be the food of the animal. 

The stomach (Fig. 8, b.) is about half an inch in length, and of very little 
greater breadth than the preceding receptacle. Its parietes are compara- 
tively thin, and present internally numerous transverse rugae which pass 
from a longitudinal ruga in front to a corresponding one behind. The 
muscular investment is very thin ; the epithelial surface is soft and readily 
separable from the basement membrane, which latter makes up the greater 
part of the thickness of the stomach. 

The duodenum (Fig. 8, c.) is only distinguishable from the stomach by a 
narrowing of its capacity and the disappearance of the ruga?. It presents 
the same structure as the stomach. Its length is about three times that o 



82 July, 1846. 

the latter, and it receives near its middle, where it undergoes a narrow- 
contraction, the biliary vessels. The contained mass of the stomach and 
duodenum has a pultaceous consistence. 

The ilium (Fig. 8, e.) is not more than four lines in length, is exceedingly 
contracted, and opens directly into the rectum. 

The rectum (Fig. 8, f.) is about the same length as the ilium, is mode- 
rately capacious, and has thick musculo-epithelial parities. It presents 
internally several columns or longitudinal folds, which give a columnar 
appearance to the excrement of the animal. The anus opens at the extre- 
mity of the last abdominal segment between the caudal appendages. 

The salivary glands (Fig. 8, g.) two in number, are placed laterally upon 
the anterior part of the oesophageal crop. In structure they are of the 
highest order, being granulated or conglomerate, one of the rarest forms in 
the economy of insect life. Their ducts open into the mouth. 

The biliary vessels (Fig. 8, h. Fig. 11,) are numerous, moderately long, 
and form a double attachment to the duodenum. They are connected at their 
commencement to the external tunic of the duodenum just above the middle, 
in three rows, (Fig. 10,) one below the other, from whence they pass down- 
wards nearly to the termination of the duodenum, then doubling upon them- 
selves, running forwards, they finally form the connection of entry about 
the middle of the duodenum, at the contraction before mentioned, (Fig. 11.) 
When highly magnified, they present a structure of basement membrane 
filled interiorly with organic nuclei and cells, (Fig. 12.) 

The Generative apparatus. In the female: The ovaries (Fig. 8, i.) two in 
number, are placed within the abdomen on each side of the duodenum, and 
are about 18 lines in length. Each ovary consists of numerous ovigerous 
tubes (Fig. 13, a.) 4 or 5 lines in length, which commence very narrow, gra- 
dually dilate, and join a common tube, the oviduct. The ovigerous tube 
contain ova in various stages of development, from a mere point at their 
commencement to the fully formed ovum at their termination. The perfected 
ova measure l lines in length, are oval and smooth. The oviducts (Fig. 
8, j, Fig. 13, b.) are narrower and pass backwards and join each other be- 
neath the ileum to form a common canal, the vagina. The vagina (Fig. 
13, c.) is 2 lines long, its external orifice is placed between an oval ventral 
plate (Fig. 13, d. Fig. 14, a.) articulating with the extremity of the ventral 
plate of the sixth abdominal segment, and an upper convex plate provided 
with four curved and pointed forceps, (Fig. 13, e.) articulating with the 
seventh abdominal segment, which probably acts the part of an ovipositor. 

In the male, the genitalia are very simple. The testes (Fig. 15, a.) consist 
of a pair of comparatively thick and short tubes, forming each a single con- 
volution, and joining each other beneath the ilium to form the ductus ejacu- 
latorious (Fig. 15, b.) which proceeds to the penis. The penis (Fig. 15, c.) 
is external to the body, and is placed below the eighth abdominal segment, 
but articulates with the seventh. It is short, semi-oval in form, with a short 
pointed process behind, is enveloped by chitinous membrane, and is received 
in a calx (Fig. 15, d.) formed of chitine, which articulates with a small con- 
vex segment attached to the ventral plate of the seventh abdominal segment. 



July, 1846. 83 

The Nervous system. The cerebrum (Fig. 17, a.) placed above the oeso- 
phagus, in form is like two pyriform bodies placed side by side, with the 
apices anterior and divergent to the base of the antennae. From the most 
anterior part of each lateral mass passes off the antennal nerve, (Fig. 17 b.) 
and from the external side, just posterior to the latter, the optic nerve, (Fig. 
17, c.) From the base of the optic nerve and the cerebrum immediately pos- 
terior proceed two small branches, which unite to form a single cord, the 
analogue of the sympathetic nerve (Fig. 17, d.) which passes backwards along 
the side of the oesophageal crop, to which, after dividing into two principal 
branches, it is ultimately distributed by numerous minute twigs. Antero-in- 
feriorly the cerebrum sends off two branches which pass forwards, unite, and 
form the frontal ganglion (Fig. 17, e.) from which proceeds backwards, be- 
neath the cerebrum, a single cord running along the upper surface of the oeso- 
phageal crop nearly to its termination. These two latter branches, the frontal 
ganglion, and the single resulting cord, constitutes the nervus recurrens, or 
nervus vagus, (Fig. 17, f.) The nervus vagus, after passing the cerebrum, 
forms a small swelling, which gives off minute ramuscles to the salivary 
glands and neighboring part of the oesophageal crop. It also forms a gang- 
lion (Fig. 17, g.) of moderate size upon the lower part of the oesophageal 
crop, from which proceed six principal nerves to be distributed to the oeso- 
phageal crop and stomach. 

The ventral cord consists of a chain of eleven ganglia, connected in their 
length by a double commissure. 

The first of this chain, the cerebellum, (Fig. 17, i.) is a cordiform gang- 
lion situated beneath the commencement of the oesophagus, and connected 
to the cerebrum by its appropriate commissures, gives off the mandibulary, 
maxillary, and labial nerves. 

The three following ganglia are the thoracic ganglia, (Fig. 18, a.) the 
first of which is simple, the two others double. These give off nerves both 
to the extremities and to the neighboring parts. 

The seven remaining ganglia are the abdominal. (Fig. 18, b.) They are 
all single and give off numerous minute ramuscles in their vicinity. 

Explanations of the figures. 

Fig. 1. Fart of one of the antenna* of spectrum femoratum, highly magnified. 

Fig. 2. Tarsus of do., magnified. 

Fig. 3. The labium, magnified; a, the labial palpi. 

Fig. 4. The tongue, magnified. 

Fig. 5. The right maxilla and palpus, (a,) magnified. 

Fig. 6. The right mandibula, magnified. 

Fig. 7. The labrum, magnified. 

Fig. 8. The intestinal canal, &c, of the female, the size of nature ; a, oeso- 
phageal crop; b, stomach; c, duodenum ; e, ileum , f, rectum; g, salivary 
glands ; h, biliary vessels ; i, ovaries ; j, oviducts ; k, an ovum in its pas- 
sage down the oviduct ; 1, inferior ganglion of the nervus vagus. 

Fig. 9. The inferior portion of the oesophageal crop and stomach laid open. 

Fig. 10. Shows the connection of the commencement of the biliary vessels 
with the duodenum. 

Fig. 11. Biliary vessels and place of opening into the duodenum. 

Fig. 12. Portion of a biliary tube, highly magnified. 



84 July, 1846. 

Fig. 13. Lower part of the female generative v apparatus ; a, an ovigerous 
tube containing ova ; b, lower part of the oviducts; c, vagina; d, oval 
ventral plate ; e, upper plate. 

Fig. 14. The posterior four segments of the abdomen of the female; a, 
oval ventral plate ; b, upper plate. 

Fig. 15. Genitalia of the male, magnified; a, testus ; b, ductus ejacula- 
torius ; c,- penis ; d, calyx. 

Fig. 16. The posterior five segments of the abdomen of the male. 

Fig. 17. Magnified view of the cerebrum and cerebellum ; a, cerebrum ; b, 
antennal nerve ; c, optic nerve ; d, sympathetic nerve ; e, frontal ganglion ; 
f, nervus vagus; g, ganglion at the termination of the nervus vagus ; i, cere- 
bellum. 

Fig. 18. Magnified ; a, thoracic ganglia of the ventral cord ; b, abdominal 
ganglia. 



The Committee on Dr. Hallowell's paper on the Anatomy 
of Harpyia destructor, reported in favor of publication. 

On the Anatomy of Harpyia destructor, Cuv., or Harpy Eagle of South 

America. 

By Edward Hallowell, M. D. 

The animal from which the following description was taken, died in one 
of the menageries of Philadelphia of a tuberculous affection of the lungs. 
It is remarkable for the great development of the lower extremities, which 
are sufficiently powerful to enable it to carry off a goat with facility. It is 
even stated that it has the power to carry off the dead body of a man, but 
such accounts are evidently fabulous. It is said to be solitary and to feed 
upon sloths and other small quadrupeds. 

Vertelrce. There are 13 cervical vertebras. The bodies of the four first are 
quite short; the seventh measures six and a half lines in depth upon its ante- 
rior face; the transverse processes attached to the anterior extremities of these 
vertebrae are well characterized, the longest being 4 lines in length; a small 
tubercle exists at the base, at the inner margin of the process in the sixth, 
seventh, eighth and ninth. Inferior spinous processes are observed in the first, 
second, fourth and fifth, and from the eleventh to the last; the superior spinous 
processes are well marked in the second, third, fourth and fifth, and in the 
tenth, eleventh twelfth and thirteenth ; the superior spinous process of the 
thirteenth is square, and resembles that of the first dorsal, except that its 
breadth is not so great. There are inferior spinous processes to the five 
first dorsal ; and there is a rudiment of one attached to the sixth ; those 
attached to the third, fourth and fifth are the longest; the middle one 
of these three is broader at its base than either of the others ; the inferior 
spinous processes of the caudal vertebrae are five in number ; a complete 
foramen for the transmission of an artery exists in each of the four pos- 
terior ; in the first it is not observed ; the bony processes passing from 
one transverse process to another are well defined, but there is no 



July, 1846.] 85 

anchylosis ; there are no spines or processes attached to the anterior face 
of the lurabo-sacral bone ; a slight ridge exists near its posterior extremity; 
the fourth and fifth transverse processes of the caudal vertebrae are more 
developed than either of the others ; transverse processes are observed in 
all bat the two last ; the dorsal spinous process of the penultimate vertebra 
is well characterized ; none of the caudal vertebr e are truly anchylosed ; 
there are eight caudal vertebras and nine dorsal ; the vertebrae present nu- 
numerous foramina for the transmission of air ; the spinous processes of the 
dorsal vertebne are all separated ; none of their bodies are truly anchylosed. 
The keel of the sternum is well developed ; there are no notches in the pos- 
terior border ; near its extremity are two large foramina, eleven lines in 
length, which extend to within two and a half lines of the posterior margin ; 
the coracoid bones are remarkably strong and powerful, being greatly ex- 
panded at their base ; the furcula is separated from the sternum a distance of 
nearly half an inch. The scapula and clavicles present nothing remarkable 
in their conformation ; there are eight ribs, two of which appear to be want- 
ing, the pits for their reception being alone observed ; the six which exist are 
attached to the sterno-costal bones ; there are caudal appendages to the 
second, third, fourth and fifth; that of the second meets the anterior margin of 
the fourth about its middle ; none of the ribs are anchylosed with the pelvis. 

Cranium. The foramen magnum is nearly horizontal ; two well marked de- 
pressions exist upon the posterior and inferior aspect of the occipital bone ; 
between them is a small ridge four lines in length ; it is very narrow, pre- 
senting a marked contrast in this respect with the ridge in the same part 
in the grey vulture of Africa which measures half an inch in breadth ; the 
supraorbitar and lachrymal bones are of nearly equal length ; the former 
is rounded at its posterior extremity where it presents a broad expansion, 
the corresponding part of this bone in the grey African vulture terminates 
in a point ; that part of the skull immediately above these depressions is 
much flattened ; the ossa communicantia are seven lines in length and of 
moderate thickness. The opening for the nostrils is four lines in breadth ; 
the posterior extremity of the lower jaw does not project beyond the up- 
per ; the cranium presents generally a smooth surface exteriorly. 

Anterior Extremities. The numerous is well developed. On its internal 
aspect is a well marked ridge, presenting a broad and somewhat rough 
surface, incliaing backwards, beneath which is the hole for the transmis- 
sion of air ; the humerus immediately below this is compressed laterally, 
having a triangular form ; it is concave near its inferior extremity pos- 
teriorly, and convex in front; the middle of the bone is smooth and 
rounded ; the inferior articulating surface presents two oblong convexities 
for articulation with the bones of the forearm, with a narrow fossa be- 
tween them ; there is but one carpal bone in the subject under examination, 
but there is clearly a smooth articulating surface for another ; the radius is a 
long and slender bone, having about one half the diameter of the ulna ; there 
are two small ridges upon its distal extremity; the ulna has a well marked ole- 
cranon process; the metacarpal bone corresponding with the radius has three 



86 [[July, 1846. 

times the breadth of the bone opposite, at its middle ; there are two pha- 
langes to the radial finger ; the ulnar phalanx is a slender styhforni ap- 
pendage pointed inferiorly. 

The pelvis is narrow in front, broad posteriorly ; it presents a small pro- 
cess on each side three lines behind the last rib , that portion of the pelvis 
comprised between this process and the cotoloid cavity is much compressd; 
the ossa pubis look backwards as in most birds ; the cotyloid cavity is 
incomplete posteriorly. 

Posterior extremities. There is no proper neck to the femur; the large 
trochanter presents a well marked rough process posteriorly ; there is no 
small trochanter ; on the lower side of the trochanter at its inferior extremity 
upon the anterior face of the bone, is a foramen three lines in length and two 
in breadth, for the admission of air ; the outer condyle of the femur is large ; 
the groove upon inferior part is well marked; there is a rough eminence upon 
its external face, with a depression in front of it ; the upper surface of the 
tibia is flat for the most part ; the anterior margin projects considerably be- 
yond the anterior face of the bone, but there is no spine extending upwards 
as in some birds ; the superior extremity of the tibia is remarkable for the 
deep pit which it presents upon its posterior face ; it measures twelve lines 
in length ; there are two holes at its distal extremity situated posteriorly, 
with an oblique ridge between them ; it is triangular in form above, 
rounded in the middle, and flattened inferiorly ; a marked depression ex- 
ists upon the anterior face of it, at its inferior extremity. The foramen for 
the transmission of the interosseous artery is placed two and a quarter 
inches from the head of the tibia, about a line from its junction with the fi- 
bula ; the fibula is a slender bone anchylosed with the tibia in the greater 
part of its extent, as in other birds. The tarso metatarsal is the most remark- 
able bone in the body ; it is a large and powerful bone, concave posteriorly, 
presenting numerous very well marked depressions and elevated ridges upon 
its anterior aspect ; there is a foramen for the transmission of air near its 
outer margin, five lines from its proximal extremity; there is also another two 
lines in breadth, and two in extent, near its inner margin, within two and a 
half lines of the superior margin of the outer groove, at the extremity of the 
bone; the outer aspect of the bone is flat in nearly its whole extent, presenting 
a smooth surface ; it measures seven lines in an antero-posterior direction at 
its middle ; its inner margin forms a sharp edge extending the whole length 
of the bone as far as its junction with the accessory bone, for the articulation 
with the first phalanx of the powerful back toe ; the articular eminences at 
the extremity of the bone are separated from each other by intervals each 
about two lines in breadth ; the middle eminence is the largest ; the remain- 
ing two are of nearly equal size ; the articulation of the accessory bone is 
placed seven lines and a half above the level of the anterior toes ; the access- 
ory bone is large and triangular in shape, presenting a smooth surface for its 
articulation with the first phalanx of the hind toe ; its posterior margin mea- 
sures thirteen lines in length ; it presents a sharp edge continuous with 
that of the inner margin of the tarso metatarsal bone for seven lines 



July, 1846.] 



87 



of its extent, the remaining portion being expanded laterally, and pre- 
senting a somewhat oval and rough surface. The toes are strongly devel- 
oped ; the back toe and inner toe are the most powerful ; the first phalanx 
of the inner toe is remarkable for its shortness ; it is somewhat quadrangu- 
lar in shape, and presents a deep groove upon its posterior extremity, for 
articulation with the tarso -metatarsal bone. 



Measurements. 



Feet. 



Height, measured from extremity of beak to extremity 
of middle toe, ..... 

Bi-parietal diameter of head 
Vertical, do. do. 

Depth of upper mandible at base, 

" lower " ' " . 

Length of lower mandible, 

" upper following the curve 

Breadth of coracoid bone at base, 
Width of interspace between clavicles at time of junction 
with posterior and superior margin of coracoid bone, 
Length of scapula, .... 

Length of sternum] measured from anterior extremity 
of keel, ...... 

Breadth of sternum .... 

Greatest depth of keel of sternum, . 
Length of fourth sterno-costal bone, 
Breadth of pelvis anteriorly, 
Greatest breadth posteriorly, 

Distance between anterior extremity of pelvis and pos- 
terior margin of cotyloid cavity, . 
Distance between anterior margin of cotyloid cavity 

and posterior extremity of pelvis, 
Length of lumbo-sacral bone, 
caudal vertebrae, 
last bone of coccyx, 
humerus, .... 

radius, ..... 

ulna, , 

metacarpus, .... 

hand, ..... 

thumb, ..... 

first phalanx of radial finger, . 
" second " " " . 

" ulnar ' " ' 

Breadth of first " " . 

Length of femur, .... 










Inches. 


Lines 


n 





2 


5 


1 


8 


1 






3 


3 




2 


4 


1 


3 


2 


4 


4 




4} 




2 






Hi 


1 


2 


1 


5 


1 


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(( 



tibia, 
fibula, 



2 


11 


2 


19 


2 




1 


5 


6 


9 


7 


7 


8 


2 


3 


4 


2 




1 




1 


2 




10* 




5} 




5 


4 


8 


5 


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7J 



88 



Length of tarso-metatarsal bone, 

" proximal phalanx of hind toe, . 
Breadth at proximal extremity, .... 
Length of distal or terminal phalanx of hind toe at base, 
" proximal or first phalanx of inner toe, 

second " " 

third " " 

first phalanx of middle toe, 

second " " ... 

third " " . . 

fourth at base, 

first phalanx of outer toe, . . . 

second " " . . 

third " "... 

fourth phalanx of outer toe, 

fifth at base, (along inferior surface,) 

hind claw measured along its upper curve, 

inner claw, .... 

" middle claw, .... 

" outer claw, .... 

Distance between distal extremity of hind claw and distal 

extremity of middle claw, .... 

Distance between distal extremity of hind claw and distal 

extremity of inner claw, . 

(To be continued.') 



it 
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a 
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a 
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a 
u 
u 
it 



[July, 


1846 


Inches. 


Lines 


3 


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. 1 


6 


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H 


. 1 


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5 




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. 1 






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The Monthly report of the Corresponding Secretary was 
read and adopted. 

ELECTIONS. 

Elisha J. Lewis, M. D., of Philadelphia, was elected a 
member : 

And Mr. Edward Wilson, formerly of Philadelphia, now 
of London, 

And M. de Vernueil, President of the Geological Society 
of France, were elected Correspondents of the Academy. 



August, 1846.] 89 

Stated Meeting, August 4, 1846. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

One hundred species of Plants from Texas, Missouri, Illinois, 
&c, from the collections of F. Lindheimer, Dr. Engelmann, 
and C. A. Geyer. Presented by Dr. Engelmann, of St. 
Louis. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Report of the Commissioner of Patents for the year 1845, read 
24th Feb. 1846. pp. 1184. From the Hon. J. R. Inger- 
soll. 

Charter, Constitution, and By-Laws of the Cincinnati Horti- 
cultural Society, with a report of its transactions for 1843 
'44 '45. From the Society. 

Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 4. 
No. 34. September to December, 1845. From the Society. 

Proceedings of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Vol. 1. 
No. 6. From the Society. 

Proceedings of the Boston Natural History Society, pp. 121 
to 136 inclusive. From the Society. 

Mr. Webster's vindication of the Treaty of Washington of 
1842. Washington, 1846. From the Author. 

Charts of the Harbors of Annapolis, Maryland, and New 
Bedford, made under the direction of A. D. Bache, Esq. 
Superintendent of the U. S. Coast Survey. From the Trea- 
sury department, through Prof. Bache. 

Dr. Thomas B. Wilson presented the following valuable works, 
in 4 vols. 8vo., illustrated by numerous colored plates ; by 
R. P. Lesson : 

Histoire Naturelle des Oiseaux-mouches. 

" " " Oiseaux de Paradis et des Epimaques. 

" " Colibris. 

Les Trochilidees, ou les Colibris et les Oiseaux-mouches. 



90 [August, 1846. 

Also, from the same donor, Part xii (completing the work) 

of Prof. Owen's History of British fossil mammalia and 

Birds. 
Manual de Malacologie et de Conchyliologie : Par. H. M. 

Ducrotay de Blainville. 1 vol. 8vo. with a vol. of Plates. 

Paris, 1825. Presented by William Hembel, Esq. 
Greenough's large Geological map of England and Wales, 

with a 4to memoir explanatory of the same. From the 

same. 
Atlas der Cranioscopie, &c, von Dr. Carl Gustav. Cams. 

Heft 1. 4to. Leipzic, 1843. From Dr. Morton. 
Notice sur un nouveau genre de Cetace des Rivieres du centre 

de l'Amerique meridionale, par M. A. D'Orbigny. 4to. 

From the Author. 
Extrait des Rapports (Acad. Royale des Sciences de France,) 

sur les rcsultats scientifiques du voyage de M. Alcide 

D'Orbigny dans l'Amerique du sud, pendant les annees 

1826, '27, '28, '29, '30, '31, '32 and '33. 4to. From the 

same. 
Ueber eine bisher unbekannte, krankhafte veranderung an 

Menschenknochen aus Peru, von Dr. Eugen Zschokke. 

Aarau, 1845. From Dr. J. J. Von Tschudi. 
Fauna Peruana. Reptilia. Von Dr. J. J. Von Tschudi. 

From the Author. 
Nachtriigliche bemerkungen zu meinem Conspectus Avium, 

&c. Von Dr. von Tschudi. From the Author. 
Orthop"disches Institut ; Von J. Heine, M. D. 4to. From 

Dr. G. Jaeger. 
Ehrenged chtniss des konigl : Wurtemburgischen Staatsraths 

von Kielmeyer, von Dr. G. Jaeger. From the same. 
Karl Franz's Bellingeri's anatomisch-plrysiologishe untersuch- 

ungen iiber das Ruckenmark und seine nerven Deutsch 

bearbeitet von Dr. Heermann Kaulla. 4to. Stuttgart, 

1833. From the same. 
Versuche und Beojpachtungen iiber den kartoffelban und die 

krankheiten der kartoffeln besoinders im Jahr 1845. Mit 



August, 1846.] 91 

cinem anhans iibcr kiintslich erzeugten Guano. Von Dr. 

Eb. Fr. Manz. Stuttgart 1845. From the same. 
Beitrage zur Petrefaktenkunde, von Heermann von Meyer. 

Fossil S'auo-etliiere. 4to. From the same. 
G. F. Jaeger Dr. A. C. N. C. S. de monstrosa folii Phoenicis 

dactyliferse conformatione, &c.; cum tabulis 4 lithographicis. 

4to. From the same. 
Der Schadelban des Mosasaurus durch beschreibung einer 

neuen art deiser gattung erlautert : Yon Dr. August Gold- 
fuss. 4to. From the same. 
Newspaper article on the geology of Middletown, (Conn.) and 

vicinity. By Joseph Barratt, M. D. From the Author. 



Letters were read : 

From A. D. Bache, Esq. dated Washington, July 31, 1846, 
presenting the charts received this evening. 

From the Secretary of the American Philosophical Society, 
acknowledging the receipt of certain numbers of the Pro- 
ceedings of the Academy, furnished at the request of the Li- 
brarian of that Societv. 

From the Secretary of the New York Lyceum of Natural 
History, dated Aug. 5, 1846, acknowledging the receipt of 
the last number of the Proceedings. 

From Dr. J. J. Yon Tschudi, dated St. Galen, April 4, 
1846 ; acknowledging the receipt of the Academy's Proceed- 
ings, and presenting the works received this evening. 

From Judge Tremper, dated Dresden, N. Y., July 1846, 
giving the results of observations and experiments made by 
himself, with the view of ascertaining the amount of evapora- 
tion from land and water surface in his vicinity, and also the 
temperature of Seneca Lake. 

A paper by Dr. Joseph Leidy, entitled, ' Description of a 
new genus and species of Entozoa,' was read and referred to 
Dr. Zantzinger, Mr. Phillips, and Dr. Morton. 

The Chairman exhibited a living specimen of a bird, which 
with another of the same description, had recently been ob- 



92 [August, 1846. 

tained by Mr. Augustus E. Jessup, from a farm "in the vici- 
nity of Wilmington, Delaware, where they had been raised. 
These birds present certain characters, which justify the pre- 
sumption that they are hybrids between the common domes- 
tic fowl and the guinea fowl. They will be fully described 
in a subsequent number of the Proceedings. 

A report from the Building Committee was presented and 
read, stating that a contract had been entered into with a 
competent person, for making the proposed alterations and 
additions to the Hall ; the work to be commenced forthwith, 
and to be completed on the 1st of February next. 



Stated Meeting, August 11, 1846. 

Dr. Bridges in the Chair. 

Dr. Morton read a letter from Mr. Charles Lyell, dated 
London, July 14, 1846, enclosing a communication from 
Prof. Owen, entitled, ' Observations on the fossils from the 
geological cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, collected from the Brunswick Canal, Georgia, 
by J. Hamilton Couper, Esq., and presented by the latter to 
the Academy.' 

The paper was read and referred to the following commit- 
tee : Dr. Morton, Dr. Hallowell, and Mr. Richard C. Taylor. 

Mr. Lyell stated in his letter that the fossils described in 
the paper, and transmitted to Prof. Owen through himself for 
that purpose, would be shortly returned to the Academy, with 
a drawing of Harlanus Americanus. 

A letter was read from Dr. Asa Gray, Corresponding Sec- 
retary of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences of 
Boston, dated Cambridge, Mass., Aug. 4, 1846, announcing 
that a copy of vol. 2, new series, of the Memoirs of that So- 
ciety, had been forwarded for the Academy, and offering to 
supply any other published vols, of the Memoirs not already 
contained in its Library: also requesting in exchange the 
publications of the Academy. 



August, 1846.] 93 

Whereupon, on motion of Dr. Morton, it was 
Resolved, That a copy of vols. 1 and 2 of the Proceedings, 
and such volumes of the Journal as were at the disposal of the 
Publication Committee, be presented to the . American Aca- 
demy, at Boston. 



Meeting for Business, Aug. 25, 1846. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 
The Committee, to whom was referred the following com- 
munication, reported in favor of publication. 
Observations 071 certain Fossils from the Collection of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 
By Richard Owen, Esq., F. R. S., &c. &c. 

[The organic remains which form the subject of the following paper by 
Prof. Owen, are apart of the series collected by James Hamilton Couper, 
Esq., during the excavation of the Brunswick Canal, near Darien, in Geor- 
gia. Prof. Owen, having expressed a wish to examine these fossils, they 
were transmitted to him through Mr. Charles Lyell, by authority of the Aca- 
demy, and the following highly interesting memoir was promptly returned. 
Besides the references by Prof. Owen to Dr. Harlan's original paper in the 
American Journal of Science, some valuable remarks by Mr. Couper him- 
self, will be found in volume I. of these Proceedings, page 216.] 

Genus Bos. 

No. 1. Distal half of right humerus: it is about one-sixth less 
than the same part in Bos primogenius, and more resembles that of 
the Aurochs : it belongs, probably, to a species of Bison. 

No. 2. The left tibia of the same species. 

Genus Equus. 
No. 3. Fragments of a lower molar tooth of the size of the Equus 
cahcllus : but the specific character not determinable. 

Genus Mastodon. 

No. 4. A portion of tusk, labelled Hippopotamus, but satisfacto- 
rily known to have belonged to a Proboscidian Pachyderm by the 
decussating curved lines, intercepting lozenged -shaped spaces, at 
the transverse fractures of the ivory at the two ends. (The struc- 
ture is shown in British Fossil Mammalia, p. 291, fig. 101, c.) 

13 



94 [August, 1846. 

Transverse fractures of the tusks of Hippopotamus, show fine con- 
centric lines, as figured in British Fossil Mammalia, p. 402, fig. 160. 
From the size, shape and slight degree of curvature of the Geor- 
gian fossil, it may probably have belonged to the left side, lower 
jaw, of the Mastodon giganteus. 

Genus Harlamus. 

No. 5. The middle part of the right ramus of the lower jaw of a 
large Pachyderm, with the last three (or true) molars, part of the 
premolar next in advance, and part of the socket of another premo- 
lar. The crowns of all these teeth appear to have been worn down 
by mastication to their base ; they present the proportions, and the 
last molar, in a cast transmitted to me by my lamented friend, Dr. 
Harlan, appears to retain the anterior of the two large transverse 
ridges, which characterize the teeth of the genus Lopliiodon, Cuv.: 
it likewise possesses the large posterior lobe or talon, which dis- 
tinguishes this tooth in the Lophiodon from that of the Tapir. 
The teeth of the fossil from Georgia a little exceed in size those of 
the Lophiodon Isselanus (Grand Lophiodon d'hsel, Cuvier, " Os- 
semens Fossiles," ed. 1822 , torn. 2. pt. 1, p. 184, pi. 3, fig. 3,) the 
antero-posterior diameter of the last molar in that species being one 
inch and eight lines, and in the present fossil one inch and ten 
lines. But the depth of the jaw below the middle of the last molar 
in the present fossil is three inches ; whilst that in the Lophiodon 
Isselanus in the figure cited, is scarcely two inches ; and Cuvier 
expressly states (p. 186,) that it surpasses in depth the correspond- 
ing part of the jaws of the Lophiodon medius (pi. 3, fig. 1,) which 
has molar teeth of the same size as in the Lophiodon Isselanus. 

The present fossil has been described and figured in " Silliman's 
American Journal of Science," vol. 43, 1842, pi. 3, fig. 1, under 
the name of Sus Americana ; Br. Harlan conceiving that from 
its general appearance and number of the teeth this fragment 
bore a close analogy with the same part in the Sus bahirussa, 
Buff, acknowledging, however, that the Babyroussa " was a 
much smaller animal." Besides the difference of size, the last 
molar in the fossil has the anteror transverse ridge proportion- 
ally larger, and the posterior lobe proportionally smaller than in 
the Babyroussa, resembling the Lophiodon in the points in which 



August, 1846.] 95 

it thus differs from the species of Sus cited. The form, of the 
fossil jaw differs at the part supporting the last molar from that in 
the Babyroussa, where the socket of the last molar overhangs the 
inner surface of the ramus, whilst in the fossil the inner surface 
of the ramus beneath the last molar describes a gentle convexity 
from the tooth to the lower margin of the ramus. The outer part 
of the ramus of the jaw of the Babyroussa begins to expand be- 
low the fourth and fifth molars, counting forwards from the last, 
to form the socket of the large tusk; but the fossil jaw does not 
offer the least indication of an enlargement for that purpose ; and 
the fractured anterior end, as displayed in the cast, is very different 
in shape from the corresponding part of the jaw in the Baby- 
roussa, and shows merely the wide dental canal, and no socket 
for the tusk which would be here situated in the Babyroussa or 
Wild Boar. 

The nearest approximation which I could [make from a study 
of a cast of the fossil in question to any known existing or extinct 
animal, was to the great tapiroid Pachyderms ; but I added in 
my description of this cast in the Catalogue of Fossil Mamma- 
lia and Birds in the College of Surgeons 4to. 1845, p. 198, " that 
ulterior discoveries, may, indeed, show that the Lophiodont denti- 
tion was combined with other characters in the American fossil? 
necessitating a generic distinction, and it is well to remember that 
the dentition of the Macranchenia of South America, a three-toed 
Pachyderm with an astragalus almost identical with that of the 
Lophiodon, and of a size which agrees with the jaw of the fossil 
Sus Americana of Harlan, has yet to be discovered." 

The original of the cast shows the course of the enamel on the 
outer side of the penultimate molar ; it there defines an anterior 
lobe of the crown about one-third the antero-posterior extent of 
the crown, by a close, straight fold of enamel penetrating inwards 
about 2J lines. 

The anterior lobe or transverse ridge of the corresponding tooth 
of a Lophiodon might, perhaps, present a similar appearance, if 
worn down to the base of the crown. 

But in the present fossil, the enamel proceeds to define a mid- 
dle lobe on the outer side of the crown, shorter than the foregoing, 
beyond which the enamel and dentine are worn obliquely away 
to the base of the posterior fang ; the indication of the middle ex- 



96 August, 1846.] 

ternal lobe or festoon of enamel is, however, decisive against its 
generic relationship with Lopliiodon. 

This indication of the arrangement of the enamel,* slight as it 
is, reminds one of that in the lower molars of the Toxodon, and 
another feature of resemblance is the apparent interruption of 
the enamel at the anterior part of the molar in the fossil. If the 
presence of two distinct fangs in the Georgian Fossil were adduced 
as distinguishing it from the Toxodon, it might be replied that 
perhaps the long curved rootless molars in that animal at the last 
period of age might, as in the Horse, acquire roots. 

But the trilobed character is on the outside of the molar in 
question, and on the inside of those of the Toxodon; in which 
also the middle lobe only has a coat of enamel, not the anterior 
or posterior of the inner lobes : there is no doubt, therefore, that 
the Georgian Pachyderm is generally distinct from Toxodon, as 
it is from Lophiodon ; and it would seem to have diminished the 
interval which divides the strange Gliriform Pachyderm of South 
America, from the more normal Tapiroid forms of Pachyderms 
which are found fossil in the old world. 

As naturalists have accepted the latinized Indian word Tapirus 
as the generic name of the existing American Pachyderm, which 
makes the nearest approach to the present remarkable fossil, they 
will probably sanction the application to the genus and species 
which it represents, of the name Harlanus Americanus ;f in honor 
of the indefatigable and accomplished Naturalist by whom the fossil 
was first made known to Science. 

Royal College of Surgeons, London, July 8th, 1846. 



The following gentlemen were elected Correspondents of 
the Academy : 

J. Lawrence Smith, M.D., of Charleston, S. C. 
John M. B. Harden, M.D., of Liberty Co., Georgia. 
John H. Redfield, Esq., of New York. 
Major Joseph Delafield, of New York. 

* Fossil Mammalia of the Beagle, pi. v., fig. 2. 

f A drawing of this fossil has been made in London under the supervi- 
sion of Professor Owen, but not yet received. It will appear in a future 
number of the Proceedings. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 

OF PHILADELPHIA. 

Vol. hi. SEPTEMBER AND OCTOBER, 1846. No. 5. 

Stated Meeting, September 1, 1846. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Specimen, in skin, of Buteo unicinctus, Temm. (Falco Harrisii, 
Aud.) from the vicinity of Natchez. From Dr. J. C. 
Jenkins of Natchez. 

A small collection of insects, in spirits. From Mr. Gambel. 

Mr. Germain, of Burlington, N. J., presented an additional 
series of cretaceous fossils, from the marl strata west of 
that city, embracing the genera Ammonites, Scaphites, 
Baculites, Mya, Coprolites, and some others, with frag- 
ments of fossil wood. 

The Curators announced that the splendid collection of Birds 
purchased in Paris by Dr. Thomas B. Wilson, and known 
as the Rivoli collection, has arrived, and is now deposited 
in the Hall of the Acadamy. 



Dr. Morton read a paper, describing two living hybrid 
birds, between the genera Gall us and Numida ; which was 
referred to Mr. Cassin, and Dr. Leidy. 



14 



98 [September, 1846. 

Stated Meeting, September 15, 1846. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 
of Boston. Vols. 1, 3, and Part 1, vol. 4, old series, and 
vols. 1 and 2, new series. 4to. From the Academy. 

The Catalogue of Stars, by the British Association for the ad- 
vancement of Science ; containing the mean right ascen- 
sions, and north polar distances, of 8377 fixed stars, re- 
duced to January 1, 1850 ; &c, &c. London, 1845. 4to. 
From the British Association. 

American Journal of Science and Arts. New series, vol. 2, 
No. 5, September, 1846. From the editors. 



Letters were read : 

From the Corresponding Secretary of the American Aca- 
demy of Arts and Sciences of Boston, Dated August 26, 1846, 
acknowledging the receipt of the volumes of the Proceedings 
and Journal, authorized by a late resolution of the Academy, 
to be presented to that Institution. 

From Mr. John H. Redfield, dated New York, September 
11, 1846, and from Major Joseph Delafield, of same date, 
severally acknowledging the receipt of their notices of elec- 
tion as correspondents. 

From Dr. Z. Pitcher, of Detroit, dated September 3, 1846, 
addressed to Dr. Morton, proposing to exchange duplicate 
Bird skins, collected by the late Mr. Douglas Houghton. 
Referred to the Zoological Committee. 

Dr. Joseph Leidy read a paper ' On the mechanism which 
closes the membranous wings of the genus Locusta,' which 
was referred to Mr. Haldeman, Dr. Hallowell, and Dr. Bridges. 



September, 1846.] 99 

Stated Meeting, September 22, 1846. 
Vice President Wetherill in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Specimens of Unio bullatus, U. quadrulus, U. plicatus, U. 
globulus, U. lugubris, Say, U. Nashvillianus, U. parvus, 
Anadonta subglobosa, Paludina vivipara, and P. integra; 
from Lake Concordia, and Ouichita river, Louisiana ; also 
Limonites from the Natchez Bluffs. Presented by Dr. 
Dickeson. 



Letters were read : 

From the Secretary of the Royal Society of Agriculture, &c, 
of Lyons, dated 20th June, 1846, presenting to the Academy 
eight volumes of its Annals, and requesting in exchange the 
publications of this Society. 

From the agent of the Lyons Society, dated New York, 
September, 1846, announcing that the volumes referred to 
had been received by him, and awaited the order of the 
Academy. 

From Dr. Charles Huffnagle, of Calcutta, addressed to Dr. 
Morton, announcing that he had transmitted for deposit in 
the Academy, a large number of specimens of Natural His- 
tory from India. 

From Mr. C. P. Wickersham, dated Kennett Square, 
Chester county, Pennsylvania, September 15, 1846, addressed 
to the Curators, offering to present to the Academy a large 
slab of sandstone, from the Portland quarries, near Middle- 
town, Connecticut, containing impressions supposed to be of 
the kind called Ornithoidichnites. 



100 [September, 1846. 

Meeting for Business, Sept 29, 1846, 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

The committee on Dr. Leidy's paper, on a new genus and 
species of Entozoa, reported in favor of publication. 

Description of a new genus and species of Entozoa. 
By Joseph Leidy, M. D. 

In the course of an investigation of the anatomical structure of 
the terrestrial gasteropoda of the United States, I discovered a 
microscopic entozoon inhabiting the fluid contained in the vessie 
copulatrice or spermatheca of Helix albolabris, since which I have 
found it to exist in two other species, Helix tridentata, and Helix 
alternata, and I have no doubt of its existence in others, not yet 
having had an opportunity of examining further. As there ap- 
pears to be no known genus in which this animal can be placed, 
I have been necessitated to form the following : 

Cryptobia. Animal minute ; form exceedingly proteoid ; inter- 
nal organization cellular or granular. 

C. helicis. Colorless; form, ordinarily elongate, ellip- 
solid, fusiform, or ovate; caudated, caudse opposite, one longer 
than the other. Internal granular structure consisting of two 
large cells and numerous minute granules. Total length from 
the 126th to the 100th of a line. Habitat, the vessie copulatrice 
or spermatheca of Helix albolabris, Helix [tridentata and Helix 
alternata. 

The name of this genus is derived from x/wrd?, hidden and 
PiSat } to live. This singular entozoon in its general appearance 
and organization appears to be intermediate between Cercaria 
seminis and Filaria. Its varied form and movements are curious 
to observe ; at one moment globular, then oval, ovate, fusiform, sig- 
moid, crescentic, &c, it appears as if it would outvie the kalei- 
doscope in its changes. The motions are vibratile, rotary, with 
a lateral progression, or whirling in circles like the insect Gyrinus. 

Cryptobia helicis might be confounded with the spermatozoa 
of the animals in which they are parasitic, on account of the organ in 
which they are found being connected with the generative appara- 
tus, and its supposed use as a spermatheca, but they may be readily 



September, 1846.] 101 

distinguished ; the spermatozoa of Helices generally having either 
a uniform sigmoid or a beaded body, with an enormous propor- 
tionate length of tail, and a slow, vibratile motion. It may be well 
to mention that C. helicis does not exist in the collapsed state of 
the generative organs. 

The subjoined sketch represents some of the principal forms 
of the animal, highly magnified. 




The committee on the following description, by Dr. Morton, 
of two living Hybrid Birds, reported in favour of publication. 
Description of two living Hybrid Fowls, between Gallus and 

Numida. 
By Samuel George Morton, M. D. 

The singular birds which form the subject of this communica- 
tion, were bred on a farm about seven miles from Wilmington, in 
the State of Delaware. The person who raised them states, that 
the eggs that produced them differed in no respect from those of 
the guinea fowl, were part of a large number that were hatched 
at the same time, and that the birds are known to be just four 
years old. My friend, Mr. Augustus E. Jessup, having accident- 
ally observed these birds on the above mentioned farm, pur. 
chased them of the proprietor, and sent them to my care> with a 
request that they might be eventually placed in the Collections of 
the Academy. Both are yet living and in good health ; and the 
following description, in which I have been materially assisted by 
my friend Mr. William Gambel, has been drawn up after many 
examinations, made during a month and upwards that the birds 
have been in the charge of Mr. Robert Kilvington, horticulturist 
of this city. 



102 [September, 1846. 

The first of these birds is mottled with the colour of a reddish 
brown chicken and guinea fowl, (Numida meleagris.) Back and 
rump lineated with darkish brown and whitish, and a tinge of 
yellowish brown. Greater wing-coverts, and margins of secon- 
daries, reddish brown ; breast, belly, sides and under tail-eoverts, 
dirty white, with scattering feathers of the same. Quills and 
tail-feathers dusky brown, lineated, and finely speckled like those 
of the guinea fowl. Two quills in one wing and one in the tail are 
entirely white. Wings concave and rounded, one foot in length 
from flexure. First quill an inch and a half shorter than the 
second, which last is one inch shorter than the third ; 3 8 quills 
about equal. Tail of fifteen feathers, rounded ; the two middle 
ones longest and pointed. 

Heads sparsely covered with feathers, almost bare for a consi- 
derable distance around the eye. Upper mandible dusky, except 
at tip, which, with the lower mandible, is whitish ; towards the 
base it is somewhat striated, and covered by a reddish, fleshy 
cere, elongated at the angle of the mouth into barbies, which, 
however, are only rudimentary in comparison with those of the 
guinea fowl. Beneath the skin a distinct, hard, bony ridge can 
be felt, extending over the top of the head. Another bony ridge 
extends over the eye, giving it a sunken appearance. The nos- 
trils are half closed by a fleshy membrane ; sides of head and 
front, white. Top of head and nape with linear black feathers, 
elongated on the nape into hackles. Neck and upper part of the 
breast reddish-brown. Tarsus very stout, with large, divided 
acutellas ; length 3| inches; middle toe and nail 2f inches. Total 
length about two feet. 

The second of these birds bears yet more resemblance to a 
guinea fowl, both in shape and colour, than the preceding, not 
being so much mottled with reddish-brown feathers, but princi- 
pally with white. The bill appears to be not so much arched ; 
the upper mandible is barbled as in the other, and the head is in 
general the same, Back, shoulders and upper tail-coverts dusky, 
lineated with whitish like the guinea fowl ; greater wing-coverts, 
fading into white, the tertiaries being margined with the same. 
One quill white. Quills like the other as to colour and markings ; 
3d to 6th nearly equal. From flexure the wing measures 11 
inches. 



September, 1846.] 103 

Back of head and neck with black linear feathers, not so 
much like hackles, as those of the other bird. Breast, beneath 
and sides, whitish. Tail nearly plucked out, as in the other; 
upper tail-coverts, full and pendant. The bare flesh around the 
eye in both birds is tinged with blue. 

The sounds which these birds utter are also intermediate, but 
partake much more of the harshness of the guinea fowl, although 
tbey occasionally cluck not unlike the common hen. 

They are shy, wild and resentful, boldly attacking any one who 
irritates them. They have several times escaped from custody, 
and flown a hundred yards or more, when they alight and run 
with great celerity. 

The sex of these birds has not been determined with certainty, 
but the male characters seem to predominate. During the four 
years they were on the farm, they were never observed to have 
sexual intercourse with any other fowls. It is designed on a 
future occasion to notice their anatomical peculiarities, when 
the productive organs will be carefully examined. 

It has been remarked by a distinguished naturalist, that "many 
of the birds which compose the gallinaceous order, appear to 
be less difficult to unite with strange species, than those of any 
other order. From the great majority of pheasants, mongrels 
may thus be produced ; all the Hoccos (Crax) will couple together 
in a state of domestication ; the pheasant will ally with the cock ; 
the last with the turkey, with which the hoccos born in the do- 
mestic state will also unite. It appears, in fact, very possible to 
produce mongrels from the major part of those gallinas which 
are suceptible of cultivation."* 

The latter remark receives strong corroboration from the facts 
we have adduced in this paper; and we believe that a hybrid 
progeny between the guinea fowl and common fowl is now for 
the first time made knowu to naturalists. The fact derives its 
peculiar interest from the remoteness of the genera which have thus 
produced an intermediate variety. 

* Griffith's Cuvier, VIII. pp. 173, 175, 176. Prichard, Researches 
into the Physical History of Mankind, 1, p. 140. 3d ed. 



104 



[September, 1846. 



The committee on the following paper by Dr. Joseph 
Leidy, reported in favor of publication. 

On the mechanism which closes the membranous wings of the genus 

Locusta. 
By Joseph Leidy, M. D. 

The membranous wings or alee of the locusts while at rest are 
folded up, like a closed fan, beneath the anterior pergamentaceous 
wings. These are opened or expanded by the contraction of 
appropriate muscles (extensores alse) contained within the thorax; 
the tendons of which are inserted into the ribs or longitudinal 
veins at the root of the wings. When one of the wings is sepa- 
rated from the body of the insect, and stretched open by the 
fingers, upon letting go, it will be found instantly to close or re- 
sume the position of rest. 

The mechanism which produces this closure in the separated 
wing, as well as when attached to the living animal, I find to 
be spiral ligamentous bands, wound, like the thread of a screw, 
around the transverse or connecting veins, which latter are also 
flexible. By this arrangement, upon the contraction of the alary 
extensors, the spring-like ligaments, or ligamenta spiralia as I 
will call them, are stretched in the expansion of the wings, and 
upon the relaxation or cessation of the action of the muscles, the 
physical properties alone of the ligamenta spiralia, in resuming 
their unstretched state, close the wings. These ligamenta spiralia 
are numerous, and exist in all the species of Locusta possessing 
perfect alas which I have examined. To this short description I 
append a drawing of several of these ligaments, magnified, from a 
preparation in Canada balsam, of one of the alse of Locusta Caro- 
lina. 




Octobek, 1846.] 105 

election of correspondent. 

Prof. Joseph Zuccarini, of Munich, Bavaria, was elected 
a correspondent of the Academy. 



Stated Meeting, October 6, 1846. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York. 
Nos. 6 and 7, Vol. 4. From the Lyceum. 

Sur l'usage inopportun des medicamens. Essai du docteur 
Ascagne Pisani. Traduit de l'ltalien par Louise Desmon- 
ceaux. Naples, 1846. 12mo. 3 copies. From the Author. 

Annales des Sciences physiques et naturelles publiees par la 
Societe Royale d' Agriculture, &c, de Lyons. Tomes 8. 
8vo. From the Society. 

Natural History of the State of New York, (published by 
authority of the government of the State) 11 vols. 4to., in- 
cluding : 

1. Zoology of New York, Parts 1, 2, 3, and 5. By James 
E, Dekay. 

2. Mineralogy of New York, By Lewis C. Beck, M. D, 

3. Botany. A Flora of the State of New York. Vol. 1. By 
John Torrey. 

4. Geology and Palaeontology ; comprising Geology of the 
1st Geological district of New York, by William W. 
Mather : of the second Geological district, by Ebenezer 
Emmons, M. D. : of the 3d Geological district, by Lardner 
Vanuxem : of the 4th Geological district, by James Hall. 

Also, a Geological map of the State of New York. Purchased 

by order of the Academy. 
Literary Record and Journal of the Linnean Association of 

Pennsylvania College. Nos. 10 and 11, Vol. 2. From 

the Association. 
Historical collections of Louisiana, By Benjamin F. Frencfc 

New York, 1846. 8vo, From the Author. 



106 [October, 1846. 

Report of the Geological Survey of the province of New Brims- 
wick, with a topographical account of the Public lands and 
the districts explored in 1842. By Abraham Gesner, F. G. S., 
Provincial Geologist, &c. St. Johns, 1843. From the 
Author. 

Naturgeschichte derr Infusionsthiere. Von Professor S. 
Kutorga. Mit einem Atlasse. St. Petersburg, 1839. Carls- 
ruhe, 1841. From L. de Harden, Esq., through Charles 
Cramer, Esq. 

Classification of the forest trees of New Brunswick. By M. 
H. Perley, Esq. (a newspaper slip.) From the Author. 



A letter was read from J. M. B. Harden, M. D., of Liberty 
county, Georgia, dated 18th September, 1846, acknowledg- 
ing the receipt of his notice of election as a correspondent. 

Also a letter from J. H. Bedfield, Esq. , Corresponding Sec- 
retary of the N. Y. Lyceum, dated 24th September, 1846, 
acknowledging the receipt of the last number of the Proceed- 
ings. 



Dr. Dickeson exhibited a large and remarkably varied series 
of fossil bones, obtained by him from the vicinity of Natchez, 
Miss. The collection embraces the entire head and half of the 
lower jaw of the Megalonyx Jeffersoni,* now for the first time 
discovered ; together with many parts of the skeleton, and indeed 
of several skeletons of that animal, sufficient to enable its com- 
plete osteological reconstruction. The stratum that contains these 
organic remains, is a tenacious blue clay that underlies the dilu- 
vial drift east of Natchez, and which diluvial deposit abounds in 
bones and teeth of the Mastodon giganteum. 

* Dr. Dickeson originally suggested, from partial comparisons, that 
this cranium belonged to the Megalonyx, and not to the 'Mylodon, as others 
had supposed ; his opinion was fully confirmed by M. Agassiz on 
a recent examination ; and this distinguished naturalist has proved the 
Megalonyx laqueatus of Harlan, to belong, not to Megalonyx, but to some 
other but nearly allied genus. 



October, 1846.] 107 

The animals associated with the Megalonyx are, an Ursus, a 
Bos, two species of Cervus, one or two species of Equus, and 
several undetermined genera, all which are now in progress of 
delineation and description for the Academy's Journal. 

Dr. Dickeson presented another relic of yet greater interest; 
viz., the fossil os innominatum of the human subject, taken from 
the above mentioned stratum of blue clay, and about two feet 
below the skeletons of the Megalonyx and other extinct genera of 
quadupeds. 

This ancient relic of our species, is that of a young man of about 
sixteen years of age, as determined by its size and form, and by the 
fact that the epiphyses have separated from the tuberosity of the 
ischium, and from the crista of the ilium. Nearly all the os 
pubis is wanting, the upper posterior part of the ileum is broken 
away, and but half the acetabulum remains. That this bone is 
strictly in the fossil state, is manifest from its physical characters, 
in which it accords in every respect of color, density, &c, &c, 
with those of the Megalonyx and other associated bones. That 
it could not have drifted into the position in which it was found, 
is manifest from several facts : 1. That the plateau of blue clay 
is not appreciably acted on by those causes that produce ravines 
in the superincumbent diluvial ; 2. That the human bone was 
found at least two feet below three associated skeletons of the 
Megalonyx, all which, judging from the opposition or proximity 
of their several parts, had been quietly deposited in this locality, 
independently of any active current or other displacing power; 
and lastly, because there was no admixture of diluvial drift with 
the blue clay, which latter retains its homogeneous character 
equally in the higher part that furnished the extinct quadrupeds, and 
in its lower part that contained the remains of man. Dr. Dicke- 
son has announced his intention of returning, at an early period 
of the present autumn, to resume his explorations in this prolific 
and most interesting locality ; and it is earnestly hoped that his 
researches may lead to a further elucidation of this important 
question in science. 



Dr. Leidy stated that he had lately detected the existence 
of an Entozoon in the superficial part of the extensor mus- 



108 [October, 1846. 

cles of the thigh of a hog. The Entozoon is a minute, coiled 
"worm, contained in a cyst. The cyst are numerous, white 
oval in shape, of a gritty nature, and between the 30th and 
40th of an inch in length. 

The Entozoon he supposes to be the Trichina spiralis, 
heretofore considered as peculiar to the human species. He 
could perceive no distinction between it and the specimens 
of T. spiralis which he had met with in several human sub- 
jects in the dissecting rooms, where it had also been observed 
by others, since the attention of the scientific public had been 
directed to it by Mr. Hilton and Prof. Owen. 

Dr. Leidy also exhibited a singular knotted mass of living 
Gordii, or hair worms, with numerous long strings of ova at- 
tacked, which had been taken a few days since from one of 
the hydrants of this city. 



Stated Meeting, October 13, 1846. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Numerous specimens of minute recent and fossil Shells from 
the shore of Seneca- Lake, N. Y. Presented by Judge 
Tremper. 

Native Copper from the Bay of Fundy. From Professor 
Johnson. 

A large slab of Sandstone, from the Portland Quarries, near 
Middletown, Connecticut, containing numerous marks of 
Ornithoidichnites. Presented by Messrs. C. P. Wicker- 
sham, and L. F. Jones, of Chester County, Pennsylvania. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Continuazione delle osservzioni nell' anno 1841, sulle larve 
di Scolia flavifrons. Da Carlo Passerini. Firenze 1841. 
4to. From the Author. 



October, 1846.] 109 

Professor Johnson read an extract of a letter from Judge 
Tremper, in continuation of his observations on the tempera- 
ture and evaporation of Seneca Lake ; also some remarks on 
the increased rapidity of evaporation from the earth, when 
the herbage is closely cropped, as in grazing and pasture 
fields, and the causes thereof. 

Dr. Dickeson stated, that having noticed some tracks re- 
sembling Ornithichnites, -which were produced by the Alliga- 
tor, he was induced to cause some tracks to be made in clay 
by that animal, several of which impressions he exhibited. 
He also mentioned that tracks of other animals had been re- 
peatedly noticed by him, which he thought closely resembled 
the so-called bird tracks of the sandstone slab this evening 
presented to the Society. 

Dr. Dickeson also made some interesting observations in 
relation to the habits of the Alligator. 

Professor Johnson offered some remarks on Drift : He re- 
marked that in the vicinity of St. John's, N. B., he had met 
with some well marked examples of diluvial action, as evin- 
ced by scratches on the rocks at great depth. In some cases 
the grooves were to be found well marked on the side of the 
rock, while on the other no such action was manifest ; but 
boulders not in situ were deposited there, as if from the action 
of a current in a direction from the grooved to the unaffected 
side of the rock. These boulders also exhibited grooves on 
their surface. 



Stated Meeting, October 20, 1846. 
Vice President Wetherill in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Dr. Morton deposited six embalmed heads of ancient Egypt- 
ians, presented to him by A. C. Harris, Esq. 

Dr. Dickeson deposited a very extensive collection of speci- 
mens in fossil zoology, comparative anatomy, Indian relics, 
&c, obtained from the Natchez bluffs, the southern lakes 
and rivers, the aboriginal mounds, &c. 



110 [October, 1846. 

Mr. Gambel read a continuation of his ' Remarks on the 
Birds of Upper California,' which was referred to Messrs. 
Cassin, Townsend, and Woodhouse. 



On motion of Dr. Morton, the Curators were authorized to 
receive on deposit, and to furnish accommodations in the 
Hall, for the large and interesting collections of Dr. M. W. 
Dickeson, deposited on this evening. 



Meeting for Business, October 27, 1846. 

Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

The committee on Mr. Gambel's paper read at last meet- 
ing, reported in favor of publication. 



Remarks on the Birds observed in Upper California. 

By William Gambel. 

[Continued from page 48, vol. iii.J 

PASSERES. 

Hibondo thallassina, Swains. Violet-green Swallow. 

This beautiful species I fonnd passing to the northward through Califor- 
nia, in the spring. 

Hirundo fu'lva, Vieill. Republican Swallow. 

This is the most abundant swallow on our western coast, and arrives in 
California about the latter part of February or beginning of March. They 
immediately resort to the neighborhood of the towns, missions and farm- 
houses, and soon commence repairing their old retort-shaped nests, with 
which sheltered walls, the eves, and even window frames of the houses, are 
sometimes nearly covered. The nest is also frequently made on the trunks 
of large trees in the woods. They are very loath to quit their old nesting 
places, and will persist in building them up, however often they may be 
destroyed either by the rain or the inhabitants. 

Chelidon bicolor, Vieill. White-bellied Swallow. 

This is also a common species, and a few appear to remain all winter, but 
the greater part arrive about the latter part of February. At Santa Barbara, 



October, 1846.] Ill 

I found their nests, as usual, in the knot holes of the evergreen oaks in 
April. 

Cotyle riparia, Linn. Bank Swallow. 

Common ; burrowing their nests in the sandy banks of small streams and 
creeks, which have worn deep ravines. 

I also observed another swallow, not far from Monterey, in August, 
with a deeply forked tail, like our barn swallow, but apparently differently 
marked. 

Ceryle alcyon, Linn. Kingfisher. 

Common along the whole of the western coast. In California it is never 
observed to frequent the inland streams and creeks, being exclusively found 
along the rocky shores and islands. 

Calliphlox rufa, Gmel. Rufous Humming Bird. 

This beautiful little flame bearer is not unfrequent throughout California. 

Calliphlox anna, Less. Anna Humming Bird. 

Trochilus icterocephalus. Nutt. Man. Orn. vol. 1, 2d Ed. p. 712. 

A very abundant and interesting species, numbers passing the winter in 
California; at such times inhabiting sheltered hill sides and plains, where at 
all seasons a few bushy plants are in flower, and afford it a scanty subsist- 
ence. They appear, however, in greater numbers about the latter part of 
February and during the month of March ; the country is soon carpeted 
with flowers, and the Anna humming bird, revelling among their sweets, 
commences the duty of rearing its young. About the Pueblo, the vineyards 
and gardens are its favourite resort, forming its delicate downy nest in a 
small flowering bush, or some concealed spot about the fence. In April 
and May these may be found in almost every garden. 

In other parts it attaches its nest almost exclusively to a low, horizontal 
branch of the evergreen oak, (Quercus agrifolia) so common throughout the 
country ; the nest is small, being about an inch in depth and one and a quar- 
ter in diameter; it is not very thick, and is formed in the most delicate man- 
ner of pappus and down of various plants, held together and matted into a 
soft felt with spider's webs, which latter I have frequently observed them 
collecting for the purpose in the spring along hedges and fence rows, and at 
first supposed they were only searching them for gnats and small insects 
which might be entangled, but in a nest which I now have the base is formed 
of a few dried male aments of the oak, and which with the adjoining felt- 
like matting of pappus, is agglutinated and bound around the twig with a 
thick layer of spider's web. The eggs, as usual, are two, white and ellip- 
tical. The note resembles that of the Rufous humming bird, and is a slender 
chep, frequently repeated, but during the breeding season they are very 
pugnacious, and the little combatants dart through the trees, like meteors, 
uttering a loud and repeated twittering scold. It has the same habit also, 



112 [Octobek, 1846. 

that has been remarked in the rufous humming bird, that of ascending in 
clear weather to a considerable height in the air, and then descending with 
great rapidity, uttering at the same time a peculiar note. 

Nuttall, who brought this species from California, did not procure the 
male, but saw it frequently, and supposed it to have a yellow spot on the 
crown. I discovered that that which deceived him in this respect was the 
glutinous pollen of a tubular flower upon which it feeds, adhering to the 
rigid feathers of the crown, and making it look as if it really had a yellow 
head. I have also seen the bill for half its length covered in the same 
manner. 

Sitta carolinensis, Briss. Carolina Nuthatch. 

This species is common in the pines of the Rocky Mountains, and also in 
the wooded regions of the western coast. 
Sitta canadensis, Linn. Canada Nuthatch. 

I found this little wanderer very abundant in the mountains of the inte- 
rior of California in October, roving in company with busy flocks of the 
Parus montanus nobis. 

Sitta pygm&a, Vigors. Pigmy Nuthatch. 

Extremely abundant in winter in Upper California, sometimes almost 
covering the trunks and branches of the pine trees, through which they ex- 
clusively forage. Around Monterey, particularly, the trees at times are alive 
with the noisy little creatures, incessantly uttering their monotonous queru- 
lous notes as they run around the branches. The note is generally a repeated 
whistling, wit, wit, which, when one commences, the rest join in ; they also 
utter a whistling trill, at the same time industriously searching the tree 
throughout, and only leaving it when every crack has been examined for 
the concealed insect fare. 

Harpes rediviva, Nobis, Proceed. Acad. Nat. Sc. vol. 2, p. 264. 
Promerops de la Californie Septentrionale, La Perouse. Atlas to voy- 
ages, pi. 47. 

This very remarkable bird was first noticed by La Perouse, who figured 
it in the atlas to his voyages, and subsequently by other writers when 
treating of the Tenuirostres, on his authority, as a Promerops. 

On comparison, it will be found more properly to belong to the great 
family Certhidae, and is allied to the oven birds of S. America, (Furnarius) 
both in general appearance, and as far as I can gather, in habits also, but 
the bill bears a greater resemblance to some of the large wren-like birds 
(Thryothorus ?) of tropical America. 

It does not stand alone in our country; I have lately been shown by Mr 
Audubon a specimen received from near Galveston, Texas, which he sup- 
posed to be the bird I had described, but upon comparison, it proved to 
be a distinct species with the bill more curving at the tip, and not so much 
flattened, of which no doubt a description will soon be published. 



October, 1846.] 113 

Troglodytes Bewickii, Aud. Bewick's Wren. 

Common, keeping in low bushes and piles of brush, as well as about old 
dead trees and logs, over and around which it flits with the greatest ac- 
tivity, uttering, when approached, the usual grating scold of the wrens. 

Troglodytes palustris, Wils. Marsh Wren. 

I found this species in small reedy marshes in the Rocky Mountains of 
the interior, in October. 

Troglodytes sylvestris, Nobis. Audubon's Wood Wren. 

T. Americana^ Aud. Orn. Biog., vol. 2, p. 452, pi. 179. 

A summer resident among the evergreen oaks of California, in which 
it sings and breeds. 

I have changed the name of this species from that given by its discoverer, 
because that a Troglodytes Americanus, from Cayenne, was described by 
Cuvier, in the Gal. du Paris. See Lesson's Traite de Ornithologie, p. 400. 

Sial, artica, Swains. Artie Blue bird. 

This beautiful azure songster is common throughout the northern pro- 
vinces of Mexico. In the neighborhood of Santa Fe it is abundant, keeping 
about the houses and gardens where they breed, sometimes forming its 
nest in boxes which are stuck up for the purpose by the inhabitants. In 
the ranges of the Rocky Mountains, as far as California, we frequently found 
it, and always associated with the S. Mexicana, both at this season occa- 
sionally uttering their cheerful song to remind us of home. 

Sialia Mexicana, Swains. Western Blue bird. 

S. occidentalis, Townsend, Aud. 

This species is found throughout the Rocky Mountains, in company with 
the former, and in California is by far the most abundant species. In 
April and May, I found it breeding in the knot holes of the evergreen 
oaks. During winter they assemble in small flocks, and frequent the 
weedy plains and valleys of the mountains. 

Turdds migratorius, Linn. American Robin. 

We found the Robin scatteringly throughout the Rocky Mountains, and 
a few are found at all seasons, in California. 

Tukdus nosvius, Gmel. Varied Thrush. 

I have only observed this beautiful species to pass through California 
during the spring and autumn, in silent flocks. 

Tordds minor Gmel. Hermit Thrush. 

T. nanus. Dwarf Thrush. Aud. Orn. Biog. 5, p. 204, pi. 419 ; Nutt. 

Man. p. 396. 
T. solilarius. Auc. 

The confusion hitherto existing in the description of the nearly allied 
group of Thrushes to which this belongs, has rendered the determination 
of the species exceedingly difficult, and at best but a matter of uncertainty, 



114 [October, 1846. 

The Dwarf Thrush of Audubon was founded upon specimens from the 
Atlantic States, and no doubt upon the true Hermit Thrush. 

Mr. Pickering, and also Mr. Nuttall, must have had the T. olivaceus, 
since characterized by Drs. Brewer and Giraud before them, and mis- 
taking it for the Hermit Thrush, when they distinguished the T. nanus as a 
species. 

An examination of specimens of the T. minor from the Atlantic and 
Pacific coasts of North America shows no difference in any way, except 
that perhaps the western one is somewhat smaller, yet the difference is 
scarcely appreciable. From the measurement of many western specimens, 
I found its length to be 6| inches, and the extent of wings Hkinches ; the 
tail, wings, and relative length of quills the same as in our eastern one, 
and in fact, I think it can in no possible way be distinguished as specifi- 
cally different. A European specimenalso of the same species, from the Ri- 
voli collection, now in the Academy, is the same in every_respect as our own. 

That which is most remarkable in the character of this delicate and 
gentle bird, is its solitary and retiring disposition ; avoiding the ruthless 
gaze of man, it glides into the deepest shade of the forest or underwood, 
and is but seldom seen, except unconsciously, when earnestly engaged, 
scratching upon the ground in search of food ; or else, it be discovered 
while perched upon a low leafy branch or twig, when it allows a very 
near approach, as if depending for concealment and security upon the 
thickness of the foliage and bushes around. 

In the wooded regions of the Rocky mountains, I found it not uncom- 
mon, always keeping on, or very near the ground. It is very frequent 
throughout California, and in the spring may be found in the retired 
hedges of the vineyards, where very possibly it breeds. 

Mimus montanus, Towns. Mountain Mocking bird. 

We occasionally met with individuals of this mocking bird along the 
bushy banks of streams in the interior, during September and October, 
then silent. 

Mimus polyglottis, Linn. Common Mocking bird. 

I observed a few of these in sheltered ravines during the winter, and in 
May, around Santa Barbara, the woods were ringing with their inimitable 
song, at this time, mimicking Bullock's oriole, and the western Blue bird. 

Cincltjs Americanus, Swains. American Dipper. 

A few of these are found along the solitary streams of the interior. 

Anthus Ltidovicianus, Licht. American Titlark. 

This species appears to be one of the most extensively distributed of N. 
American birds, beingfound throughout the length and breadth of our coun- 
try. In the desert regions, between Santa Fe and California, it was one of 
the few birds we met with ; then going in small flocks, either on the plains 
among arid Artemesia and sage bushes, or along the courses of rivers and 
small streams. In California it is abundant, particularly in winter, when 



October, 1846.] 115 

it frequents the seashore to pick up insocts, and perhaps small shells, from 
the seaweed which is cast ashore. 

Requlus calendula. Ruby- crowned Kinglet. 

This species, like many of the most diminutive birds, is found dis- 
tributed over the whole extent of our vast continent, thereby showing its 
connection as a single zoological centre or province of creation. 

In the highest ranges of the Roeky mountains, we met with the Ruby- 
crowned wren in large flocks, roaming in company with the Parus minimus, 
Towns., also in large flocks, enlivening those dreary solitudes with their 
restless activity and twittering while in search of food. Throughout Cali- 
fornia it is equally abundant ; ever varying habits and note making it but 
too often the victim of llie gun in supposition of being something else. 



The Report of the Corresponding Secretary was read and 
adopted. 

By permission of the Society, a paper was read, entitled, 
' On several new genera and species of Insects, by S. S. 
Haldeman,' which was referred to a committee, consisting 
of Messrs. Leidy, Hallowell, and Bridges. 

ELECTION. 

Ambrose W. Thomson, Esq., and Dr. M. W. Dickeson, of 
Philadelphia, were elected Members : 

And J. B. S. Johnson, M. D., of Boston, and C. B. 
Adams, Esp., of Vermont, were elected Correspondents. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 

OF PHILADELPHIA. 

Vol. hi. NOV. AND DEC, 184G. No. 6. 

Stated Meeting, November 3, 1846. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

A large collection of fossil bones of a young Mastodon, 
taken from the farm of Mr. William Pancoast, near 
Plattsburg, New Jersey. Also a human cranium and 
numerous fragments of other human hones, from the site 
of a supposed Indian cemetery, about 10 miles east of Bur- 
lington in that State. Presented by Mr. Pancoast, through 
Dr. Hallowell. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Second Annual Report of the Geology of Vermont. By 
C. B. Adams. Burlington, Vt., 1846. From the Author. 

Address to the British Association for the advancement of 
Science. By Sir Roderick ImpeyMurchison. London, 1846. 
From M. Agassiz. 

Eloge de Louis Levin Jacobson. Discours prononce in Da. 
nois a l'Academie royale des Sciences de Copenhague ; Se- 
ance du V" Mars. 1844 ; par D. F. Eschricht, M. D. Co- 
penhague, 1844. From the Author, through Dr. Morton.. 

18 



118 [Nov., 1846. 

De organis quae respiratione et nutrione foetus manmialium 
inserviunt. Prolusia academica quani scripsit D. F. Esch- 
richt, M. D. Hafnise, 1837. From the same. 

Cm undersogelsen af de Nordiske Hvaler af D. F. Eschrict, 
M. D. Kjobenhavn. From the same. 

Undersogelsen over Hvaldyrene af D. F. Eshricht : 

Forste af handling Bernserkninger over Cetologiens tidligere 
og Nservserende skjebne. 

Anden af handling Anatomisk Beskrivelse af de ydre foster- 
former hos to Nordiske Fiuhval-arter, med Anvendelse 
paa Physiologien og Zoologien. 

Tredie afhandling Om fosterformene Bardihvalernes erna- 
rings-og Forplantelsesredskaber. 

Fjerde afhandling Om Naebhvalen. From the same. 

Anatomische unter suchungen iibcr de Clione Borealis. H a 
Carl Holbbll und D. F. Eschrict, M. D. Kopenhagen, 
X838. From the same. 

The North American Sylva. By Michaux and Nuttall. 
Vol. I. Philadelphia, 1842. In exchange. 



A letter was read from Mr. Edward Wilson, dated Leyd- 
stip House, near Tenby, Pembrokeshire, England, 22d Sept.-. 
1846, acknowledging the receipt of his notice of election as 
a Correspondent. 

Dr. Morton read a portion of a paper intended for publi- 
cation in the American Journal of Science, on Hybridity in 
animals considered in reference to the question of the Unity 
of the Human Species. 



Stated Meeting, November 10, 1846. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Mr. Lewis Germain, of Burlington, N. J., presented an ad- 
ditional number of fossils from the marl strata near that 
place. Also the tooth of a Sphyraena from Mullica Hill, 
New Jersey. 



Nov., 1846.] 119 

Original specimen of Rafinesque's Mazama salinaria. Pre- 
sented by Mr. Haldeman. [Mr. H. stated that this was in 
reality merely a single prong of the horn of a Cervus, the 
interior being mineralized. 

Two fine specimens, in skin, of Falco leucocephalus. From 
Dr. Heermann. 

Dr. Dickeson presented twenty-six species of fossil Helix from 
the Drift west of Natchez ; and also deposited six human 
crania, four of which are from the mounds near that place. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Astronomical Observations made at the Naval Observatory, 
Washington, under orders of the Secretary of the Navy, 
dated Aug., 1838. By Lieutenant J. M. Gilliss, U. S. N. 
Washington, 1846. From Lieut. Gilliss. 

Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. Vol. 4, 
No. 35. Jan. to June, 1846. From the Society. 

The American Journal of Science and Arts. New series. 
Vol. 2, No. 6. From the Editors. 

Expedition shells, described for the work of the U. S. Ex- 
ploring Expedition. By Aug. A. Gould, M. D. Boston, 
1846. From the Author. 

On the Volcanoes of the Moon. By James D. Dana. New 
Haven, 1846. Erom the Author. 

Medical Examiner, Vol. 4, No. 6, containing an article by 
Dr. E. Hallowell, on the habits and post mortem appear- 
ances of a Chimpanzee (Simia Troglodytes) which died in 
Philadelphia. From Dr. Hallowell. 



Letters were read, 

From Mr. C. B. Adams, dated Middlebury, Vermont, Nov. 
5, 1846, acknowledging the receipt of his notice of election 
as a Correspondent. 

And from Mr. C. P. Wickersham, dated Kennett Square, 
Chester Co., Pennsylvania, Oct. 26, 1846, addressed to the 
Corresponding Secretary, containing the following, in refer- 



120 [Nov., 1846. 

ence to his recent donation to the Academy, of a fine speci- 
men of fossil tracks in the red sandstone of the Connecticut 
Valley. 

"It may not be improper for me to add, that we were shown on 
a large block of stone, by a gentleman connected with the quar- 
ries, tracks resembling those of some of our land animals, per- 
haps those of a mink in size. They were very distinct, though 
rather lightly impressed, there being, I believe, two rows across 
the stone. And that early last spring I found among some frag- 
ments, thrown out in consequence of sinking a well deeper, in 
Rockyhill, Ct., a specimen of fossil shell, or something having a 
close resemblance to one. One side of it is very perfect, the 
other is embedded in the stone, and is probably a small bi-valve, 
nearly an inch in length, and near three quarters of an inch in 
breadth. I sent it to Professor Silliman, with permission to 
deposit it in the cabinet of Yale College. If a shell, it appears 
to be the first we have any account of as having been found in the 
sandstone of the Connecticut Valley. 

The suggestion that the fossil tracks may probably be those of 
some Sauroid reptile, is doubtless worthy of attention. But from 
the few observations I made during my four years' residence at the 
University of that place, I am inclined to the opinion that they can 
never be attributed to any other than biped animals of some type 
or other. Where opportunity is afforded for the inspection of a large 
number of successive tracks, they are found to be at regular 
intervals, along a line in the direction of the motion of the centre 
of gravity of the animals; and the line drawn through the heel 
and centre toe makes but a small deflexion from the line of motion 
of the animal. In all the tracks which I have carfully noticed, each 
alternate track exactly resembles that which precedes it, and in 
some cases where there is a slight peculiarity in one of the feet, 
this fact is very apparent. The heel of the track does not exhibit 
any sign of the impression of a portion of the leg adjoining the 
foot, not even where the animal has passed up or down a small 
declivity, as was the case with some tracks on that portion of the 
specimen in your museum, destroyed by the workmen in our 
absence. If uric acid is found only in the excrements of birds, 



Nov., 1846.] 121 

the analysis of some of the coprolites found iu the valley is pretty 
conclusive evidence that birds did exist there at the time the sand- 
stone was forming. 

Now if we take the Crocodile, Alligator, or any of the Saurian 
type with which we are acquainted, we should expect to see their 
tracks made at irregular intervals, and at some distance on either 
side of a plane passing perpendicularly through the centre of 
gravity of the animal in the direction of its motion, especially 
when we consider the width the feet are separated, and the 
clumsy manner in which these animals must move. These ani- 
mals would, in all probability, leave the print of a portion of the 
leg next the foot, and which, if I mistake not, is the case with the 
fossil tracks acknowledged to be of the Sauroid character, found 
in the same valley. " 

Dr. Morton concluded the reading of his memoirs on u Hybridity 
in animals considered in reference to the question of the Unity of 
the Human Species," and after some general remarks, submitted 
the following conclusions : 

1. A latent power of hybridity exists in many animals in the 
wild state, in which state, also, hybrids are sometimes produced. 

2. Hybridity takes place not only among different species, but 
also among different genera ; and the cross-breeds have been 
prolific in both cases. 

3. Domestication does not cause this faculty, but merely 
evolves it. 

4. The capacity for fertile hybridity, cceteris paribus, exists 
in animals in proportion to their aptitude for domesticity and culti- 
vation. 

5. Since various species of animals are capable of producing a 
fertile hybrid offspring, hybridity ceases to be a test of specific 
affiliation. 

6. Consequently, the mere fact that the several races of man- 
kind produce, with each other, a more or less fertile progeny, 
constitutes, in itself, no proof of the unity of the human species. 



122 [Nov., 1846. 

Stated Meeting, Nov. 17, 1846. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Casts of Charcharodon Mortoni > Gibbes, C. rectidens, Agassiz, 
and C. megalodon, Ag., from the Eocene of South Caro- 
lina. From Dr. R. W. Gibbes, of S. Carolina. 

Tooth of a Mosasaurus, from New Jersey. From Dr. Hal- 
lowell. 

Specimen, in spirits, of Mantis religiosa, from Caraccas. 
From Dr. Goodall, through Dr. Hallowell. 

A series of Iron ores, from Nova Scotia. From Prof. John- 
son. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Memoir on the Megatherium and other extinct gigantic quad- 
rupeds of the coast of Georgia ; with observations on its 
geological features. By Win. B. Hodgson. New York, 
1846. From the Author. 

Ancient Egypt, her Monuments, History and Archaeology, 
and other subjects connected with Hieroglyphical Lite- 
rature. By Geo. R. Gliddon. 10th edition, with an Ap- 
pendix. From the Author. 

A monograph of the fresh-water univalve Mollusca of the 
United States. By S. S. Haldeman. Nos. 7 and 8. From 
the Author. 

Dr. A. L. Elwyn presented the following : 

Some account of the Siren lacertina and other species of the 
same genus of amphibious animals. (In a letter from 
Prof. Barton, of Philadelphia, to John Gottlob Schneider, 
of Saxony.) Philadelphia, 1821. 

Ueber die Bartmiindigen enzianarten, (Gentianse fauce bar 
bata) Von Dr. Nees von Esenbeck. 

Synopsis Specierum generis Asterum per baccarum, &c. 
Auctore Chr. Godofred Nees ab Esenback, M. D. Er- 
langre, 1818. 



Nov., 1846.] 123 

An account of a new method of making anatomical prepara- 
tions. By Joseph Swain. London, 1820. 

Facts and observations on liver complaints. By John Faith- 
born, M. D. Philadelphia, 1822. 



Mr. Cassin read a " Note on an instinct supposed to be 
possessed by the Herons, especially the genus Arclea, L.," 
which was referred to Messrs. Phillips, Harris and Gam- 
bel. 

Prof. Johnson announced to the Academy the decease of 
our late fellow member, Isaiah Lukens, Esq. After some 
very appropriate remarks on the character, high qualities and 
scientific attainments of the deceased, the following resolu- 
tions were submitted by him : 

Resolved, That this Academy has heard with deep regret the 
loss it has sustained in the demise of our late able and excellent 
associate, Isaiah Lukens, one of ths earliest members of this 
institution. 

Resolved, That through the whole period of its existence, this 
Academy has felt the beneficial influence of the personal worth 
of our late coadjutor, and of his firm, unwavering support of the 
interests of this institution; of his sound and discriminating judg- 
ment in various departments of science ; of his constant devotion 
to knowledge and the useful arts, and of his sincere uncompromis- 
ing love of truth. 

Resolved, That the members of this Academy deeply sympa- 
thize with the relatives and friends of the deceased in the bereave- 
ment they have sustained by the death of our lamented associate ; 
that they recall with a melancholy pleasure the many happy and 
profitable hours which they have passed in his society; that they 
dwell with unmixed satisfaction on the memory of his free and 
generous spirit, ever ready to communicate of his abundant stores 
of useful knowledge, ever wise and liberal in his estimate of the 
labors and characters of others, ever modest and reserved in what 
concerned his own peculiar and distinguished merits. 

Resolved, That we cherish a deep sense of the value of that 
combination of intelligence with useful labor for which our 



124 [Nov., 1846. 

departed friend was so signally characterized, and cannot with- 
hold the tribute of our admiration from that devotion to duty 
which found him, as his lamp of life was drawing to its last faint 
glimmer, still at his post, iutent on the fulfilment of a professional 
service, while his dying breath expressed his gratitude for the 
privilege of having lived at a period when so much of truth and 
improvement had been developed in the world, and that in his 
day and generation he had been permitted to share in the many 
and varied enjoyments which science and ingenuity had dif- 
fused. 

Resolved, That a member of the Academy be appointed to pre- 
pare a suitable memoir of our departed fellow member. 

Resolved, That a copy of the foregoing resolutions be communi- 
cated to the family of the deceased, with the heartfelt condolence 
of the Academy on this mournful occasion. 

The resolutions were unanimously adopted, and Prof. 
Johnson appointed to prepare the memoir. 



Meeting for Business, November 24, 1846. 
Vice President Wetherill in the Chair. 

The Monthly Report of the Corresponding Secretary was 
read and adopted. 

The Committee on the following paper by Mr. Haldeman, 
reported in favor of publication. 

On several Neio Genera and Species of Insects. 

By S. S. Haldeman. 

Whilst engaged in making dissections of the mouth of several 
species of Copris for the purpose of learning their true generic 
character, I was struck with the dissimilarity existing in the la- 
brum. I consider the European Copris lunaris as the type of the 
genus, because European naturalists have usually constructed 
the genera, and the type should be a species whose habits^are 
well known. To prevent confusion, the author who subdivide? 



Nov., 1846.] 125 

an old genus, should generally be allowed to decide what portion 
is to retain the old generic name. The rule which adopts as the 
type the species which stands first in an author's work, is not 
applicable in all cases, because these were not always considered 
the type of the genus. An author might name a genus Geo- 
trupes from the known habits of a European species, and com- 
mence his list with a large exotic species having entirely different 
habits, and not really congeneric with it. In such a case it would 
be obviously improper to consider the latter as the type of the 
genus Geotrupes. Moreover, instead of being the type, the 
initial species may have been thus placed from its resemblance 
to the preceding genus ; and it is obvious that the animal which 
most nearly approaches another genus, cannot be the type of that 
to which it really belongs. 

1. Brachycopris. The type of this new genus is the well 
known Copris Carolina. In Copris the labrum is subquadrate, 
rather widest anteriorly ; the anterior margin transverse, slightly 
emarginate, with a medial projecting appendicle, and the ex- 
terior margins rounded. In Brachico- 
pris the labrum is distantly triangular, 
widest at base, and much narrowed an- 
teriorly, where it is deeply emarginate, 
leaving a lateral aculeate process, the 
appendicle projecting from the base of 
the emargination, as represented in the 
figure. The basal articulation of the 
labial palpi is proportionally much 
larger than in Copris. This body is con- 
tracted in length ; and in the type, the elytra are sulcate and the 
tibiae unarmed. 

Copris molossus would upon first view be placed nearer to C. 
Carolina than to C. lunaris, or the American C. anaglypticus, 
Say. Its labrum, however, associates it with these. Mr. Hope 
has made it the type of his genus Catharsius. It has the labium 
more regular, more nearly quadrate, and the anterior half only 
of the medial solid portion is covered with hair, the posterior 
portion presenting a smooth furrow with a well defined margin. 

2. Prionus fissicornis. General characters as in P. imbri- 
cornis. Blackish brown, antennre thick, imbricate, reaching the 
middle of the elytra, 25 articulate, canaliculate beneath by means 
of a deep emargination in the articulations, which are somewhat 
v-shaped when detached, the posterior branch the longer, with 
its apex incurved: prothorax with three lateral teeth. 11 lines 
long. 

For this interesting species I am indebted to my friend Dr. J. 
L. Le Conte, who found it near the Rocky mountains. It is re- 




126 [Nov., 1846. 

inarkable for the emargination and number of the articulations of 
the antenna?, which are more numerous than in any native species 
hitherto described. The globular base of the second is not enu- 
merated; twenty-four are imbricate, and the final one has a small 
additional process rising out of its concavity. In P. imbricornh 
the antennae of the male have nineteen, and of the female, seven- 
teen articulations. 

3. Sphenostethus. Allied to Prionus. Head small, narrower 
than the thorax, concave above; eyes slightly emarginate ante- 
riorly ; antennae less than half the entire length, slender and com- 
pressed, second articulation longest, subsequent, ones gradually 
decreasing, with a tendency to serration beneath ; mandibles ro- 
bust, toothed ; palpi with the terminal articulation triangular : 
prothorax transverse, narrower than the elytra, contracted ante- 
riorly, concave posteriorly, the external margins unarmed : pro 
and mesosternum conjointly carinate, in close contact, the latter 
entering an acute emargination of the former : scutel triangular : 
elytra separately rounded at base, moderately tapering and 
dehiscent; sides incurved, apex minutely serrate : feet slender. 

4. S; serripermis. Shining black, punctate scabrous above; front 
with a wide depression having an impressed medial line; pro- 
notum with two approximate impressed punctures upon each 
side arranged diagonally, medial line visibly impressed poste- 
riorly; external margins convex, emarginate at the posterior 
angles ; posterior margin convex in the centre and concave late- 
rally : elytra meeting the pronotum in close contact, a shallow 
scabrous impression at the base ; apex finely serrate. Length 
11 ; prothorax 2; elytra 8; width at base 4 lines. 

A single specimen taken in south-eastern Pennsylvania. An- 
other seen in Le Conte's cabinet, probably taken in New York. 
Probably allied to Prionus muticus, Fabr. ii. 265. It is remarka- 
ble for the close contact of the prothorax with the elytra and scutel 
above and the mesosternum below. 

5. Molorchus tenuipes. Black, frontal line deeply impressed : 
prothorax cylindric : elytra dark fuscous, obsoletely fulvous at base : 
medial and posterior feet very slender. 3 lines long. 

The larva inhabits detached branches of the genus Carya, 
(hickory), the perfect insect appearing in May in S. E. Pennsyl- 
vania. 

6. Enoplixjm venustum. Dark brown, with minute fulvous 
hairs : middle of the elytra with a broad irregular transverse silvery 
band. 4$ lines long. South-eastern Pennsylvania. 

Base and half the terminal articulation of the antennae, palpi, 
anterior tarsi, and base of the femora, pale yellow : pronotum tu- 
berculate : elytra with numerous dilated impressed punctures : 
apex pale yellowish brown, and with the base marked with a 
few small spots of yellow; the central white portion has several 



Nov., 1846.] 127 

spots of black, and is bounded posteriorly by a black zigzag line, 
the black enlarging towards the suture ; medial and posterior 
feet pale yellow ; the femora with the middle and the tibice with 
the terminal half, brown. Apparently allied to E. bimacirfatum, 
Mels., Proceed. Acad. 2, 307. According to Dr. Le Conte this 
is the venustum of Dejean's Catalogue. 

7. Heterodromia [Fani. Donaciadae.] Body slender, punc- 
tate-scabrous : head advanced ; eyes rather prominent, reticulate ; 
antennre 11-articulate, slender, longer than the head and pro- 
thorax, first articulation longer than the second and third, last 
fusiform : mandibles strong, short, incurved : palpi 3-articulate, 
final articulation subsecuriform, prothorax subelongate, narrowed 
behind : elytra subparallel, narrowing towards the apex, wider 
than the prothorax, conjointly rounded at tip : feet slender, sub- 
elongate, posterior femora incrassate. 

8. H. velox. Thickly punctured, hirsute, pale yellow ; head, 
anterior margin of the prothorax, and seventh, (at the apex) eighth, 
ninth and tenth articulations of the antennae, black : elytra lineate 
punctate, with a tendency to fuscous behind the middle : abdo- 
men obscure fuscous, feet pale. 4} millim. long. 

Var. a. Having three transverse fuscous dots on the pronotum, 
and a large sutural fuscous spot at the base of the elytra. 

Found in May, upon grass and under stones and rubbish, in 
Pennsylvania, Carolina, Alabama and Ohio. It runs with great 
rapidity, and resembles some of the Carabidae. The species de- 
scribed might at first view be taken for the Demetrias atricapiUus, 
Linn. 

9. Trogus nubilt'pennis. Fulvous ; antennae, eyes, vertex, and 
five terminal segments of the abdomen, with half the preceding 
one, black : wings fuliginous, mottled with a few spots of yellow 
in the middle and at the base : mesosternum tipped with black : 
abdomen shining black beneath : inside of the base of the femora 
and trochanters blackish : tibiae, tarsi, front and base of the an- 
tennas beneath, yellow. 11 lines long, expanse 19. 

About a year ago I sent a description and specimen abroad, 
which seems to differ from the present one, as the segment of the 
abdomen upon which the two colors meet is described with " ma- 
cula longitudinali nigra in medio, et nigro-marginato ;" and the 
wings "fuligine fiavoque nubilatis." There are a few minute 
white specks upon the alar nervures ; one on the medial, a little 
within the small intercubital cell; one exterior to the same cell ; 
and two on the interdiscoidal nervure running from it. 

10. Ibalia macuh'pennis . Yellow ; meso-and metathorax black, 
except the scutel and two longitudinal bands above, and a spot 
beneath the wings : eyes, apex of the antennae, base of the coxae, 
and middle of the femora, (the greater part of the posterior ones) 



128 [Nov., 1846. 

black : posterior tibia) blackish towards the apex : wings yellow, 
apex and a central spot fuliginous. 7 lines long, 11 expanse. 
South eastern Pennsylvania, in May and June. 



The following amendments to the By-Laws were adopted: 

Chap. V. Art. VI., to commence thus : " The duty of the 
Librarian shall be to attend daily at the Hall from 11 o'clock, 
A. M., to 2f, P. M., &c." 

And to add to the same Chapter : 

Art. VIII. The Chairman of the Curators shall attend 
daily at the Hall from 2-, P. M. until sunset, to perform 
the duties of his office. 



The following preamble and resolutions, offered by Dr. 
Morton, were adopted : 

Whereas, Dr. Thomas B. Wilson has made this institution 
the depository of his magnificent collection of Birds, which, 
from the number, beauty and variety of its specimens, al- 
ready ranks as the fourth extant ; and 

Wliereas, Dr. Wilson is assiduously extending and perfect- 
ing this collection for the interests of science and of this in- 
stitution ; and 

Wliereas, The collection of the Academy is comparatively 
small and incomplete, and must continue to be so, inasmuch 
as the former incentive to increase it no longer exists, and 
also since two collections in Ornithology are unnecessary 
and inexpedient ; 

Therefore, Resolved, That the collection of birds now 
belonging to the Academy, be merged in the Wilson Col- 
lection. 

Resolved, That the galleries nOw occupied by the Orni- 
thological collection of the Academy, with such of the cases 
as may be required, be appropriated to the use of the joint 
collection. 

Resolved, That the Zoological Committee be authorized 
and instructed to carry into effect the foregoing resolutions. 



Dec, 1846.] 129 

election. 

Mr. John Lambert, of Philadelphia, was elected a Member, 
and the following gentlemen were elected Correspondents of 
the Academy : 

J. W. Dawson, Esq., of Pictou, Nova Scotia. 

W. E. Logan, Esq., Geologist of Canada. 

Richard Brown, Esq., of Sydney, Cape Breton. 

James Robb, Esq., of Frederickton, New Brunswick. 

Andreas Retzius, M. D., of Stockholm. 



Stated Meeting, December 1, J.846. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Remarkably large and fine specimen of Sulphuret of Lead, or 
Galena, (weight exceeding 100 lbs.) crystallized in cubes 
from the mine of Mr. Sanders, near Galena, Illinois. Pre- 
sented by Mr. Alex. C. Davis, of Galena, through Richard 
D. Wood, Esq., of Philadelphia. 

Mounted specimen of Tyrannus verticalis, Say, from New 
Jersey. Presented by Mr. Edward Harris. 

Sctttella quinquefaria, from the Eocene of Georgia, and a 
number of Silurian fossils from Nova Scotia. From Prof. 
Johnson. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Literary Record and Journal of the Linnean Association of 
Pennsylvania College. Vol. 3, No. 1. From the Asso- 
ciation. 

Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Vol. xx., 
Part 1. 4to. London, 1846. 

Proceedings of the same ; pp. 261 to 304. 

List of the Society for 1846. From the Society. 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. Part xiii. 
1845. 

Report of the Council and Auditors of the same for 1846. 
From the Society. 



130 [Dec, 1846. 

Mr. Grant, of Philadelphia, read a paper containing ob- 
servations on Hybridity in Animals, which was referred to 
a committee, consisting of Messrs. Cassin, Phillips and Mor- 
ton. 



Stated Meeting, Dec. 8, 1846. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

A communication was read from the Essex Co. (Mass.) 
Natural History Society, dated Dec. 1, 1846, acknowledg- 
ing the receipt of recent Nos. of the Society's Proceedings. 

Dr. Hallowell read a description of the locality, near Platts- 
burg, New Jersey, whence the fossil bones of a young Mas- 
todon, presented at a late meeting of the Society, had been 
obtained by himself and other members. 

Dr. H. gave the following enumeration of the bones, for 
which the Academy is indebted to the liberality of Mr. Wil- 
liam Pancoast, the proprietor of the farm on which they were 
found. 

Eleven ribs nearly perfect, seven of which belong to the 
left side ; one rib of same side much mutilated ; two scapulae 
imperfect ; a humerus, two feet three inches long (French 
measure) with the head separated from it; three cervical ver- 
tebrae and six dorsal well preserved ; one lumbar and four 
caudal vertebrae ; two vertebral spinous processes ; the 
ossa innominata, fractured, with the acetabula perfect, 
but the foramina thyroidea incomplete, and the ischia 
partly broken off; one patella ; the head of the os femoris and 
upper portion of the shaft of the bone ; a scaphoid and other 
small bones of the feet ; with numerous undetermined frag- 
ments of bone. Besides these, there are two others, sup- 
posed to be the zygomatic processes of the temporal bones. 
The epiphyses are separated from the upper extremity of the 
os humeri and of the femur, which, with the size of the 
bones, indicate that they belonged to a young animal. 



Dec. 1846.] 131 

The following resolutions, adopted at a meeting of the 
Zoological Committee, were presented by the Chairman of 
the Commmittee : 

Resolved, That in incorporating the Ornithological col- 
lection of the Academy with that of Dr. "Wilson, the Zoolo- 
gical Committee will withdraw from exhibition such speci- 
mens, the property of the Academy, as shall be found dupli- 
cates in the joint collection. 

Resolved, That the duplicates be deposited in the north- 
east basement room. 

The resolutions were, on motion, approved. 



Stated Meeting, Dec. 15, 1846. 
Mr. Vaux in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

A number of fine fossils, from the Silurian rocks of Columbia 
Co., Pennsylvania. Presented by Mr. H. S. Stephens. 

Prof. Johnson presented from Miss Morris, of Grermantown, 
numerous specimens of Cicada septemdecim, some of them 
in the living state. They had been recently found in that 
vicinity, firmly attached by the proboscis to the roots of 
fruit trees which had been gradually decaying for several 
years. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Fourth Bulletin of the National Institute. Feb. 1845 to 
Nov. 1846. Washington, D. C, 1846. From the Insti- 
tute. 

The following very valuable works were deposited by Dr. 
Thomas B. Wilson : 

Fauna Japonica ; auctore Ph. Fr. von Siebold. 18 fasciculi. 
Aves, Mammalia, Pisces. Elaborantibus C. J. Temminck, 
et N. II. Schlegel. Folio. 

Verhandelingen over de Naturlijke Geschiedenis der Ne- 



132 [Dec, 1846. 

derlandsche overzeesche Bezittengen door de leden der 

Natuurkundige commissie in Oost-Indie en Andere Schrij- 

vers. Zoologie. 12 Nos. Folio. 
Systeniatische Uebersicht der Vogel Nord-Ost Afrikas. Von 

Dr. Ed. Riippell. 1 vol. 8vo. Frankfort Am. Main. 1845. 
Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehbrig 

entdeckt und beschrieben von Dr. Ed. Rtippell. 1 vol. 4to. 

Frankfort Am. Main, 1835-40. 
The Genera of Birds. By Geo. Robert Gray, F. L. S. Il- 
lustrated with about 350 plates, by David Win. Mitchell, 

B. A. F. L . S., &c. 28 parts, 4to. 
Iconographie Ornithologique. Nouveau recueil general de 

planches peintes d'Oiseaux : par 0. des Murs. 3 Livs. 

4to. 
The Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America. By John 

James Audubon, and the Rev. John Bachman, D. D 

Ninety-three plates. Elephant folio. 



Dr. Leidy read a paper " On the situation of the olfactory 
sense in the terrestrial tribe of the gasteropodous mollusca," 
which was referred to Mr. Phillips, Mr. Haldeman, and Dr. 
Morton. 

A letter was read from Dr. Zina Pitcher, dated Detroit, 
Michigan, Dec. 3, 1846, transmitting a Catalogue of Birds in 
the University of Michigan, and soliciting exchanges in seve- 
ral departments of Natural History. 



The following remarks by Miss Morris, communicated 

through Professor Johnson, fully explain the circumstances 

which led to, and accompanied the discovery of the larvse 

of Cicada septendecim preying on the roots of fruit trees : 

. I have, for a number of years, believed that the failure of fruit 
on trees over tweuty years old, was mainly owing to the ravages 
of the larvae of the Cicada septendecim, though Entomologists 
have heretofore considered them harmless, or nearly so, believing 
that the principal injury caused by them was received on the 
branches of the trees when depositing their eggs. But from the 
fact of their burrowing into the earth the moment of their escape 



Dec, 1846.] 133 

from the eggs, and their living, as all acknowledge, on the sap of 
the roots of plants, I was led to think that the constant drain of 
sap required to nourish so many thousands of grubs, of from a 
quarter of an inch to an inch in length, must be more than a tree 
could live through, and yield good fruit. I was confirmed in this 
opinion by an experiment made by J. B. W., New York, and 
published in the November number of the Horticulturist, page 
227. The method prescribed to renovate an outcast, is to dig a 
trench four feet wide and twenty inches deep, around the tree, 
leaving a ball of earth six feet in diameter, and then to fill the 
trench with rich earth and compost. The author states that the 
experiment succeeded, and that in three years the tree was in a 
flourishing condition, and yielded fine fruit. The writer attributes 
the change to the new and rich soil with which he supplied the 
tree. I argue, that on cutting off the larvae of the Cicada, which 
he did when he cut off so large a portion of the roots, he removed 
the real disease, and the tree was then in a condition to take ad- 
vantage of the congenial soil placed around it ; and new life was 
given to roots and branches. 

Under this impression, I superintended a similar experiment on 
a pear tree that had been declining for years, without any appa- 
rent cause, and agreeably to my expectations, I found the larvae 
of the Cicada in countless numbers clinging to the roots of the 
tree, with their suckers piercing the bark, and so deep and firmly 
placed, that they remained hanging for half an hour after being 
removed from the earth. From a root a yard long, and about an 
inch in diameter, I gathered twenty-three larvas ; they were of 
various sizes, from a quarter of an inch to an inch in length. 
They were on all the roots that grew deeper than six inches below 
the surface. The roots were unhealthy, and bore the appearance 
of external injury from small punctures. On removing the outer 
coat of bark, this appearance increased, leaving no doubt as to 
the cause of the disease. 

The larvae were enclosed in a compact cell of earth, with no 
outlet except that in immediate contact with the root, and as 
there were no galleries or holes leading from these cells, I infer 
that the grubs never leave the roots they first fasten on ; which 
may account for the great difference of size; the small ones being 
starved specimens of the same brood : though I am inclined to 
believe that there are two species, differing sufficiently in size to ac- 
count for the discrepancy in the size of the larvae now found. I 
noticed this difference in 1817, and again in 1834 : the note of 
the smaller variety, or species, is much shriller than that of the 
larger, and will never be mistaken when noticed. 

The Cicado is too well known to need a description here; I 
will therefore only notice its habits as they have fallen under my own 
observation, and make a few extracts from an article published in 

19 



134 [Dec, 1846. 

the National Gazette, and written by my brother, Mr. Thomas 
W. Morris, in 1834. 

The eggs require forty-two days to mature in the branches of 
the trees j they then burst the shell and appear, a minute but 
active fac simile of the parent in the larvae state, except the ab- 
sence of the wing cases ; they require but a few moments to 
stretch their limbs and prepare for labor, before they unloose their 
hold on the twiggs on which they had been deposited, and fall to 
the ground, where they immediately disappear in search of food 
in the roots of the tree. If the eggs that are about to hatch be 
placed over a glass jar filled with earth, the young grubs will in 
a few hours after their escape from the eggs, be seen at the bot- 
tom of the jar endeavoring to force their way still deeper when 
first hatched they are quite white, but soon change to yellowish 
brown. They exist in separate tribes, occupying different sec- 
tions of country ; making their appearance in different years, but 
invariably after the same interval of time. For a year or two 
before the arrival of the main body, a few scattered individuals 
are generally found. 

Mr. Morris thus describes them, as noticed by him at various 
times and places : 

"In November, 1812, I found a large number of locust grubs 
under an old apple tree, between two and three feet below the 
surface, having every appearance of such as now issue from the 
ground, and nearly of the same size. On the 27th of June, 1815, 
I saw a portion of one of their countless tribes west of the Alle- 
ghany mountains, extending from the summit of the Chestnut 
ridge into the State of Ohio, beyond Steubenville ; occupying every 
shrub and tree except the pines, and the walnut, hickory, and 
some of the same family. On my return in the latter end of the 
following month, not an individual of the myriads which had oc- 
cupied that space was to be seen ; the tops of the forests for up- 
wards of a hundred miles appeared as if scorched by fire. In 
1832, just seventeen years after, I noticed a newspaper para- 
graph, which stated that the locust had appeared in that neigh- 
borhood in large numbers. 

The northern parts of Pennsylvania and New Jersey were 
visited by them in 1826, when I had another opportunity of see- 
ing this extraordinary insect. On my way from Easton, through 
New Jersey to Milford in Pike county, Pennsylvania, I fell in 
with a very numerous body ; how far they extended, I was unable 
to learn, but they did not disappear from my route until after 
passing through a large part of Pike county, a distance by the 
road, of more than sixty miles from the place where I saw them 
on the 23d of May. Trees and shrubs are necessary as places of 
deposit for their eggs ; consequently, though numerous in the 
State House Square, none were to be found in Washington Square, 
which in 1817 was destitute of trees." 



Dec, 1846.] 135 

Stated Meeting, Dec. 22, 1846. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Very fine specimen of Nail-headed Calcareous spar, from 
Cumberland, England. Presented by Mr. George Thom- 
son, of Liverpool, through Mr. Samuel Ashmead. 

Dr. Morton deposited the following crania: Two natives of 
Madagascar, presented to him by Lt. Strain, U. S. N. ; a. 
Negro, from Dr. Hardy, of Asheville, S. C. ; a Potawatomie, 
from Dr. Fussell ; a Kanaka of the Sandwich Islands, from 
Lt. Strain, and an Australian Negro, from Dr. J. "Wilton, 
of Gloucester, England. 

Dr. Hallowell exhibited a living Chgemeleon, from Malaga, 
the property of Dr. C. W. Pennock. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Prodromo della Grande Anatomia ; seconda opera postuma di 
Paolo Mascagni, &c. Firenze, 1819. Folio. From Dr. 
P. B. Goddard. 

Chloris Boreali- Americana. Illustrations of new, rare, or 
otherwise interesting North American plants, selected 
chiefly from those recently brought into cultivation at the 
Botanic garden of Harvard University. By Asa Gray, 
M. D. Decade 1 D . 4to. Cambridge, 1846. From the 
Author. 

Contributions to the Bryology and Hepaticology of North 
America. By Wm. S. Sullivant. Part 1. 4to. Cam- 
bridge, 1846. From the Author. 

Report of the season of 1846, with a table showing the flower- 
ing of fruit trees, the first opening, full flowering and ending 
of each, from 1837 to 1846, inclusive, &c. By Joseph 
Barrat, M. D. Middleton, Ct. From the Author. 



136 [Dec, 1846. 

Annual Meeting, Dec. 29, 1846. 
Vice President Wetherill in the Chair. 
The Committee on the following communication by Dr. 
Leidy, reported in favor of publication. 

On the situation of the Olfactory sense in the terrestrial tribe of 
the Gasterojoodous Mollusca. 

By Joseph Leidy, M. D. 

While no observer of the habits of the terrestrial Gasteropoda 
doubts the existence of the sense of smell in them, but on the con- 
trary, asserts positively that it does exist, the anatomist heretofore 
has not been able to point out its precise seat. 

Swatnmerdam, in his Biblia Natura, speaks decidedly of the ex- 
istence of this sense in the Helix pomatia, but offers no conjec- 
ture as to its situation. Blumenbach remarks, under the head of 
Vermes, " Several animals of this class appear to have the sense 
of smelling, as many land snails (Helix pomatia, &c.,)" and after- 
wards adds, " But the organ of this sense is hitherto unknown ; 
perhaps it may be the stigma thoracicum." Cuvier in his Memoir 
sur la Limace et le Colimacon, after remarking the delicacy of this 
sense, thinks it probable it may reside " Dans la pean toute en- 
tiere, qui a beaucoup texture d'une membrane pituitaire." 

In investigating the anatomy of this tribe of Gasteropodous 
Mollusca, I detected an organ which appeared to have been en- 
tirely neglected, or has escaped the notice of those who have dis- 
sected these animals. It is a depression or cul-de-sac, having its 
orifice beneath the mouth, between the inferior lip and the ante- 
rior extremity of the podal disk, and which in many species of dif- 
ferent genera is elongated backwards into a blind duct, more or 
less deep, occupying a situation just above the podal disk, within 
the visceral cavity. In Bulimus fasciatus it extends backwards 
as far as the tail, and is several times folded upon itself; in Glandina 
truncata it extends the length of the podal disk ; in the various species 
of Helix it is found from a superficial depression to a sac the length 
of the podal disk; in Succioea obliqua it is of considerable length; 
in Limax and Arion it is a superficial depression : in an undeter- 
mined species of Vaginula, hereafter to be described, I found it 
half an inch in length, &c. 

It is composed of two laminae ; a delicate lining mucous mem- 
brane and an external layer, having a whitish or reddish glan- 
dular appearance. A large nerve, on each side, from the suboeso- 
phageal ganglia, is distributed to its commencement, besides 
which it receives numerous smaller branches along its course 
from the same ganglia. Its arterial supply is derived from the 
cephalic branch of the aorta. 



Dec, 1846.] 137 

This organ, from its situation, relative size to the degree of 
perfection of the olfactive sense, as in the carnivorous Glandina 
truncata, &c, its structure, and nervous supply, I think, is the ol- 
factory organ.* 



The Committee on Mr. Cassin's communication, read Nov. 
17, 1846, reported in favor of publication. 

Note on an Instinct probably possessed by the Herons, (Ardea, Linn.) 

By John Cassin. 

Several years since, I had an opportunity of observing the 
Great Heron (Ardea Herodias, Linn.) engaged in capturing fishes, 
and was much surprised at the singular facility with which he 
struck his prey beneath the surface of the water. This was done 
almost invariably by striking laterally and obliquely, very rarely 
vertically or nearly so, as fishes came within reach. 

It appeared to me at that time, and more recent observations 
have tended to confirm the impression, that this bird, and others 
which procure food in the same manner, must possess an instinc- 
tive knowledge of refraction. 

A moment's consideration is sufficient to warrant the inference 
that this knowledge, if possessed at all, must be instinctive and 
transmitted from parent to offspring; for it is obvious that if 
every young bird should be obliged to acquire it, his risk of starv- 
ing during such apprenticeship would be imminent. 

My observations have not been sufficiently extended to fully 
justify a conclusion, but I have little doubt that the opinion here 
expressed is correct, my object, however, is more especially to 
ask attention to this remarkable and hitherto unnoticed subject. 



The Monthly Report of the Corresponding Secretary was 
read and adopted. 

The Annual Report of the Treasurer was read and refer- 
red to the Auditors. 

The Annual Report of the Librarian was read and adopted. 

* Since writing the above, I have had an opportunity, through 
the kindness of Mr. Cassin, of examining a specimen of Helix poma- 
tia, from Europe, in which I find the organ in question existing as a fun- 
nel-shape depression beneath the mouth, and extending backwards along 
the podal disk for the distance of three- fourths of an inch. This 1 con- 
sider particularly interesting, as thesame species has been minutely dis- 
sected and described by Swammerdam, Cuvier, and others, without anv 
reference whatever to this cul-de-sac. 



138 [Dec, 1846. 

The Society then went into an election for Officers for the 
year 1847. The following result was reported by the Tellers: 

PRESIDENT. 

William Hembel. 

VICE PRESIDENTS. 

J. Price Wetherill. 

Samuel George Morton, M. D. 

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY. 

Walter R. Johnson. 

RECORDING SECRETARY. 

Theodore F. Moss. 

LIBRARIAN. 

Wm. S. Zantzinger, M. D. 

TREASURER. 

George W. Carpenter. 

CURATORS. 

Joseph Leidy, M. D, 
William S. Vaux. 
Samuel Ashmead. 
John Cassin. 

AUDITORS. 
Robert Pearsall. 
Wm. S. Vaux. 
Robert Bridges, M. D. 

COMMITTEE OF PUBLICATION. 

Wm. S. Vaux. 
Walter R. Johnson. 
Thomas B. Wilson, M. D. 
Samuel Ashmead. 
William Gambel. 



Dec, 1846.] 139 

The following gentlemen were elected Correspondents of the 
Academy. 

Charles Hamilton Smith, Esq., of London. 
Thomas C. Eyton, Esq., do. 

George Robert Gray, Esq., do. 

Richard Kippist, Esq., do. 

M. E. Prisse, of Paris. 



The following Resolutions, offered by Dr. Bridges, were 
unanimously adopted. 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Academy be presented to 
the late Recording Secretary, Dr. W. S. Zantzinger, for the 
ability and zeal with which he has performed the duties of 
that office for the past five years. 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Society be presented to 
the late Librarian, Dr. Joseph Leidy, for the able and faith- 
ful manner in which he has fulfilled the duties of his office 
for the past year. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 



OF PHILADELPHIA. 



Vol. 3. JAN., AND FEB., 1847. No. 7. 

Stated Meeting, January 5, 1847. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Casts of the hand of Troglodytes niger, (Chimpanzee), and 
of the inferior extremity of the radius of a fossil mammal 
obtained near Richmond, Va. From Dr. J. Wyman. 

Sternum of Oidemia perspicillata. From Mr. Woodhouse. 

Specimens in skin, of Putorius noveboracensis, from Bucks 
Co., Pa. ; Sorex brevicaudatus, Say, and Vespertilio caro- 
linensis, Geof., from Chester Co., Pa. ; and V. novebora- 
censis, L., from Newark, Del. From Dr. T. B. Wilson. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Annales des Mines. 4 me - Serie, Tome viii. Livs. 5 and 6 de 
1845. In exchange. 

Twenty-sixth Report of the Council of the Leeds Philosophi- 
cal Society. Leeds : 1846. Fom the Society. 

Message of the President of the United States, communicating 
a Report of an Expedition by Lieut. Abert to the Upper 
Arkansas, and through the country of the Camanche In 
dians, in the autumn of 1845. From Col. Abert. 



142 [Jan., 1847. 

Literary Record and Journal of the Linnean Association of 
Pennsylvania College. Vol. 3, No. 8. From the Asso- 
ciation. 

Sound and Sanctified Scholarship ; an Address delivered at 
the Dedication of the new edifice of the Western Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, on Tuesday, Sept. 8, 1846. By 
David H. Riddle, D. D. With introductory remarks by 
George Upfold, D. D. From the Author. 

Observations of the Magnetic dip at several positions, made 
in 1840, 1842, 1843, 1844 and 1845. By Major James D. 
Graham, U. S. Topographical Engineer. (From the Trans, 
of Amer. Phil. Soc, Vol. ix.) Philadelphia : 1846. From 
the Author. 

Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 
of Boston. May 26 to Dec. 1, 1846, inclusive. From the 
Academy. 

Dr. Thomas B. Wilson deposited the following works : 

Tableau Encyclopedique et Methodique des trois regnes de 
la Nature. (Ornithologie.) Par l'Abbe Bonnaterre et L. P. 
Vieillot. 4 vols. 4to. 

A General System of Nature, &c. By Sir Charles Linne: 
translated by Wm. Turton, M. D. 7 vols. 8 vo. 

The Zoology of the Voyage of H. M. Ship Sulphur, under 
the command of Capt. Sir Edward Belcher, R. N., &c, 
during the years 1836 to 1842. Edited and superintended 
by Richard Brinsley Hinds, Esq., Surgeon to the Expedi- 
tion. Vol. 1. 4to. London : 1844. 

A Monograph of the Anatidse or Duck tribe. By T. C. 
Eyton, Esq., F. L. S., &c. 1 vol. 4to. London, 1838. 

Zoological Lectures delivered at the Royal Institution in 
1806 and 1807. By George Shaw, M. D., F. R. S. 2 vols, 
large 8vo. London : 1809. 

Atlas de Zoologie, ou Collection de 100 planches comprenant 
257 fig. d'animaux nouveaux ou peu connues, classes 
d'apres la methode de M. de Blainville ; avec une expli- 
cation par M. Paul Gervais. 1 vol. 8vo. Paris : 1844. 



Jan., 1847.] 143 

A selection of the Birds of Brazil and Mexico. The draw- 
ings by William Swainson, Esq. 1 vol. 8vo. London : 
1841. 

Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte von Brazilien. Von Maxi- 
milian Prinzen zu Wied. Reptilia, Aves, Mammalia, 5 vols. 
8vo. 

Descriptiones Animalium quse in itinere ad Maris Australis 
terras per annos 1772, 1*773 and 1774 suscepto : collegil, 
observavit et deliniavit Joannes Reinoldus Forster, F.R.S. ; 
nunc demum edita? auctoritate et impensis Academise Lit- 
terarum Regise Berolinoe, curante Henrico Lichtenstein. 
1 vol. 8vo. Berlin : 1844. 

Ornithological Dictionary of British Birds. By Col. G. Mon- 
tague, F. L. S. 2d edition : by James Rennie, F. L. S. 
8vo. London : 1831. 

Journal of a Voyage to New South Wales ; with sixty-five 
plates of nondescript Animals, Birds, and other natural 
productions. By John White, Esq., Surgeon to the Settle- 
ment. 1 vol. 4to. London : 1790. 



Letters were read : 

From Richard Brown, Esq., addressed to the Correspond- 
ing Secretary, dated Sydney Mines, Nova Scotia, Dec. 9th, 
1846, acknowledging the receipt of his notice of election as a 
Correspondent. 

The following extract from this letter is interesting: 

" I have visited Cranberry Head several times recently, and 
have made a section and drawings of the fossil trees there. The 
first tree near the Point is based upon a small seam of coal : lately 
a large piece of the cliff has fallen down, and part of the tree 
with some of the coal under it. Fortunately it has exposed two 
loDg roots one branching to the North and the other to the 
South about seven feet each way. They are very broad and 
flat, and are genuine Stigmaria. I could not trace any rootlets, 
but the areolae are not to be mistaken. I have preserved some 
large pieces, as also some of the bark, of the tree, which is appa- 
rently an irregularly fluted Sigillaria. 

In a bed of Shale, some twenty feet lower in the section, I have 
also found several small upright trees, about eight inches diarne- 



144 [Jan. 1847- 

ter, filled with soft shale, but having a pith of beautiful bright 
coal, 1 inches in diameter, running up the middle: the bark is 
fluted ; the roots, long fibres, something like the leaves or rootlets 
of Stigmaria." 

From Wrn. D. Breckenridge, Esq., dated Washington, 
Dec. 29, 1846, returning, with acknowledgments, a collection 
of ferns from the Berlin gardens, which had been loaned him 
by permission of the Society for examination and comparison. 

From the Trustees of the Western University of Pennsyl- 
vania, dated Dec. 9, 1846, referring to the loss by fire lately 
sustained by that Institution of its entire Museum and Li- 
brary, and asking for donations towards a renewal of the 
same, particularly the latter. Referred to the Library Com- 
mittee. 



Meeting for Business, January 26, 1847. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

The Report of the Corresponding Secretary was read and 
adopted. 

The following resolution was adopted : 

Resolved, That the proposal of Mr. Henry Seybert to de- 
posit his valuable chemical apparatus in the Academy, to 
become ultimately the property of the Institution unless 
withdrawn by himself during his life time and subject to its 
Rules and By-Laws on this head, be accepted. 

The Society then proceeded to elect the usual Standing 
Committees for the year. The following result was reported by 
the Tellers : 

Committees for 184". 
Geological and Mineralogical. 
J. Price Wetherill, W. R. Johnson, 

S. G. Morton, Samuel Ashmead, 

Win. S. Vaux, Theodore F. Moss, 

Lewis T. Germain. 



Jan., 1847.] 145 

Zoological. 
J. S. Phillips, John Cassin, 

Edward Harris, J. K. Townsend, 

S. S. Haldeman, William Garabel, 

A. L. Heermann. 

Botanical. 

R. Bridges, R. E. Griffith, 

W. S. Zantzinger, Gavin Watson, 

R. Kilvington. 

Physics. 
Walter R. Johnson, John S. Phillips, 

Paul B. Goddard, Theodore F. Moss, 

Henry Seybert. 

Library. 

Robert Bridges, | Robert Pearsall, 

Edward Hallowell, George W. Carpenter, 

S. B. Ashmead. 

Committee on Proceedings. 

S. G. Morton, C Corresponding and 

John S. Phillips, < Recording Secretaries, 

Wm. S. Zantzinger, ex-officio. 

Coleman Fisher, Jr., of Philadelphia, was elected a Mem- 
ber. 

And John P. Barratt, M. D., of Barrattsville, South Caro- 
lina, was elected a Correspondent. 



146 [Feb., 1847. 

Stated Meeting, February 2, 1847. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

The Curators exhibited a fine articulated skelton of a Bengal 
Tiger of very large size, and an extensive collection of hu- 
man and other crania, recently received from Dr. HufTnagle 
of Calcutta, and placed by him on deposit in the Society's 
Cabinet. 

The collection embraces the following: Cranium of a native 
of South Australia : two crania of Hindoo fanatics, taken 
from the Temple of Juggernaut : cranium of an individual of 
a Brahmin caste : of an Affghan from the field of Jug- 
daullek : of a Chinese pirate : of a Malay pirate : of a Hin- 
dostanee : and several other human crania not labelled. 
Also, crania of the following animals : Crocodilus vul- 
garis, and Gavialis gangeticus, (both remarkably large and 
perfect specimens,) Trionyx Indicus, Sus scropha, Felis 
tigris (five specimens), Canis aureus (two spec), C. fami- 
liaris (fox-hound and blood-hound, three spec), Delphi- 

nus , Simia satyrus (young), Simia , Antilope 

(two spec) &c, &. 

Mr. Cassin presented from Mr. Aaron Sharpless, of Chester 
county, Pennsylvania, two fine living specimens of a hybrid 
between Numida meleagris (Guinea fowl) and Meleagris 
galla-pavo (turkey), which had been hatched and raised on 
his farm. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

The characters of some new genera and species of composite? 
from Texas. By Asa Gray, M. D., (from the Proceed, of 
Am. Acad, of Arts and Sciences, Dec 1S46.) From the 
Author. 

On the Origin of Continents. By James D. Dana, (from 



Feb., 1847.] 147 

the Am. Journal of Sciences, vol. 3, 2d series.) From the 
Author. 

On Zoophytes. No. 3. By James D. Dana, (from the Am. 
Journ. of Science, vol. 3, 2d series.) From the Author. 

On three several Hurricanes of the Atlantic, and their rela- 
tions to the Northers of Mexico and Central America, with 
notices of other storms. By William C. Redfield. New 
Haven, 1846. From the Author. 

The Literary Record and Journal of the Linnean Associa- 
tion of Pennsylvania College, vol. 3, No. 4. From the 
Association. 

Recapitulation des Hybrides observes dans la famille des 
Anatidees. Par Edm. de Selys Longchamps. From the 
Author. 

Revue critique des Oiseaux d' Europe, par le Docteur Schlegel. 
Extrait de la Revue Zoologique par la Societe Cuvierienne, 
Jan. 1845. From M. de Longchamps. 



A letter was read from James Robb, Esq., dated King's 
College, Frederick, N. B., 9th Jan. 1847, acknowledging the 
receipt of his notice of election as a correspondent. 

A paper by Mr. Haldeman, describing one new genus 
and several new species of insects, was read and referred to 
a committee consisting of Mr. Markland, Dr. Leidy and Dr. 
Zantzinger. 

Mr. Germain, of Burlington, read a paper entitled " A col- 
lation and statement of some of the effects of Electricity and 
Galvanism, having seeming analogy to the purification and 
circulation of the blood," which was referred to the following 
committee : Dr. Bridges, Prof. Johnson and Mr. Moss. 



148 [Feb., 1847. 

Stated Meeting, Feb. 16, 1847. 
Vice President Morton in the chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Sternum of Strix brachyotis, and the fangs of a molar tooth 
of Zeuglodon cetoides, Owen, cut transversely to exhibit 
its internal structure. From Dr. Joseph Leidy. 

Sternum of Aquila leucocephalus. From Mr. S. W. Wood- 
house. 

Two specimens of Baculites ovatus, one of them ten inches in 
length ; also a fine specimen of Ammonites Delawarensis 
with the cast of the same, and a specimen of A. placenta ; 
all obtained from the marl pit near Moorestown, N. J. 
Presented by Mr. Lewis T. Germain. 

Cranium of Zygsena malleus. From Dr. R. E. Griffith. 

Fine specimen of Apophyllite from Andreasberg, Upper 
Harz, Hanover. Presented by Mr. Moss. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Histoire Physique, Politique et Naturelle de 1' He de Cuba ; 

par M. Ramon de la Sagra. Livs. 52, 53, 54. From Messrs. 

Wetherill, Morton, Phillips, Clay, Yaux and Elwyn. 
De Candolle's Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegeta- 

bilis. Parts 8, 9 and 10. Purchased by Academy. 
Vermium terrestrium et fluviatilium seu animalium infusorio- 

rum, helminthicorum, et testaceorum non marinorum, suc- 

cincta historia. Auctore Othone Frederico Muller. Vol. 

1, Part 1 ; and vol. 2, quarto. Hafnice, 1773 and 1774, 

From Dr. Paul B. Goddard. 
Eight additional pages of Dr. Gould's description of Shells 

of the Exploring Expedition. From the Author. 



Mr. Gambel read a paper in continuation of his " Remarks 
on the Birds of Upper California," which was referred to the 
committee on the former portions. 



Feb., 1847.] 149 

Dr. Morton read a notice by Mr. M. Tuoniey, State Geolo- 
gist of South Carolina, of his discovery of the Cranium of 
Zeuglodon cetoides, Owen, in the vicinity of Charleston ; ac- 
companied with a drawing of the same. Referred to Dr. 
Morton, Mr. R. C. Taylor and Dr. Leidy. 

A letter was presented by Mr. Moss, addressed by Mr. 
Graf of St. Petersburg to Baron Wrangel, in relation to ex- 
changes of Birds between the latter and the Academy. Re- 
ferred to the Zoological committee. 

Mr. Gliddon presented a translation of the Hieroglyphical 
inscription on the Sarcophagus of the Egyptian Mummy now 
in the Academy. 



Meeting for Business, February 23, 1847. 
Vice President "Wetherill in the Chair. 
The Committee to whom was referred Mr. Haldeman's pa- 
per read on the 2d inst., reported in favor of publication. 

Descriptions of several new species and one new genus of Insects, 

By S. S. Haldeman, A. M. 

Blethisa quadricollis. Black, somewhat bronze ; head elon- 
gate, transversely impressed behind the eyes, which are promi- 
nent ; frontal impressions long and bisinuate, posteriorly connected 
with the transverse impression ; labrum quadrate, slightly bisinu- 
ate anteriorly ; antennae steel blue, as long as the head and pro- 
thorax, four basal articulations glabrous. Prothorax quadrate, 
bitruncate, wider than the head, slightly rounded on the sides an- 
teriorly, and very slightly sinuated behind the middle ; posterior 
angles rounded ; margin depressed and reflexed ; transverse im- 
pressions very deep, the anterior one in the arc of a circle ; dorsal 
line deep, transversely wrinkled, bi- abbreviated ; basal impressions 
deep, punctured, with an obtuse slightly elevated ridge near the 
margin. Elytra a little wider than the head, obtusely rounded 
behind; deeply punctate-striate, strise somewhot interrupted; 
3d interstice with four or five large fovea? ; 5th with three foveae, 
the anterior one being behind the anterior one of the other range ; 
6th with two fovese, one below the humerus, and one (sometimes 



150 [Feb., 184 1 



obsolete) towards the apex ; margin subcupreous, with confused 
ranges of smaller punctures ; legs steel blue ; anterior femora 
with a very slight prominence in the female. 7 i 1. long. 3 1. 
wide. 

Found by Mr. Joshua Child upon the Southern shore of Lake 
Superior. The elytra agree with those in B. multipunctata, Fab. 
and the thorax apparently with that of B. esehscholtzii. 

*Chorea. Body short, robust, and of a rather solid consistency; 
head small, deflected ; maxillary palpi robust, prominent, last 
joint largest, and triangular; antennae short, serrate, not sensibly 
tapered, placed between the eyes and a little removed from them, 
which renders them approximate; they are inserted upon each 
side of a slight frontal elevation, and are borne parallel, arched 
over the thorax and extending a little beyond the scutel. Protho- 
rax short, transverse, inflated, anterior angles obtusely rounded, 
posterior ones produced in a sharp angle. Scutel rounded. Ely- 
tra elongate, texture solid, with wings beneath. Abdomen of five 
inflated segments. Feet slender, the posterior coxae very long, be- 
ing as long as the femur proper, which is much reduced in length, 
although the limb is of ordinary length. Tarsi with short hair, but 
scarcely pulvillate; penultinate articulation bilobed. Probably a 
female. 

A single individual taken upon the porch of my residence. It 
endeavored to liberate itself by a sharp click, which, with the shape 
of the prothorax, led me to suppose it an Elater. The click was 
produced by approximating the anterior femora along the breast and 
separating them with a sudden jerk which could be heard and felt. 
There is nothing apparent in the structure of the anterior feet to 
indicate this peculiar use of them. 

Chorea pulsator. Dull black, minutely punctured, slightly 
hairy; palpi bright testaceous : tarsi and tibiae dull rufuus ; prono- 
tum covered with piliferous punctures, dorsal line not apparent ; 
elytra with nine strise filled with large elongate punctures. 4 1. 
long. Pennsylvania, in April. 

Eburia distincta. Flavescent, covered with a short whitish 
pubescence; labrum fringed with fulvous hair; front imprest; 
medial line of the head glabrous posteriorly ; prothorax subcy- 
lindric, narrowed before, with an anterior and posterior transverse 
impression ; sides armed with a short spine ; disk on each side, a 
little before the middle, with a round black glabrous tubercle; 
elytra with a basal and medial pair of approximate stigmata, the 
former somewhat oblique, the latter with the interior one about 
half the length of the exterior. 10 12 lines long. Georgia and 
Mississippi. 

Distinguished from the more northern species E. 4-geminata Say, 
distincta Dejean, by a more dense pubescence, less globular protho- 
rax with its deeper lines and larger tubercles ; and the shorter in- 
ternal posterior stigma. 



Feb., 1847.] 151 

Enaphalodes simpiicicollis. Dark brown, elytra somewhat 
paler from a short pubescence; prothorax subglobular, minutely 
granulate ; dorsal line slightly impressed posteriorly, a lateral ob- 
solete impression before the middle towards the exterior margin ; 
elytra sparsely and deeply punctured, bi-spinose at tip. 11 1. long. 
Georgia. Distinguished from E. lecontei, Dejean, (pulverulentum, 
Fabr., hitherto considered an Elaphidion by me) in having a smaller 
prothorax, a darker color, and in being less. For the opportunity 
to describe this and the next species of Longicornia, I am indebted 
to the kindness of my friend Dr. J. L. Le Conte, in whose cabinet 
they are. 

Stentjra? cyanea. Brilliant metallic blue with greenish re- 
flexions : front impressed, antennas, mandibles, labrum, terminal 
joint of palpi, and scutel, black ; elytra scabrous with confluent 
punctures ; femora rufous, apex and extreme base, with the tibiae 
and tarsi, blackish. 6 1. long. Lake Superior. 

Ploiaria maculata. Drown, superior wings pale grey with 
whitish reticulations, and maculate with brown, darkest towards the 
base, where there is a long conspicuous triangle with its apex ex- 
tending to the base ; anterior edge of the wing with a single series 
of spots, apex with a semicircle of large ones. 2. 1. long. Penn- 
sylvania, in July. 

The only specimen of this well marked species is imperfect, and 
although taken several years ago, a second individual has not been 
seen. 



The Committee on Mr. Tuomey's paper read at last meet- 
ing, reported in favor of publication. 

Notice of the discovery of a Cranium of the Zeuqlodon. 
By M. Tuomey, State Geologist of South Carolina. 

Almost every day adds something to our knowledge of those 
remarkable forms, which in the revolutions of time have passed 
out of existence. In 18 , Dr. Harlan described and figured in 
the Transactions of the Geological Society of Pennsylvania, some 
fossil bones from Alabama, consisting of portions of the upper and 
lower maxillae of an animal under the name of " Basilosaurus," 
from an impression that they belonged to a gigantic Saurian. An 
examination of the teeth, however, satisfied Professor Owen that 
these remains belonged to a Cetacean, to which he has given the 
name " Zeuqlodon." 

The first description of an entire tooth of this animal, was given 
by Mr. Buckley, in a concise account of the discovery of a consi- 
derable portion of the skeleton, published in the American Journal 
of Science in 1843. In 1845, Dr. K. W, Gibbes, of South Carolina, 
published in the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences 



152 [Feb., 1847. 

of Philadelphia, accurate figures of similar teeth with fragments 
of the lower maxilla. The teeth being hollow, and, in his opinion 
presenting other important differences, he constituted for them a 
new genus, "Dorudon." 

The " Hydrarchos," I believe, has passed away without advancing 
our knowledge upon this interesting subject, excepting perhaps that 
Prof. Wyman discovered in the extremity of the ribs some ceta- 
cean characters. 

The next important development consisted in the publication by 
Professor Emmons, in the American Quarterly Journal of Agricul- 
ture, beautiful figures of the teeth, anterior portion of lower max- 
illae, together with a portion of the ramus having the coronoid pro- 
cess and condyle almost perfect, cervical and caudal vertebras, and 
a rib. But up to the present time, no notice has appeared of the 
discovery of any considerable portion of the cranium proper for 
the mutilated head of the so called Hydrarchos can scarcely be con- 
sidered an exception. 

Early in January I was presented by F. S. Holmes, Esq., with 
a portion of the left upper maxilla, containing one tooth and the 
alveolse of several others, which he discovered in the Eocene beds 
of Ashley river, about ten miles from Charleston. Soon after, Prof. 
Lewis R. Gibbes, of the College of Charleston, visited the same lo- 
cality, and had the good fortune to find the rest of the scull, much 
fractured, but so carefully were the fragments collected, that with 
a little patience we were enabled to restore them to their proper 
places. It is then altogether to these gentlemen that we owe a 
knowledge of this valuable fossil. 

Description. Occipital bone somewhat semicircular, transversely 
flat or slightly concave, central portion thin ; a crest-like ridge sur- 
rounds the superior portion terminating in the suture with the tem- 
poral bone. Condyles two, articulating surfaces lunate, and almost 
enclosing the foramen magnum. Foramen magnum oval ; trans- 
verse diameter 1J inches, vertical diameter 1 inch; transverse pro- 
cesses thick, spreading, making the breadth of the base of the cra- 
nium equal to its diameter across the zygomatic processes ; jugular 
foramen inch in diameter ; temporal bones small, mastoroid por- 
tion thick and strong but not prominent ; articulating cavities for 
condyles of lower maxillae large, forming about 30 of a circle, in- 
clining inwards and backwards; maxillse thick and strong, vertical 
section triangular; a cavity for nerves and vessels runs within at 
the points of the roots of the teeth ; alveolar process thick ; palatal 
bone strong, anteriorly emarginate and horizontal, posteriorly de- 
scending below the alveolar process. 

Frontal bone and anterior portion of maxillae wanting ; walls of 
the nasal canal smooth ; sutures squamous ; in the left maxilla one 
tooth remains, which is solid, spear-shaped, edges coarsely ser- 
rate, exterior side flattened, interior side convex ; agreeing in this 
respect with the position of the teeth in the shark ; roots double, 



Feb., 1847.] 



153 



nearly parallel, and inserted obliquely backwards; in the right 
maxilla are the alveolre for eight teeth with double roots. In the 
solidity of the teeth and slight divergency of the roots, this speci- 
men agrees with the figures of Dr. Harlan and Prof. Emmons. 

This fossil is particularly interesting, as it removes every doubt, 
if any remain, of the true character of the animal to which it be- 
longed. The double occipital condyle shows it to have been a 
mammal, while the squamous sutures and a symmetrical form refer 
it to the Cetaceae. 




Dimensions. Length 14 in.; greatest breadth 7 in.; height 5| 
in.; length of enameled portion of tooth f in.; breadth f in. It was 
evidently a young individual. 

Geological position. The teeth described by Dr. Gibbes were 
found in the oldest of the calcareous beds of the Eocene of South 
Carolina, which contain Card ita plan icosta and other well known 
Eocene fossils, together with Grypliea mutabilis and Terebratula 
harlani, which are also common to the cretaceous formation. And 
the fossil just described was found in upper beds of the Eocene so 
that the Zeuglodon must have existed through the whole of the 
Eocene period; a period which, in South Carolina, was at least 
sufficiently long for the deposition of three hundred feet of calca- 
reous and sedimentary matter; a fact which was ascertained by 
boring at Charleston. 



154 [Feb., 1847. 

Remarks on the Birds observed in Upper California. 

By "William Gameel. 
(Continued from page, 115.) 

PASSERES. 
Genus *CHAM.A.f 
Bill short, tapering to the point, acute and compressed. Both mandibles 
entire, ridge of upper elevated, and curving nearly from the base ; the de- 
pression for the nostrils large, oval, and exposed ; the nostrils opening be- 
neath a membrane in the depression. Wings very short and much rounded. 
Tail very long and graduated. Tarsus long. 

Chamesa fasciata, Nobis. Ground Tit. 

Parus fasciatus, nobis, Proceed. Acad. Nat. Sc., vol. 2, p. 265. 

This interesting bird, placed provisionally among the Titmice, I have now 
made the type of a new genus, not being able, as yet, to find a suitable place 
for it, among those already described. 

For several months before discovering the bird, I chased among the fields 
of dead mustard stalks, the weedy margins of streams, low thickets and 
bushy places, a continued, loud, crepitant, grating scold, which I took for 
that of some species of wren, but at last found to proceed from this Wren- 
Tit, if it might so be called. It is always difficult to be seen, and keeps in 
such places as I have described, close to the ground; eluding pursuit, by' 
diving into the thickest bunches of weeds and tall grass, or tangled bushes 
uttering its grating wren-like note whenever an approach is made towards it. 

But if quietly watched, it may be seen, when searching for insects, to 
mount the twigs and dried stalks of grass sideways, jerking its long tail, and 
keeping it erect like a wren, which, with its short wings, in such a position 
it so much resembles. At the same time uttering a very slow, monotonous, 
singing, chickadee note, like pee pee pee pee peep ; at other times its notes are 
varied, and a slow whistling, contmuedpwit,pwit, pwit, pwit,pwit, pwit, may 
be heard. Again, in pleasant weather towards spring, I have heard them 
answering one another, sitting upon a low twig, and singing in a less solemn 
strain, not unlike a sparrow, a lively pit, pit, pit, tr r r r r r r r, but if dis- 
turbed, at once resumining their grating scold. 

Pants inornatus, Nobis. Plain Titmouse. Proceed. Acad. Nat. Sc, vol. 
2, p. 265. 

The Plain Titmouse I first discovered near Monterey on the 20th of 
November. It was actively flitting about among the evergreen oaks of the 
vicinity, in company with large flocks of the Chestnut-backed and Least 
Titmouse, all in restless activity, searching every branch for insects. 

Among the busy throng I could not well distinguish its notes, but they 
appeared to resemble very much those of the common Black-cap, and on 
my following it up, uttered a loud scold, erecting its high and pointed crest; 
and looking as angry as possible at the intrusion. 

j- From ^a^a/, on the ground. 



Feb., 1847.] 155 

I afterwards found it common, frequenting in small flocks tall bushes and 
branches of small trees, uttering a weak and slender tsee day day, tsee day 
day dait. 

Parus montanus, Nobis. Rocky Mountain Titmouse. Proceed. Acad. 
Nat. Sc, vol. 1, p. 259. 

I have already stated all that I know of this new and handsome species, in 
the description contained in the number of the Proceedings above referred to. 
It was exceedingly abundant in the western ranges of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, particularly in the high ridges near the great salt lake, in the wooded 
portions of which they were roaming in large flocks, and from thence to the 
Californian ridge, on the other side of which I never saw them. In habits, 
as well as appearance, it resembles very much the P. atricapillus, but is at 
once distinguished by the two white lines, running over the top of the head 
to the occiput. 

Parus rufescens, Towns. Chestnut-backed Titmouse. 
In the latter part of summer and during the winter season, the young of 
this species are found around Monterey in large flocks. 
Parus minimus, Towns. Least Titmouse. 

This interesting and most diminutive bird, is exceedingly abundant in 
the Rocky Mountains and California. During winter, the otherwise cheer- 
less woods, are alive with busy, noisy troops of these industrious birds, 
gleaning their scanty fare in company with the Ruby-crowned Kinglet, in 
every possible manner and position from bush or tree. 

It is curious to watch them in this anxious solicitous search for food, keep- 
ing up a continual twittering; so intent are they in their employment, that 
they appear to lose sight of danger, and often have I been so surrounded 
by a flock, that I could have almost caught them in my hands. 

The above additional species, together with the P. scptcntrionalis, recently 
described by my friend Mr. Edward Harris, in the Proceedings of the Aca- 
demy, have increased the number of North American Titmice, exclusive of 
the Ground Tit, to nine species. 

Trichas Marylandica. Maryland Yellow Throat. 

This species, distributed throughout the whole of North America is com- 
mon, both in the Rocky Mountains and California. 

Vermivora celata, Say. Orange-crowned "Warbler. 

Flocks of this species are common during winter in Upper California, 
frequenting low bushes and margins of streams. On the Island of Santa 
Catalina in early spring I heard its simple though lively song, commencing 
in a loud sweet shrill and ending tshg up, sometimes considerably varied, 
but generally er r r r r r tsl\4 up. 

Sylvieola Auduboni, Towns. Audubon's Warbler. 

This handsome warbler is abundant throughout the West. I first ob- 
served it in New Mexico, thence through the ranges of the Rocky Mountains 
to California, where, particularly during winter, the young birds are found 
in large flocks, and generally in the tops of trees. Its habits as well as 



156 [Feb., 1847. 

appearance {hey resemble the Yellow Rump, S. coronata, and like them 
also, display a great deal of familiarity, entering the towns, and resorting 
to gardens and fence rows, and even the corals of the houses ; frequently 
also, descending to the ground with the Blackbirds and Sparrows. 

Sylvania pusilla. Wils. (Nutt.) Green Black-capped Flycatcher. 

Myiodyoctes Wilsonii, Aud. 

This pretty little Sylvan Flycatcher is common both in the Rocky Moun- 
tains and California. 

Culicivora coerulia, Lath. Blue-grey Flycatcher. 

Abundant in Upper California. 

Tyrannula pusilla. Swains. Little Pewee Flycatcher. 

I observed this species to be plentiful about the Pueblo delos Angeles in 
Upper California, where most probably they breed. During the month of 
April, it frequented the hedges of vineyards and neighboring trees, uttering 
a sweet and considerably varied song. The following description of an 
adult killed there in the spring, may be useful, to show that it is the same 
bird as that described by Swainson in the Arctic Zoology, and that found 
in Labrador by Audubon. Above greenish olive; wings and tail dusky 
brown, the coverts tipped with dull white, forming two bands on the wing: 
the tertiaries also broadly edged with the same. Belowyellowish, brightest 
on the lower part of the throat and breast, and on tbe abdomen. Feet and 
legs bright lead-blue. A yellowish ring around the eye. Upper mandible 
black, the lower pale flesh colored ; inside of both, orange. Tail even, 2 \ 
inches ; wings 2| inches. Tarsus |. Bill along ridge about f , from angle 
of mouth f . Total length 5 inches. First quill a little shorter than the 
6th ; 3rd and 4th nearly equal. The bird has a conspicuous crest. 

Tyrannula Saya, Bonap. Black-tailed Flycatcher. 

T. pallida, Swans. Syn. Bds. of Mexico. 

This species, common throughout the western regions of our country, is 
particularly so in California and the northern provinces of Mexico. Its 
manners much resemble those of the common Pewee, frequenting the neigh- 
borhood of towns, weedy hill sides and plains, darting from twig to twig 
after passing insects, jerking its tail, and merely uttering a single weak and 
singing chip, or an occasional guttural twitter, but very different from the 
harsh angry tship of the T. nigricans, with which it is so often associated. 
It breeds in California, and no doubt like its dark companion, about the 
houses and Missions, but I did not find its nest. 

Tyrannula nigricans, Swains. Black Pewee. 

This bird is abundant in California, and like our common Pewee is particu- 
larly fond of being near the habitations of man: with the utmost confidence, it 
is seen familiarly flying about the corals and gardens,and even the very doors; 
over which, on a projecting beam, about the middle of April, I found its nest. 
It was large for the size of the bird, and consisted of a solid round mason work 



Feb. 1847.] 157 

of clay, intermixed with fibres of grass, &c, and lined with a thin layer of 
softer materials, blades of grass, fine strips of bark from the neighboring 
vineyard, and horsehair, and contained four eggs. This was the second 
nest which had been built that year; the first near the same place having 
been destroyed by the occupant of the house, this was commenced stilt 
nearer the door. I was informed that it was difficult to get them to leave 
the place they had once selected for their nest, and that if it were torn down 
they would at once commence forming another. The previous year three 
successive nests had been destroyed. These birds are constant residents; 
and, as well as near the towns, are also distributed over the whole country, 
either in the margins of woods, or bushy plains, and almost always in pairs. 
They are very pugnacious, and are often seen fighting together in the air, 
and darting after each other from branch to branch, at the same time ut- 
ring their peculiar loud and angry tship, which can always be recognized. 
From the arrangement of its colors, at a little distance, when sitting with 
their breasts towards you, they are easily mistaken for Snow birds. 

Tyr annus borealis, Swains. Olive-sided Flycatcher. 

T. Cooperii, Nutt. 

I found this species scatteringly in the Rocky Mountains: it is quite 
abundant in the Pine woods of Upper California, for which it appears to 
have a great partiality. In the latter part of July I killed the young, not 
yet fully fledged, in the pines near Monterey, where they must have bred. 

Tyrannus verticalis, Say. Arkansas Flycatcher. 

This tyrant is an abundant resident in California. Around the Pueblo 
de los Angeles it takes possession of the hedges of the vineyards, orchards 
and gardens ; noisy, pugnacious, and ever on the alert, it suffers no intru- 
sion upon its dominions ; Hawk, Raven, or Crow, not even its own species, 
are allowed to pass unmolested. For this reason it has acquired the name 
of Correcuerbo (Crow-chaser) by the inhabitants, who also gladly allow 
them full possession. 

Tyrannus crinitus ? 

A large species of Flycatcher, very much resembling the Great Crested, 
is not uncommon in California. My friend S. F. Baird, of Carlisle, Pa., is 
in possession of a specimen, and considering it distinct, it will soon be 
published in a paper he has prepared, upon the North American birds of 
this family. Near Monterey I have heard it uttering the paynp note of the 
Great Crested, and at Santa Barbara they were breeding in the knot holes 
of the evergreen oaks in May. 

Ptilogonys Tozvnsendii, Aud. Townsend's Ptilogonys. 

This rare bird I frequently found in the Rocky Mountains of the interior 
of California. See Proceedings of the Academy for April, 1843. 

Icleria viridis, Gmel. Yellow-breasted Chat. 

The Chat arrives in California about the middle of April, and resorts to 
the hedges of vineyards, gardens and bushy places, where no doubt it breeds. 

22 



158 [Feb. 1847. 

It is very extensively distributed on our continent, as I observed it also 
common along the coast of Peru. 

Vireo solitarius, Vieill. Solitary Vireo. 

During the latter part of summer and winter, the young birds of this 
species are abundant, frequenting low bushes and thickets, in small flocks. 



Descriptions of New Species of Coleoptera of the United States. 

By F. E. Melsheimer, M. D. 

(Continued from Vol. 3, page 66.) 

Crioceridce, Leach. 

Donacia, Fabr. 

1. D. cuprea. Cupreous above; antennae and feet testaceous, the former 
with the third joint longer than the second; the latter with the posterior 
femora brown at tip. 3 3^1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Cupreous, tinged with bluish above : head sparsely greenish-ashy-pubes- 
cent, densely and very minutely rugose, with the frontal groove most fre- 
quently profound, sometimes obsolete ; mouth, palpi and antennae, testa- 
ceous, the latter with the third joint distinctly longer than the second ; 
mandibles black : thorax subquadrate, hardly as long as wide, narrower 
behind than before ; obsoletely and very distantly punctulate on the disk ; 
confluently and very minutely rugose; a small oblong tubercle behind each 
anterior angle ; medial line indistinct, sometimes wanting ; basal margin 
rather transversely indented : elytra punctate-striate, the interstices densely 
and minutely rugose, with two obtuse and rather obsolete subsutural im- 
pressions ; humeral angles polished, almost impunctured ; apex obliquely 
truncate ; beneath and sides of the head, dull silvery sericeous : feet dull 
testaceous, with the posterior femora in particular, brown at the posterior 
half, and obtusely toothed towards the tip. 

Var. a. Elytra golden-yellow. 

2. D. indica. Black above ; antennas, tibiae and tarsi dull rufous ; thorax 
quadri-tuberculate ; elytra broad, rounded at apex. 41. long; \\ 1. wide. 
Pennsylvania. 

Donacia indica, Melsh. Catal. 

Black, glossy above: head with a slight bluish tinge, densely rugose- 
punctulate ; frontal impressed line short, distinct; antennae short, dull 
rufous, with the basal joint entirely, and the apical half of the remaining 
joints, brown or black ; second joint almost as long as the third; mouth 
brownish-piceous : thorax distinctly longer than wide, not half as wide as 
the elytra, wider at apex than at base ; above finely confluently rugose ; 
four small, obtuse, polished tubercles before the middle, placed in a trans- 
verse arcuated row, the two posterior or middle ones small, only dis- 
tinctly seen from an above view; medial impressed line fine, and not pro- 
found ; anterior angles raised: scutellum ashy-brown-pubescent: elytra 
wide, comparatively short, transversely rugulose, punctate-striate, with 
the apex decurved and rounded ; an obsolete subsutural depression : 



Feb., 1847.] 159 

beneath dusky silvery-sericeous, with the abdomen, as is common, pale or 
reddish brown ; femora, excepting at base, blackish ; base of femora, tibiae 
and tarsi dull rufous ; posterior femora hardly toothed at tip. This is a 
very rare species. 

" D. metallica. Cupreous; antennae and feet rufous; second and third 
joints of the former equal." Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, v. 283, 2. 

Var. c. Blue ; antennae and feet as in the type. 

3. D. biimpressa. Cyaneous ; thorax with an orbiculate impression each 
side of the middle; elytra finely striate-punctate. 8 1. long; 1 1. wide. 
Pennsylvania. 

Cyaneous, with a violaceous or greenish reflection, shining : head dull 
silvery-sericeous, confluently rugose-punctulate, with the frontal line pro- 
foundly impressed ; antennae moderately long, brown, with the base of the 
joints more or less dull rufous ; second joint rather shorter than the third ; 
mouth and palpi brownish : thorax longer than wide, wider at apex than 
at base ; above tinted with greenish, finely, deeply and distantly punctured 
medial line fine, more deeply impressed before the middle than towards 
the base ; a small, suborbiculate, profound impression each side and near 
the middle ; lateral tubercle moderate, oblong ; anterior angles slightly 
tuberculate : scutellum dull violaceous, minutely and densely punctured : 
elytra faintly tinted with violaceous, finely transversely wrinkled, finely 
striate-punctulate, sutural region obtusely indented in two or three places; 
an oblique, rather obsolete, indentation from the humeral angles to the 
suture ; apex obliquely truncate, almost rounded : beneath blackish, densely 
punctulate, dull silvery-sericeous ; femora blackish or dark brown, with 
their base, tibiae and tarsi, dull dark rufous ; hind pair of femora with an 
obvious tooth towards the tip. This species is also very rare. 

Var. a. Elytra violaceous, sculpture rather stronger than in the type ; 
thorax darker than the elytra, with the two dorsal impressions shallow and 
somewhat obscure ; bases of the antennal joints more obviously rufous 
than in the type. Donacea violacea. Melsh. MS. 

4. D. aurichalcea. Brassy-yellow, shining ; antennae with the third joint 
somewhat longer than the second; thorax distantly punctulate; femora 
brassy-brown. 3 1. long ; 1 1. wide. Pennsylvania. 

Donacea aurichalcea, Melsh. MS. 

Brassy-yellow, shining : head, color and sculpture as in the preceding 
species ; antennae moderately long, dull rufous, with the tips of the joints 
black; two basal joints almost black-brassy; second joint one-fourth 
shorter than the third : thorax longer than wide, wider at apex than at 
base ; above distantly punctulate, with the medial line fine, rather obsolete . 
lateral tubercle moderate, oblong ; anterior angles slightly tuberculate ; 
scutellum ashy-pubescent, minutely and densely punctured : elytra, apart 
of the color, entirely as in the preceding species : beneath dull silvery-seri- 
ceous ; femora brassy-brown, shining, with the hind pair obviously toothed 
towards the tip; base of the femora, tibiae and tarsi, dull rufous. Though 
the present species is destitute of the two thoracic impressions, so con- 
spicuous in biimpressa, it may nevertheless, perhaps, be a variety, if not the 
type, of that species. 

6. D. rutila. Brassy yellow, shining ; antennae testaceous, with the third 



160 [Feb., 1847. 

joint longer than the second ; thorax longer than wide, densely and very 
finely wrinkled. 3 1. long ; 1| 1. wide. 

Brassy-yellow, tinted with golden: head brassy-brown, opake, confluently 
rugosely punctulate, with the frontal line long, deeply impressed ; labrum, 
palpi and antenna, rufo-testaceous ; the first shining, impunctured ; the 
last moderately long, slender, with the third joint distinctly longer than 
the second : thorax somewhat inequal, dull cupreous, longer than wide, 
wider at apex than at base, densely and finely rugose, with scattered im- 
pressed punctures ; medial line distinct, deeply impressed before and behind 
the middle; lateral tubercle moderate, oblong, obtuse; anterior angles 
slightly tuberculate : scutellum plumbeous-sericeous, densely and minutely 
punctured ; elytra strongly tinted with golden, and with a faint violaceous 
reflection, punctate-striate, transversely rugose; the ordinary humeral and 
subsutural depressions faint ; truncate at apex : beneath dull silvery-seri- 
ceous ; terminal abdominal segments rufous; femora brassy-brown, with 
their basal third, tibiae and tarsi, dull rufous ; hind femora not toothed* 
Inhabits Pennsylvania. 

6. D. nana. Brassy-yellow, tinted with green ; antennas rufous, second 
and third joints subequal ; thorax longer than wide ; medial line profoundly 
impressed. 2 1. long ; 1. wide. Pennsylvania. 

Head dull brassy-green, densely rugose-punctulate, equal, with the frontal 
impressed line distinct ; mouth rufo-piceous ; antenna ordinarily long, dark, 
dull rufous, with their tips blackish; basal joint brassy-brown, with the 
second joint hardly as long as the third : thorax decidedly longer than 
wide, obviously narrower at base than at apex ; cupreous, finely rugose, 
with the disk polished and shining ; medial line entire, wide and profound ; 
basal margin transversely impressed ; lateral tubercle obtuse, slightly ob- 
long ; anterior angles very feebly tuberculate ; middle of anterior margin 
ordinarly elevated : scutellum plumbeous-sericeous; elytra rather convex, 
brassy-yellow, strongly tinted with green, finely wrinkled, striate-punctate ; 
two slight, obtuse subsutural depressions ; apex rounded : beneath plum- 
beous-sericeous or brassy-brown ; feet brassy-brown, glossy, with the bases 
of the femora and tibiae, dull rufous ; hind pair of femora toothed. This 
species must be closely allied to pusilla, Say, but it differs from that species, 
according to Say's description, in having the thorax decidedly less punctured 
than the head, and its middle profoundly grooved. 

" D. guadricollis. Brassy-green ; thorax with the impressed line and 
lateral tubercle, obsolete." Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. v. 282, 1. 

Var. a. Dull violaceous. 

Orsodacna, Latr. 

" 0. vittata. Black, punctured; elytra pale testaceous ; suture and outer 
margin black; feet rufous." Say, Jour. Acad. iii. 430. 

Var. b. Entirely black. Donacia atra, Melsh. Catal. 

0. tricolor. Head, thorax and feet rufous ; elytra testaceous, with the 
suture and lateral submargin black. 3 4 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Head rufous, with the vertex indeterminately black ; rugosely punctured : 
clypeus sparsely punctured ; labrum impunctured ; antennae blackish, with 
3 basal joints obsoletely rufous; joints 2-4th subequal; palpi and mandibles 
rufous, the latter with the tips black; eyes black: thorax slightly longer than 



Feb., 1847.] 161 

wide, wider before the middle than at base, with the sides rounded from the 
posterior contraction to the anterior angles, which are also rounded : scutel- 
lum dull rufous : elytra testaceous, with the suture broadly black before 
the middle, and gradually narrowed to the suture towards the apex ; a broad 
similarly colored submarginal vitta, which attains neither the lateral edge 
nor the apex, towards which it is narrowed to a point; deeply and densely 
punctured ; two very narrow, longitudinal, almost impunctured lines in the 
middle: postpectus dusky; abdomen, antepectus and femora, yellowish ru- 
fous ; apical tsvo-thirds of the tibiae, tarsi and posterior margins of abdominal 
segments, dusky or black. 

Var. a. Black, with the thorax dusky rufous. 

" 0. Armemaca, Knoch : punctate, black, feet fulvous, elytra with a testa- 
ceous vitta. Form and size of 0. Cerasi.' Germar Insect. Sp. Novas, p. 526. 

Var. a. Head and thorax dull rufous, the former with the vertex black- 
ish ; elytra testaceous, with the suture broadly reddish brown, a similarly 
colored submarginal vitta ; beneath reddish-brown ; feet paler. 

Var. b. Black, with the anterior part of the head and feet yellowish-tes- 
taceous ; a broad spot at base, and an abbreviated apical vitta at the suture, 
pale testaceous. Donacia 4-notata, Melsh. Catal. 

Var. c. Entirely black. 

Hispid , Kirby. 
Microrhopala, Chevr. 

M.porcata. Black; elytra with three raised lines, and three double and 
one triple series of profound punctures, lj 1_ 1. long. 

Hispa porcata and minuta, Melsh. Catal. 

Black ; head with three longitudinal impressed lines ; antennae blackish , 
with a tinge of reddish brown : thorax rough, with large dilated punctures, 
sometimes with a narrow impunctured medial line : elytra each with three 
longitudinal raised lines, and three double and one triple series of profound 
subquadrate punctures ; sometimes a more or less obsolete raised line 
between the second and third lines, widely interrupted in the middle ; sutu- 
ral edges raised ; exterior edges entire ; apex rounded : beneath black ; feet 
dull dark chestnut brown. 

Galerucidce, Steph. 
Galeruca, Geoffr. 

G. femoralis. Black ; thorax, elytra, tibre and tarsi rufous or rufo-testa- 
ceous. 2^ 1. long. 

Galeruca thoracica, Melsh. Catal. 

Head black, rugosely punctulate,with a polished transverse raised line be- 
tween the eyes, interrupted in the middle by a distinct impressed medial line ; 
antennas ; labrum black, entire, rounded at apex : mandibles dull testaceous , 
dusky at tip ; palpi blackish, dull testaceous at tip ; thorax rufo-testaceous, 
transverse, with the sides acutely rounded in the middle ; above with large 
profound, scattered punctures ; each side of the middle with a wide dusky in - 
dentation ; medial groove obvious behind the anterior margin and before the 
posterior one, dusky like the two indentations; scutellum blackish or piceous- 



162 [Feb., 1847. 

brown ; elytra color of the thorax, widest behind the middle, rather numer- 
ously and deeply punctured, and like the thorax glabrous ; beneath and 
femora, black ; pleurae, epipleurae, tibiae and tarsi, testaceous. Very rare. 

" G. atripennis. Black ; thorax rufous, with two impressed spots ; venter 
pale yellowish rufous." Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. iii. 461. 

Var. a. Testaceous ; antennae and eyes black; scutellum, tibiae andtarsij 
dusky. Galeruca paleacea, Melsh. MS. Referable to the genus Luperus, 

Geoffir. 

Calomicrcs, Dillwyn. 

C. thoracicus. Black ; thorax and feet testaceous-yellow. 2 1. long. Penn- 
sylvania. 

Crioceris thoracica, Melsh. Catal. 

Head deep black, with the clypeus dusky-piceous ; very minutely punc- 
tured ; a short longitudinal impressed line between the eyes, interrupted by 
a short transverse one; antennas black or dark brown, more than half the 
length of the body, with the joints elongated ; second and third joints short- 
est, equal ; palpi black, piceous, with the tips dusky; labium and gula, tes- 
taceous ; thorax transverse, testaceous-yellow, hardly punctulate, with the 
sides obtusely rounded ; anterior edge truncate : posterior one obtusely 
rounded ; an obtuse indentation each side of the middle, very faintly defined : 
scutel black ; elytra oblong, with the sides parallel ; deep black, shining, 
glabrous, obsoletely rugulose and punctured, punctures minute and distant; 
apex rounded : postpectus and abdomen, black ; antepectus and feet, testa- 
ceous-yellow. 

(Edionychis, Latr. 

1. CE. /alias.. Black; thorax with the limb, and elytra with the lateral 
margins and a broad vitta, red. 2 2| 1. long ; li 1 J 1. wide. Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Short-ovate, black, densely punctured : head very dark dull red, almost 
black, coarsely punctured, with a longitudinal impressed line between the 
antennas, which are short, black, with the fourth joint slightly longest : 
thorax finely wrinkled, and somemhat distantly punctulate, with the limb 
red ; and the disk transversely brown or dull reddish brown : scutel black, 
finely rugose-punctured : elytra rugulose, and with numerous small, pro- 
found punctures ; black, each elytrum with the lateral margin and a broad 
medial vitta, red, margin and vitta united at tip : beneath and feet, black- 
piceous ; pleurae and epipleurse, red; posterior femora much incrassated. It 
may be necessary to add to the foregoing description that the red color soon 
after death changes into a dirty testaceous, and that, most frequently, there 
is an indentation, more or less obvious, each side of the middle behind the 
anterior margin of the thorax. This species must be closely allied to mini- 
ata, Fabr. 

2. CE. litnbalis. Brown-piceous ; basal joints of the antennas, lateral mar- 
gins and apex of the elytra, and the (wo anteriorpairs of feet, dull testaceous. 
li 2. I. long. Pennsylvania. 

Flat, ovate, brown-piceous : head with a few minute scattered punctures ; a 
profound transverse impressed line between the eyes, intersected in the middle 
by an obsolete longitudinal one ; eyes deep black ; antennas fuscous, with the 
Lx first joints dull testaceous; palpi and two anteriorpairs of feet, dull tes- 



Feb., 1847.] 163 

taceous : thorax impunctured, with the lateral margins clearer than the disk, 
and rather broadly depressed : scutellum impunctured : elytra punctured, 
punctures numerous, small, profound, and ralher regular and equidistant: 
lateral margins and apex indeterminately and broadly dull testaceous : be- 
neath brown or blackish-piceous ; pleurae and epipleurse, dull testaceous >' 
posterior femora rufo-piceous. Closely allied to quercata, Fabr., which it 
much resembles ; that species, however, has the thorax always testaceous, 
and the testaceous color of the lateral margins of the elytra is ever clearly 
limited, which is never the case in limbalis. 

2. (E. scalar is. Testaceous; three common fasciae of the elytra black. 
21. long. Pennsylvania. 

Attica nitidula, Melsh. Catal. 
" scalaris " MS. 

Flattish, oval, testaceous above ; head testaceous, sculptured as in the pre- 
ceding species; eyes deep black; antennas fuscous, with three basal joints tes- 
taceous ; palpi, feet and antepectus, testaceous ; thorax impunctured with the 
lateral margins rather broad and concavous : scutellum black-piceous: elytra 
punctured and rugulose, punctures minute and obsolete; three common, broad 
irregular, black fasciae, confluent on the suture, and of which none attains the 
lateral edges : the front and broadestband is located immediately behind the 
basal edge, the intermediate and longest one on the middle, and the posterior 
and rather shortest band is placed before the apex: abdomen and postpectus 
reddish-brown-piceous : posterior femora strongly incrassated. Closely al- 
lied to sexmaculata, Illig. 

Pachyonychus, Chevr. 

P. ? paradoxus. Pale rufous: lateral two-thirds of the elytra and an- 
tennae blackish. 1| 1| 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Form altogether that of a Lema, Fabr. Head with a few minute scattered 
punctures : a short impressed cross between the eyes ; antennae rather robust, 
and somewhat more than half the length of the body, blackish or dark reddish- 
brown, with three basal joints rufous: second and third joints short, subequal, 
together not much longer than the fourth: palpi color of the head: thorax like 
the head, pale rufous, glossy, transverse, much narrower than the elytra, trun- 
cate before and behind, with the sides feebly rounded, towards the hind angles 
more strongly: finely margined: angles, each with a small mammiform tubercle, 
from each of which arises a single hair: sparsely punctured: transverse basal 
groove entire, punctured : scutellum color of the thorax, impunctured: elytra 
oblong-quadrate, with the apex rounded : punctate-striate : interstices min- 
utely and distantly punctured : black, or dark-reddish-brown, with the su- 
tural third rufous : sometimes the apex the same : beneath and feet color of 
the thorax : posterior femora ordinarily incrassated : penultimate tarsal 
Joint strongly bilobed : posterior nails inflated. 

Disonycha, Chevr. 
D. abbreviaia. Pale fulvous : eyes, antennnre, three elytral vittae, exterior 
edge of the tibiae and tarsi black. 3 1. long : If 1. wide. Pennsylvania. 
Ovate, testaceous, tinged with fulvous : head with scattered minute punc- 



164 [Feb., 1847. 

tures: three profound round impressions between the eyes placed triangularly: 
antennae robust, half the length of the body, black, with the basal joint rufous : 
mandibles with the tips black ; thorax impunctured, each side of the middle 
with a small, round indentation ; scutellum impunctured : elytra distinctly 
widest behind the middle : much, finely, and profoundly punctured : each ely- 
trum with a broad vitta, and a common sutural one, black, bands equidistantly 
abbreviated before the apex: feet color of the body: outer edge of the tibiae 
blackish: tarsi dusky: posterior femora moderately incrassated: claws simple. 

Graptodera, Chevr. 

G. kalmice. Golden-cupreous above : antennae and beneath black. 1 \ 1. 
long. Pennsylvania. 

Attica Kalmice, Melsh. MS. 

Oblong: head golden-green, polished, hardly punctulate: eyes palpi and an- 
tennae, deep black, the last with the two first joints metallic : mouth piceous: 
thorax color of the head, highly polished: disk impunctured: transverse basal 
groove profound, entire : scutellum small, black-cupreous: elytra golden cu- 
preous, shining, punctured, punctures placed in irregular series, and rather 
obsolete towards the apex ; beneath dark-cupreous : tibiae and tarsi fus- 
cous: femora cupreous, glossy, the anterior pair almost black. 

Var. a. Head and thorax color of the elytra, with the abdomen black- 
cupreous. Attica cuprea, Melsh. Catal. This species is found on the Laurel, 
(Kalmialatifolia and glauca) and other plants. 

Systkna, Chevr. 

S. blanda. Testaceous : beneath and antennas black : elytra with a sutural 
vitta and lateral margins, reddish-brown. 1 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Elongate ; head dull rufous, glossy, a few punctures near and between the 
eye3 ; labrum, eyes and last joint of the palpi, deep black ; antennae slender, 
nearly half the length of the body, blackish or brown, with the base of the 
first joint testaceous ; thorax pale testaceous, with the lateral margins more 
or less blackish or dusky ; sides slightly rounded ; surface with a few obso- 
lete punctures ; scutel reddish-brown piceous : elytra minutely and rather 
distantly punctured ; testaceous, with a common sutural vitta and a lateral 
one, reddish-brown, more or less obvious ; beneath black-piceous ; pleurae, 
epipleurae and feet, dull testaceous. 

Crepidodera, Chevr. 

1. C. violacea. Dark violaceous above ; antennre, palpi and feet, yellow- 
testaceous. 1 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Altica Du Chou, Melsh. Catal. 

Oval, violaceous, with a green reflection, shining ; head impunctured, very 
glossy, with the clypeus and inner margins of the eyes green : antennae half 
the length of the body, yellowish ; labrum, mouth, palpi and feet, color of the 
antennae ; thorax transverse-quadrate, with the sides feebly rounded ; above 
very minutely and remotely punctured; a distinct transverse basal groove, re- 
fracted at each end ; scutellum dark violaceous ; elytra striate-punctate ; be- 
neath black; posterior femora brown-piceous. Not the Altise Du Chou. 



Feb., 1847.] 165 

Var. a. Above purple-violaceous. Sometimes this variety has the face 
entirely green, the thorax rather rugulose, and the lateral margin green. 

Var. b. Like the type, but with large and remote punctures on the thorax. 

Var. c. Smaller than the type, brilliant brassy ; head brassy-green, shin- 
ing ; thorax with large remote punctures, edges green ; elytra indented 
behind the base towards the suture ; lateral edges green ; antennae, feet 
and beneath, as in the type ; posterior femora slightly dusky in the middle. 

Altica opima, Melsh. MS. This may prove to be a distinct species. C. 
violacea resembles H. nana, Say, but that species is more slender, and the 
sides of the elytra more parallel. 

2. C. enjthropus. Black; head, antennae, thorax and feet, rufous. H I. 
long. Pennsylvania. 

Altica rufipes, Melsh. Catal. 
" erythropus " MS. 

Oblong- subquadrate: head rufous, glossy, impunctured; antennae and tho- 
rax color of the head ; eyes blackish; thorax rather convex, glossy, impunc- 
tured ; sides slightly rounded ; base with a transverse groove, refracted at 
the ends ; scutellum rufous ; elytra black, punctate-striate, the interstices 
slightly convex ; abdomen black : antepectus and feet rufous ; epipleurae 
dull rufous. 

3. Cfusco-esnea. Dark brown brassy; antennae and feet rufous; thorax 
with an entire basal groove, lj 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Oblong, brassy brown or blackish, glossy ; head impunctured ; labrum 
piceous; palpi dull rufous; antennae rufous, with the second and third joints 
subequal ; thorax narrower than the elytra, moderately convex, with sides 
slightly rounded ; impunctured, each side of the middle a small obsolete 
indentation ; transverse basal groove entire ; elytra finely and distantly 
punctured ; sides obtusely arcuated, with the greatest width about the 
middle ; beneath black, or dark brown, glossy ; feet rufous ; posterior fe- 
mora sometimes rufo-piceous. 

4. C. hirtipennis. Black ; head and thorax rufous ; elytra testaceous, hir- 
sute, punctate-striate. 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Head rufous, minutely and obscurely punctured; eyes black ; antennae tes- 
taceous, with the second, third and fourth joints short, subequal, the second 
thickened ; palpi black; thorax rufous, transverse, moderately convex, with 
the sides feebly rounded; densely punctulate; transverse basal groove slight, 
entire ; elytra dull testaceous, moderately convex; sides slightly arcuated ; 
deeply punctate striate, punctures furnishing short, whitish setae, frequently 
with a common, obsolete, dusky fascia on the middle ; abdomen and post- 
pectus blackish ; antepe no auii feet, pale rufous; posterior femora some- 
times dusky. 

5. C. atriventris. Dull rufous ; abdomen and postpectus blackish; elytra 
striate-punctate. 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Short-ovate, dull rufous, glossy ; head impunctured ; palpi with the last 
joint dusky; antennae slender, testaceousjeyes black; thorax short transverse, 
narrower than the elytra, with the sides feebly rounded; moderately convex; 
very minutely punctured; transverse groove profound, refracted at both ends! 
elytra convex, striate-punctate; punctures obsolete towards the apex ; sides 
arcuated ; beneath blackish, or dark reddish brown ; feet testaceous. 



166 [Feb., 1847. 

Psvlliodes, Latr. 

P. punctulata. Brassy black ; thorax much and finely punctured; elytra 
striate-punctate ; tibiae and tarsi pale brown. 1 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Form of striolata, Illig. Brassy black ; head impunetured, rather opake ; 
palpi dull testaceous; antennae slender, fuscous, the three basal joints tes- 
taceous ; 10-jointed ; thorax slightly wider at base than at apex, with the 
sides feebly rounded ; finely and rather densely punctured ; scutellum mi- 
nute ; elytra narrowed behind and before, striate-punctate, the punctures 
small ; beneath and femora, blackish-piceous ; tibiae and tarsi, dull pale 
brown, the former dusky towards their tips ; posterior femora much in- 
crassated ; posterior tarsi inserted before the apex of the tibiae. 

Aphthona, Chevr. 

A. rubicunda. Ferruginous ; eyes and suture of the elytra blackish. 1 
1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Altica rubicunda, Melsh. Catal. 

Oblong, ferruginous ; head impunetured, glossy, darker than the thorax, 
labrum piceous ; palpi black ; eyes blackish ; antennae color of the thorax, 
four or five terminal joints dusky ; thorax narrower than the elytra, trans- 
verse-quadrate, with the sides feebly rounded ; minutely and distantly 
punctured ; each side of the middle with a small, obsolete, subbasal in- 
dentation : scutellum piceous ; elytra rather convex with the sides arcua- 
ted ; rugulose, minutely and distantly punctured, with the punctures rather 
equidistant ; suture indeterminately blackish ; beneath and feet, color of 
the elytra and thorax ; posterior tarsi . Perhaps referable to the ge- 
nus Thy amis, Stephens. 

Thyamis, Steph. 

1. T. melanura. Fuscous; basal joints of the antennae and four anterior 
feet, dull testaceous. \\ 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Altica melanura, Melsh. Catal. 

Oblong-subovate, dull reddish-brown, glossy ; head impunetured, pitchy- 
blackish, tinged with rufous ; palpi and eyes black, the first piceous ; an- 
tennae fuscous, with the three first joints testaceous or dull rufous ; thorax 
narrower than the elytra, transverse-subquadrate, the sides slightly round- 
ed ; minutely rugose : scutellum piceous ; elytra finely and distantly punc- 
tured and rugulose ; rather convex, with the sides hardly arcuated except 
behind the middle ; beneath blackish or dark reddish-brown ; four ante- 
rior feet testaceous ; posterior femora pitchy-brown, with their tarsi dull 
testaceous, their tibiae sometimes of the same color ; first joint of the pos- 
terior tarsi half the length of the tibiae. 

2. T. testacea. Testaceous ; beneath dull pale reddish-brown ; antenna? 
long. 1. long. 

Ovate, above testaceous : head impunetured, shining ; eyes and ter- 
minal joint of the palpi, black ; labrum piceous ; antennae long, slen- 
der, testaceous, with the terminal joints dusky; second and third joints, 
as in the preceding species, almost equal ; thorax narrower than the 
elytra, subquadrate, with the sides slightly, and basal edge obtusely, 
rounded ; very minutely punctured ; scutellum, color of the elytra, 
which are rather paler than the thorax; rugulose, finely and distantly 
punctured ; sides arcuated ; moderately convex ; beneath dull reddish- 



Feb., 1847.] 167 

brown ; feet pale testaceous ; posterior tibiae very slender; posterior tarsi 
half the length of their tibiae. Found in Pennsylvania. 

Dibolia, Latr. 

D. cerea. Green above ; antennas, tibiae and tarsi, testaceous. 1 : }1. long. 
Pennsylvania. 

Altica cerea, Melsh. Catal. 

Oblong-ovate, green and slightly brassy above, shining ; head retracted ; 
labrum, mouth, palpi and antennae, testaceous, or rufo-testaceous ; thorax 
obsoletely and distinctly punctulate ; sometimes almost blackish : elytra 
finely striate-punctate, with the punctures obsolete towards the apex : be- 
neath and posterior femora, black, shining ; abdomen sometimes reddish- 
brown ; four anterior feet testaceous, or rufo-testaceous, their femora some- 
times dusky ; posterior tibiae and tarsi color of the anterior one. 

CH.ETOCNEMA, Steph. 

1. C. minuta. Brassy-black above; basal joints of the antennae tawny- 
testaceous ; elytra punctate-striate. | 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Altica minuta, Melsh. MS. 

Ovate, brassy-black above, shining: head minutely and confertly punc- 
tured ; rather opake ; labrum and palpi, black, glossy ; antennae short, dark 
fuscous, with two or three, and sometimes four basal joints dull or tawny- 
testaceous ; thorax very minutely and rather distinctly punctured ; trans- 
verse, convex, with the sides and base obtusely rounded : elytra convex, 
with the sides arcuated ; strongly punctate-striate ; exterior interstices con- 
vex : beneath blackish, slightly brassy, distinctly and remotely punctured ; 
femora brassy-black ; tibiae and tarsi dull or dusky testaceous, sometimes 
the apical half the tibiae blackish. 

2. C. semichalchea. Head and thorax brassy-black ; elytra black, punc- 
tate-striate ; basal joints of the antennae, tibias and tarsi, dull testaceous. 
1 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Ovate, glossy: head brassy-black, with a few, small, scattered punctures 
between and near the eyes ; labrum and palpi, dark dull reddish-brown ; 
antennae fuscous, with four basal joints testaceous ; chorax brassy-brown 
or blackish, transverse, moderately convex, with the base obtusely rounded ; 
the sides almost straight ; finely wrinkled, and rather densely punctulate ; 
elytra black, punctate-striate ; the exterior interstices convex ; sides arcu- 
ated ; moderately convex ; beneath black, with the apical segments of the 
abdomen rugose-punctured ; femora blackish or dark reddish-brown, glossy; 
tibiae and tarsi, dull testaceous. 

3. C. pulicaria. Head and thorax brassy-black ; elytra black, with a 
green tinge, punctate-striate ; basal joints of the antennae, tibiae and tarsi, 
testaceous. 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Altica pulicaria, Melsh. Catal. 

Ovate ; head brassy-black, hardly punctulate, opake ; labrum and palpi, 
dull rufo-testaceous ; antenna? rather long, slender, fuscous, with four 
basal joints testaceous ; thorax color of the head, transverse, with the sides 
slightly rounded; moderately convex, scarcely punctulate; elytra black, 



168 [Feb., 1847. 

tinted with green; moderately convex ; punctate-striate ; outer interstices 
convex; sides arcuated; beneath blackish, sparsely punctured; femora 
chestnut-brown ; tibiae and tarsi, dull testaceous or rufous. 

Sph^eroderma, Steph. 

S.? insolita. Rust-red, shining ; tip and basal joints of the antennas, tes- 
taceous ; thorax narrow : elytra broad, f 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Light ferruginous shining; head impunctured; tips of the palpi black, 
antennae moderate, slightly thickened towards the apex, with the two 
apical joints testaceous, the four preceding black, and the five basal one s 
testaceous ; second, third and fourth joints short, subequal, the second 
thickened ; thorax much narrower than the elytra, transverse, convex, with 
the base and sides obtusely rounded ; impunctured and highly polished : 
elytra broad, subquadrate, convex, highly polished, with effaced series of 
very minute punctures; humeral angles prominent: beneath color of the 
elytra ; feet paler ; posterior femora moderately incrassated : posterior tibiae 
simple, with a small spur at tip ; penultimate tarsal joint strongly bilobed. 
This insect possesses entirely the form of a Eumolpus and though a true 
Haltica Geoffr., it cannot remain in the subgenus Sphoeroderma, Steph. 

Chrysomelidce, Leach. 

Metachroma, Chevr. 

1. M. throackus. Dull rufous ; elytra black, punctate-striate. 1 2-5ths 
!. long. Pennsylvania. 

Eumolpus thoracicus, Melsh. Catal. 

Dull dark rufous r head finely punctured ; a longitudinal impressed frontal 
line, not crossing a transverse line between the eyes, both lines sometimes 
obsolete ; palpi and antennae paler than the head, the last with the five ter- 
minal joints subequal, larger than the preceding ones ; eyes black : thorax 
glossy, minutely and distinctly punctured ; an obsolete indentation each 
side towards the posterior angles ; scutellum rufous, impunctured ; elytra 
black, tinted with rufous, particularly towards the apex ; punctate-striate, 
less deeply towards the apex; humeral tubercles impunctured: beneath 
dusky rufous ; feet paler. Closely allied to canellus, Fabr. 

Var. a. Rufous ; elytra slightly tinted with black. 

2. M. melanura. Black ; head, antennas, apex of the elytra and tarsi, dull 
rufous. 1 3-5ths 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Eumolpus melanura, Melsh. MS. 

Black : head dull rufous, densely punctulate ; longitudinal impressed line 
obsolete, transverse line between the eyes angulate, distinct ; mouth, palpi 
and antennas, rufous, the last formed as in the preceding species; thorax 
black, with the anterior edge obsoletely piceous ; glossy, very finely and 
distantly punctured; scutellum dull rufous, impunctured: elytra black, 
with the basal edge, humeral tubercles and apical third, dull pale rufous ; 
punctate-striate, punctures and striae obsolete or almost absent towards the 
apex: beneath, femora and tibiae, deep black; knees and tarsi, dull rufous. 
Size and form entirely of i-notata, Say, of which it may prove a variety. 



Feb., 1847.] 169 

Eumolpus, Fabr. 

1. E. longipes. Fuscous, clothed with a dense ashy-pubescence ; feet long, 
2 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Brown, densely ashy-pubescent: head dark brown, densely and deeply 
punctured, ashy-pubescent; a longitudinal impressed frontal line: labrum 
piceous : antenna; slender, long, rather filiform, fuscous, with three or four 
basal joints testaceous ; eyes deep black ; palpi dull testaceous : thoraxlonger 
than wide, much narrower than the elytra, slightly wider behind than before, 
subcylindric, with the sides obtusely rounded ; densely and profundly punc- 
tured : scutellum small, densely ashy-pubescent : elytra with shallow punc- 
tured strias, punctures close-set; interstices transversely wrinkled, minutely 
punctured : outer basal angles prominent; apex rounded ; beneath and feet 
blackish-brown, ashy-sericeous or finely ashy-pubescent ; the feet more than 
ordinary long; posterior and intermediate femora at base, testaceous. 

2. E. villosulus. Ferruginous, pubescent ; antenna;, palpi and feet, testa- 
ceous-yellow. If 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Eumolpus villosus, Melsh. Catal. 

Ferruginous : very minutely and densely rugose, clothed with minute, short 
hairs, with an obtuse, longitudinal frontal indentation ; antenna as in the 
preceding species ; yellowish ; labrum and palpi similarly colored ; eyes deep 
black : thorax transverse, wider at base than at apex, with the sides rounded, 
middle of anterior edge raised ; rugulose and clothed like the head ; obtusely 
indented on the middle of each lateral margin and in front of the scutel : 
elytra lighter and less pruinose than the bead and thorax ; pilose like the 
thorax, with the hairs more distinct ; with fine and somewhat obsolete punc- 
tured striae ; interstices fine, convex ; exterior basal angles moderately promi- 
nent; apex acutely rounded: feet testaceous, or testaceous-yellow. It be- 
longs perhaps to Chevrolat's subgenus 3Iyochrous. 

Var. ? a. Smaller; head, thorax and elytra light rust-red, the last with 
a common, indeterminate black spot on the middle. Eumolpus plagiatus, 
Melsh. MS. 

3. E. pubescens. Cupreous, sparsely asby-pubescent ; head with a pro- 
found frontal indentation. 1| 2 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Eumolpus pubescens, Melsh. Catal. 

Dull cupreous, or brassy-brown, sparsely ashy-pubescent: head densely 
punctured, with a large, profound indentation on the front; labrum and 
palpi, black-piceous; eyes and antenna; black, the latter moderately long, 
with five terminal joints thicker than the preceding ones, which are brassy ; 
second joint robust; joints third till sixth inclusive, equal ; thorax trans- 
verse, feebly waved behind, with the front slightly advanced in the middle ; 
sides rounded; rather wider behind than before: minutely punctured, 
densely transversely wrinkled : scutellum obtuse-triangular: elytra wider 
at base than the thorax, narrowed to the apex, which is rounded; with ob- 
scure and irregular series of small punctures ; transversely rugulose ; 
humeral tubercles prominent : beneath rugosely punctured : feet dull 
cupreous, tinted with greenish. 

4. E. curtipennis. Brassy-brown ; elytra short ; head with a conspicuous 
frontal indentation. 1 1. long. Pennsylvania. 



170 [Feb., 1847. 

Brown-brassy, shining : head finely punctured, with an obvious frontal in- 
dentation, anterior to which is a transverse arcuated impressed l>ne : an- 
tennae, eyes, labrum and palpi, as in the preceding species : thorax com- 
paratively large, as wide in the middle as the elytra, contracted and trun- 
cate behind, in front rounded and advanced in the middle; sides rounded ; 
minutely punctured and rugulose : scutellum rugulose : elytra short, with 
the sides feebly arcuated ; rugulose, with obsolete series of punctures, which 
are much effaced towards the apex, the latter rounded : beneath and feet 
dark-brassy, rugose-punctured. Allied to the preceding species. 

Cryptocephalus, Geoffr. 

1. C. M. Nigrum. Black; thorax and elytra testaceous, the former with 
a 'black character like the letter M, the latter with an irregular vitta and 
several spots, black, 1 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Pachybrachis ~M. Nigrum ? Dej. Catal. 

StroDgly punctured : head black, with the orbits of the eyes and a spot 
on the clypeus, testaceons ; labrum pale, or piceous ; antennae blackish, 
with four basal joints testaceous : thorax less strongly punctured than the 
elytra, testaceous, with a black character, formed like the letter M ; edges 
black : scutellum testaceous, with the lateral margins black : elytra strongly 
and irregularly punctured, some of the punctures are arranged in irregular 
series ; testaceous, with an irregular, black vitta, abbreviated before the 
apex ; lateral submargins each with three black spots, of which the ante- 
rior one is placed on the humerus, the posterior one is confluent with the 
vitta: beneath deep black; pygidium black, each side with a pale spot : 
feet blackish, with the femora and tibiae varied with white. This species 
may prove to be a variety of the viduatus, Fabr. 

2. C. atomarius. Dark fuscous, speckled with whitish ; face white ; femora 
varied with white. \\ 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Cryptocephalus historio, Melsh. Catal. 
' : atomarius, Melsh. MS. 

Black, or dark-brown: head punctulate ; face white, with the sutures 
black ; antennas fuscous, with three or four basal joints lurid : thorax densely 
punctulate, varied with a few dull testaceous spots ; anterior edge and an 
apical medial line similarly colored: scutellum black, with a testaceous 
spot : elytra irregularly and profoundly punctured, punctures ranged in 
irregular series ; varied with numerous small lurid spots ; pygidium imma- 
culate : beneath black : feet black, varied with white. 

Var. a. Black ; head almost immaculate; labrum and a double spot in 
front of the antennae, white ; thorax almost immaculate ; elytra with only 
a few small lurid spots ; femora at tip whitish. Cryptocephalus conspersus, 
Melsh. Catal. This is probably the female of the preceding species. 

3. C. trinotatus. Deep black ; thorax with the lateral and anterior margins 
and three spots, sanguineous ; front with two similarly colored spots. 
lij 2 1. long. Pennsy.runia. 

Cryptocephalus trinotatus, Melsh. Catal. 

Deep black : head densely punctulate, with two reddish-fulvous spots be- 
tween the eyes; antennae and labrum, black : thorax confluently punctured, 
with the anterior edge, lateral margins, two oblique, dilated, abbreviated lines 



Feb., 1847.] * 171 

at base, and one at apex, reddish-fulvous: scutellum black; elytra imma- 
culate, densely and coarsely punctured: pygidium, beneath and feet, deep 
black, immaculate, ashy-sericeous. 

4. 0. castus. Deep black; thorax with the lateral margins and two spots 
at base, fulvous ; elytra punctate-striate, each with a testaceous spot at 
apex. \\ 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Cryptocephalus castus, Melsh. MS. 

Deep black : head opake, impunctured, spotless ; labrum and antenna, 
deep black, the latter with the first joint shining : thorax impunctured, 
rather opake, with the lateral margins and two oblique, dilated, abbreviated 
lines at base, fulvous: scutellum black: elytra deeply punctate-striate ; in- 
terstices impunctured, somewhat convex ; humeral tubercle small, promi- 
nent; suture raised immediately behind the scutel, each elytrum with a 
whitish spot at apex ; beneath and feet deep black, immaculate ; feet shining. 

Var. a. Lateral thoracic margins broadly fulvous, without the basal spots. 

5. C. asculi. Black, thorax with the lateral margins and an abbreviated 
line at tip, dull red ; elytra varied with white. 1J 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Cryptocephalus Aesculi, Melsh. Catal. 

Black; head confidently and obscurely punctulate ; orbits of the eyes 
very faintly rufous ; labrum white ; antennas dull brDwn, the basal joints 
lurid; thorax densely and somewhat coarsely punctured ; lateral margins 
dull red ; a longitudinal medial line originating at apex and abbreviated 
behind the middle, dull fulvous ; scutellum black; elytra ordinarily punc- 
tured, varied with whitish ; basal edge white ; pygidium and beneath, deep 
black, spotless ; feet black, with the anterior femora maculate with white. 

Var. a. Head, thorax and feet spotless ; elytra with the basal edge and a 
few small spots towards the apex, white; femora immaculate. Perhaps the 
female. 

6. C.pectoralis. Ferruginous, maculate with black; pectus black. 1J 
1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Light ferruginous : head punctulate ; face color of the thorax, with a 
longitudinal black line between the eyes, the latter black ; antennae color 
of the face ; labrum and feet testaceous ; thorax punctulate, with about five 
obsolete black spots : scutellum black : elytra ordinarily punctured, inde- 
terminately maculate with black ; striae black ; abdomen ferruginous ; 
pectus black, or dusky ; femora with a small brownish spot. 

7. C. hepalicus. Ferruginous, sometimes sparsely maculate with black ; 
elytra simply and densely punctured. 1 1J1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Cryptocephalus hepaticus, Melsh. Catal. 

Robust, pale ferruginous ; beneath dusky ; head densely punctulate, some- 
times faintly clouded with brownish ; eyes black ; antennae moderate, color 
of the head; thorax densely punctured, sometimes obsoletely clouded with 
black; scutellum piceous; elytra densely punctured, without any of the 
ordinary longitudinal rugae or raised lines ; sometimes with four or five spots 
before the tip, and one on the humerus, black; pygidium dusky in the 
middle ; abdomen at tip dull testaceous ; feet rufo-testaceous, or testaceous ; 
sometimes with a brown spot. 



172 [Feb., 1847. 

8. C tridens. Black; antennae and feet testaceous; head varied with 
whit. ; thorax with the lateral margins broadly white, each with a large 
subquadrangular black spot; elytra varied with white. 1J 1. long. Penn 

Cryptocephalus tridens, Melsh. Catal. 

Black : head irregularly punctured, varied with white ; antennas and feet 
testaceous-yellow ; labrum white ; thorax profoundly and irregularly punc- 
tured, with the lateral margins broadly white, each with a large subtrapezoi- 
dal blackish spot : scutellutn black : elytra deeply and irregularly punctured, 
some of the punctures, towards the middle and sides, ranged in irregular 
series, their interstices convex: each elytrum with a cruciform spot and 
apex, white ; pygidium varied with white ; epipleurae and margins of the 
abdomen, white. Basal edge of the elytra most frequently, and occasionally 
an abbreviated longitudinal line at the middle of the thoracic apex, white. 

9. C.flavicornis. Black; antennae, feet, lateral margins and two basal 
spot3 of the thorax, yellowish ; elytra, each with two similarly colored spots 
l 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Black; head profoundly punctured ; eyes black, with the superior and an- 
terior edges, and labrum, white ; antennae and feet, testaceous-yell jw : thorax 
profoundly and* inequally punctured ; lateral margins, lateral third of ante- 
rior and posterior edges, and two dilated short basal lines, testaceous, lines, 
forming junctions at right angles with the inner ends of the colored basal 
edge; scutellutn black: elytra deeply, finely and inequally punctured, to- 
wards the lateral margins irregularly punctate-striate ; a lateral linear spot 
a little before the middle and apex, whitish ; pygidium each side with a 
small whitish spot. 

10. C. luieipennis. Black ; elytra luteous, with the lateral and basal edges 
and suture, black ; thorax with the lateral margins and two basal spots 
whitish. If 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Cryptoeephalus fasciatus and binoiatus, Melsh. Catal. 

Robust, black: head sparsely punctulate, with a longitudinal impressed 
frontal line ; clypeus white, a similarly colored transverse spot between the 
eyes ; antennae fuscous or blackish, with the five first joints and mouth, tes- 
taceous-yellow ; thorax sparsely, very minutely and obscurely punctured, 
glossy ; lateral maagins narrowly, and a spot each side of the middle before 
the base, testaceous, tinted with yellow : scutellutn black ; elytra luteous or 
ochreous, with the suture, lateral and basal edges and humeri, black ; be- 
hind the middle with a common, arcuated dusky fascia, being sometime? 
formed of spots, and sometimes entirely wanting; finely punctate-striate : 
interstices flat, impunctured ; pygidium with two small whitish spots at tip ; 
feet black, with the tarsi fuscous ; coxas of anterior feet each with a whit*- 
spot ; a similar spot each side of the anterior margin of postpectus. 

11. C. mutabilis. Dull rufous ; thorax with the anterior and lateral mar- 
gins white ; base, lateral margins and apex, the same, the two former macu- 
late with blackish spots. 22 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Cryptocephalus nobilis, Melsh. Catal. 

Dull rufous, shining ; head sparsely punctured and impressed on the front . 
orbits, clypeus and labrum white ; antennas pale brown, with five basal joints 
testaceous ; thorax very minutely aud distinctly punctured, polished, with the. 



Feb., 1847.] 173 

front and side margins whitish, broadly at the anterior angles ; edges 
dusky : scutellum dusky ; elytra darker than the thorax, shining, with the 
basal and lateral margins broadly whitish, the latter abbreviated before the 
apex, and containing three blackish spots, of which one is located on the 
humeral tubercle ; middle of the base with a large dark reddish spot ; apex 
whitish ; punctate- striate ; pygidium strongly punctured, with the apex 
white; beneath blackish, tinted with rufous; two or three apical segments 
of abdomen and feet rufous. This species varies much, and it is difficult 
to determine which is the type. 

Var. a. As in the preceding; thorax with two oblique, abbreviated 
whitish basal lines : elytra with the lateral margins not abbreviated, ma- 
culate with rufous. 

Var. b. Smaller than the type ; head black, marked with white as in the 
type ; thorax black, highly polished and scarcely punctulate, with the front 
and side margins as in the type ; a transverse series of four impressed 
points each side of the middle towards the apex ; elytra black, punctate- 
striate ; basal edge, apex and lateral margins, white, inner side of the latter 
bisinuate ; humeral tubercles black ; feet as in the type ; antennae color of 
the feet ; beneath black ; a large quadrate white spot in the middle at base 
of the abdomen. Cryptocephalus charus, Melsh. MS. The white basal ab- 
dominal spot is present in almost every specimen. 

12. C. clathratus. Black; head, femora and thorax fulvous, the latter 
with the lateral margins and two basal spots, yellowish ; elytra with about 
sixteen yellowish spots. If 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Crypto cephalus clathratus, Melsh. Catal. 

Head pale fulvous, scarce punctulate ; a slight longitudinal impressed 
line between the eyes ; antennae fuscous, with the five first joints testace- 
ous ; eyes plumbeous ; thorax fulvous, with two oblique, dilated, abbrevi- 
ated yellow basal lines ; lateral margins yellcfw ; posterior and lateral 
edges blackish ; surface obscurely punctulate ; scutellum piceous : elytra 
deep black, punctate-striate, with about sixteen yellow spots, placed in 
four transverse series, spots in the basal series six, all linear, eight spots in 
the two intermediate series, and two at apex; pygidium strongly and coarse- 
ly punctured : beneath dusky, tinted with rufous ; a whitish spot on the 
middle of the abdominal base ; femora fulvous ; tibia? and tarsi color of 
the abdomen. 

Var. a. Rufous or fulvous ; thorax immaculate; elytra black, with about 
10 yellow spots. Cryptocephalus puleher, Melsh. Catal. 

13. C. sulphuripennis. Black ; elytra pale yellow, maculate with black ; 
thorax with the lateral margins and two basal spots, yellowish ; feet pale 
fulvous. 2 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Head black, sparsely punctulate ; orbits, labrum and clypeus, whitish : 
antenna} yellowish, dusky at tip ; thorax black, distantly punctulate, with 
the lateral margins and two oblique basal spots, yellowish ; scutellum 
black ; elytra pale yellow, with three transverse rows of small black spots, 
apical row formed of four spots, and each of the two others six : punctate- 
striate, punctures dusky ; pygidium black, immaculate, coarsely punctured; 
beneath deep black : feet pale rufous. 

14. G.formosus. Deep black ; thorax with the lateral margins and two 



174 [Feb., 1847. 

basal spots, fulvous ; elytra with thirteen fulrous spots. Nearly 2 1. long. 
Pennsylvania. 

Deep black : head with a longitudinal impressed frontal line; punctulate; 
maculate with whitish ; antennae blackish, with three or four basal joints 
yellowish : thorax polished, hardly punctulate, with the anterior and poste- 
rior angles, and two oblique basal spots, yellowish ; anterior edge similarly 
colored ; elytra profoundly punctate-striate, with thirteen fulvous spots, 
ranged in transverse rows ; two of the spots are at apex, three at base, and 
in each of the two intermediate rows four; beneath, feet and pygidium, 
deep black, immaculate ; coxaea of the two anterior feet with a white spot; 
abdominal basal spot present. 

15. C. hamatus. Black ; head, thorax, feet, and lateral and apical margins 
of the elytra, fulvous ; pygidium and tip of the abdomen, similarly colored 
or rufous. 1 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Head pale fulvous, distantly punctulate: eyes plumbeous, variedwith gold- 
en; antenna? color of the thorax, dusky at tip; thorax fulvous, varying in depth 
of color ; sometimes with the lateral margins and two oblique basal spots, 
faintly yellowish; surface densely and minutely punctured; scutellumpiceons; 
elytra black, punctate-striate; lateral and and apical margins with a yellowish 
vitta, curving a little upon the first entire innerspace ; base with two short 
fulvous lines, the one at the suture and the other in the middle ; lateral and 
apical edges, black ; basal edge sometimes yellowish : beneath black; feet, 
tip of the abdomen and pygidium, fulvous; abdominal basal spot present. 

16. C. pretiosus. Black, shining ; head and thorax maculate with white ; 
elytra punctate-striate, with an abbreviated fascia, linear spots at base, and 
apex, fulvous. If 1. long. Pennsylvania. Very rare. 

Deep black : head rather strongly punctured ; a longitudinal profoundly 
impressed line between the eyes ; orbits and clypeus white ; antennae black- 
ish, with five basal joints'testaceous-yellow : thorax highly polished, very 
minutely and distantly punctured; a spot at each of the angles, and twooblique 
subovate basal spots, white; elytra finely punctate-striate, with a broad fascia 
in the middle, somewhat widely interrupted at the suture, apex and six short 
lines at base, fulvous or yellowish fulvous; exterior basal line or spot confluent 
with the fascia: pygidium, beneath and feet, deep black; coxae of the anteri- 
or and middle feet each with a white spot ; abdominal basal spot present. 

Monachus, Chevr. 

M. viridis. Dark green ; antenna?, mouth, lateral margins of the thorax 
and feet yellowish, f 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Cryptocephalus smaragdinus, Melsh. MS. 

Dark green, slightly brassy ; head obscurely and very minutely punc- 
tured ; a slight frontal impression ; clypeus, labruni and mouth, yellow- 
ish ; antennae similarly colored, with the tip dusky ; as long as the tho- 
rax, somewhat thickened towards the tip, with the joints short ; thorax 
transverse, wider at base than at apex, with the sides rounded ; trun- 
cate before and slightly waved behind ; posterior angles acute ; surface 
hardly punctulate, with the lateral margins dull fulvous ; elytra shin- 
ing, finely and obsoletely striate-punctulate ; punctures almost want- 
ing toward the apex ; feet yellowish-fulvous ; pygidium, abdomen, 



Feb., 1847.] 175 

and postpectus, black, the latter tinted with reddish ; antepectus color of 
the feet. 
Var. a. Head and thorax dull rufous. 

Gastrophysa, Chevr. 

1. G. cenea. Blue, slightly brassy ; antennae black, with five basal joints 
testaceous. 2 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Eumolpus cenms, Melsh. Catal. 

Blue, tinged with greenish, slightly brassy ; head deeply and distantly 
punctulate, sometimes with an obsolete longitudinal frontal impression ; an- 
tennae black, with five or six basal joints dull testaceous ; palpi pieeous ; tho- 
rax deeply and densely punctulate : scutellum impunctured : elytra much 
punctulate, with the punctures longer than wide, and ranged in irregalar and 
approximate series ; beneath and femora, greenish black, slightly brassy ; ti- 
biae and tarsi, blackish, or dark reddish-brown; abdomen sparsely punctulate. 

Var. a. Elytra cupreous. 

2. G. cyanea. Blue ; beneath and feet black. 2 1. long. Pennsylvania. 
Chrysomela Raphani, Melsh. Catal. 

Cyaneous, shining: head punctured; an obsolete longitudinal impressed 
frontal line ; labrum and palpi piceous : antennae black, or dark brown, 
with four basal joints glabrous, shining ; thorax strongly tinged with green J 
profoundly and densely punctulate : scutellum green : elytra punctured like 
the thorax, with a green reflection : beneath blackish ; feet similarly col- 
ored, with a bluish or greenish reflection. 

PHiEDON, Meg. 

P. wide. Greenish, or dark fuscous brassy ; feet piceous. \\ 1. long. 
Pennsylvania. 

Eumolpus viridis, Melsh. Catal. 

Ovate, greenish, or dark fuscous brassy, rarely cupreous ; shining ; head 
deeply punctulate, with a transverse, arcuated impressed frontal line : an- 
tennae blackish or dark brown ; thorax very minutely and obsoletely punc- 
tured ; scutellum blackish, impunctured : elytra striate-punctate, punctures 
small, and the series remote : beneath blackish, with the abdomen densely 
punctured ; feet blackish-piceous, often brassy. 

Erotylida. 
Tritoma, Fabr. 

T. basale. Black ; basal half of the elytra rufous. If 1. long. Penn- 
sylvania. 

Black, shining; head obscurely punctulate ; antennas black ; thorax much 
and rather distinctly punctulate : scutellum piceous : elytra with the basal 
half rufous : finely punctate striate ; beneath black, distantly and distinctly 
punctulate : feet black. Differs from pulchrum, Say, which it much resem- 
bles, in being more numerously and distinctly punctulate, and in having the 
basal half of the elytra transversely rufous, the rufous color extending as 
far down on the lateral margins as it does on the suture, whilst in pulchrum 
the rufous color occupies only a short space behind the humeri, and extends 
down the suture, sometimes to the apex. 



176 [Feb., 1847. 

Triplax, Payk. 
T. fasciata. Yellowish ; head, antennae and base and apex of the elytra 
black. 2\ 1. long. Alabama. 

Head distinctly and not densely punctulate ; black, posteriorly tinted 
with rufous ; antenna; black ; palpi, feet and beneatb testaceous-yellow ; 
thorax similarly colored ; punctured like the head: scutel color of the tho- 
rax ; elytra broadly black at base and apex, with a broad, common, testa- 
ceous-yellow fascia ; finely punctate- striate. 

Endomychidcc, Leach. 
Lycoperdina, Latr. 

1. L. A-gultata. Black; elytra with four rufous spots; thorax rufous, 
with the disk black. If 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Endomychus 4-guttatus, Melsh. Catal. 

Head black, shining, sparsely and obscurely punctulate; labrum and 
mouth dull fuscous ; antennae black ; thorax minutely and obscurely punc- 
tured ; rufous most frequently with a broad, entire, black dorsal vitta ; 
glossy ; edges dusky ; scutellum black ; elytra similarly colored, each with 
a large subhumeral spot, and another behind the middle, rufous or fulvous ;. 
obscurely punctulate ; postpectus, feet and abdomen, blackish, the latter 
with the tip dull pale brown ; tarsi similarly colored ; antepectus rufous. 

2. L. lutea. Testaceous ; eyes black. 1| 1. long. Pennsylvania. 
Endomychus luteus, Melsh. Catal. 

Testaceous, glabrous or rather thinly clothed with minute short hairs, 
arising from very minute punctures ; antennas darker than the head ; eyes 
black ; thorax with the lateral margins pale testaceous, pellucid ; femora 
pale testaceous ; tibiae and tarsi darker. 

3.h.pilosa. Pale ferruginous, finely pubescent. If 1. long. Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Endomychus pilosus, Melsh. Catal. 

Palpi ferruginous, yellowish-pubescent ; head glossy, indistinctly punctu- 
late, hardly pubescent; eyes black: antennae color of the head, with the clava 
darker : thorax indistinctly punctulate, slightly pubescent, glossy, with the 
lateral margins lighter than the disk : elytra obscurely punctulate, yellow- 
ish-pubescent, with the suture sometimes dusky ; beneath and feet as above. 

This species and the preceding one may be referred to the subgenus Epx- 
pocus of Dejean's Catalogue. 

4. L. crassicornis. Rufous ; disk of the thorax, a fascia and tip of the ely- 
tra, black ; clava of the antennae much dilated, lj 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Endomychus crassicornis, Melsh. Catal. 

Rufous, glossy, obscurely and distantly punctulate, glabrous : head fre- 
quently dusky: antennas ydlowish-rufous, with the three terminal joints 
greatly dilated in s, less in 2s: thorax with the disk black ; scutellum 
black: elytra with a broad common fascia on the middle, apex and anterior 
portion of the suture, sometimes its entire length, black : beneath color of 
the elytra ; feet color of the antennae. 

Var. a. Smaller ; apex of the elytra and scutellum color of the elytra. 



Feb., 1847.] 177 

5. L. apiealis. Testaceous-yellow ; elytra black, with the apex testace- 
ous. 1 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Endomychus fuscus ? Melsh. Catal. 

Testaceous-yellow, glossy : head and thorax scarcely or very indistinctly 
punctulate, the former tinted with rufous, the latter with longitudinal, an- 
teriorly abbreviated basal lines: scutellum black: elytra black, with the apex 
indeterminately testaceous ; obscurely punctulate : beneath and antennae 
color of the thorax : feet testaceous, sometimes colored like the abdomen. 

Var. a. Entirely pale testaceous. Endomychus pallidus, Melsh. MS. 
Doubtless immature specimens. 

Coecinellidce Leach. 
Coccinella, Linne. 

1. C. seriata. Pale yellow above ; head, disk of the thorax, suture and 
three submarginal spots of the elytra, beneath and femora, black ; tibia? 
and tarsi testaceous. 1\ 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Coccinella suluralis, Melsh. Catal. 

Ovate : head deep black, immaculate ; labrum, palpi and antennas, testa- 
ceous, the latter with the clava dusky : thorax pale yellow, tinged with 
rosaceous ; disk and middle of the base, black : elytra color of the thorax, 
each with a series of three large, irregular, submarginal black spots, the 
first of which is hatchet-shaped, and placed on the humerus ; the second 
spot, which is transverse-oval ( is joined to the first by a short neck, and to 
the third by a short narrow line ; the third spot is longitudinal-oval ; su- 
ture with a bisinuate black vitta, terminating a little before the apex, where 
it is joined to the tip of the posterior spot : beneath and femora, black ; 
tibiae and tarsi testaceous, the former with the apical half dusky ; abdo- 
mon with the lateral margins rosaceous. Allied to tibialis and parnelkesis, 
Say. 

2. B. concinnata. Whitish above; head and thorax maculate with black ; 
disk of elytra fuscous ; beneath blackish ; feet yellowish. 2\ 1. long. 
Pennsylvania. 

Coccinella concinnata, Melsh. MS. 

Head white, tinged with yellowish, with two longitudinal black lines, in- 
terrupted in the middle by the prevailing color ; eyes black; mouth and palpi 
yellowish, the latter with the tip dusky ; antennae testaceous : thorax color 
of the head, densely and indistinctly punctulate, and with about seven large 
spots and two geminate punctures, black ; spot on each of the lateral sub- 
margins suboval, one on each side of the middle at base sublunate, between 
which and the lateral spot is placed the double puncture or dot; two anterior 
dorsal spots oblique, oval : posterior dorsal spot small, oval, and posted 
with the anterior ones triangularly : scutellum blackish : elytra whitish, 
stronger tinted with yellowish than the thorax, with the disk brown, tinted 
with reddish, and very irregular in its outline, containing in its middle each 
side and near the suture a pale yellowish spot ; densely and more distinctly 
punctulate than the thorax : beneath blackish, with the abdomen strongly 
tinted with reddish ; feet yellowish-rufous. 

Var. a. Head black, with three longitudinal white lines ; thorax white, with 
an irregular black fascia: two short, longitudinal white lines in the middle at 



1 78 [Feb., 1847. 

base ; beneath and femora black ; tibiae and tarsi pale testaceous. Coccin- 
ella pini, Melsh. MS. 

3. C. venusta. Red above ; thorax with four, and elytra with ten spots, 
black ; beneath aud feet, black. 3|- 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Coccinella venusta, Melsh. Catal. 

Hemispheric, punctulate, above dull red; head distinctly punctured, 
black, with the orbits and a transverse frontal line, dull red ; labrum piceous, 
edged with dull red ; antennae testaceous, with the tip dusky : thorax with 
four very oblique black spots, of which the two basal ones are large, clavate 
or sublanceolate, and united at their base ; dorsal spots small, ovate : scu- 
tellum black, triangular : elytra more obviously punctulate than the thorax 
each with three submarginal, and two subsutural, large black spots, one of 
the latter resembles an inverted comma; suture black from a little behind 
the middle to near the apex, where it is dilated and becomes confluent with 
the terminal submarginal spot ; pleurae and epipleurae, testaceous yellow ; 
pectus and abdomen, black ; feet similarly colored. 

4. C. modesta. Black ; elytra pale fulvous, each with six black dots ; 
thorax with the lateral and anterior margins and two oblique, abbreviated 
lines, white ; head with a white frontal fascia. 2f 1. long. Pennsylvania- 
Oblong : head black, with a broad, anteriorly tridentate, white frontal 

fascia ; antennae and palpi dull testaceous, with the tips black or dusky : 
thorax deep black, and like the head shining, the anterior and lateral mar- 
gins narrowly white ; a short, oblique line each side of the middle similarly 
colored : scutellum black : elytra fulvous, each with six black dots, placed 

I, 2, 2, 1, of which the posterior two are rather larger than the others : be- 
neath and feet, black ; postpectus each side at tip and base with a dull 
white spot. 

Brachiacantha, Chevr. 

1. B. ^-punctata. Deep black : elytra with four fulvous spots ; tibiae and 
tarsi dull testaceous. If 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Coccinella 4-punctata, Melsh. Catal. 

Deep black, shining, finely and densely punctured : head immaculate; an- 
tennae dull testaceous : thorax immaculate; anterior angles obscurely pice- 
ous : scutellum triangular : elytra, each with a subrotund spot at base on 
the inner angle, and another similarly shaped and sized one a little before 
the apex, and nearer to it than to the suture, fulvous : beneath and femora, 
black ; knees, tibiae and tarsi, dull or dusky testaceous ; prickle of the an- 
terior tibiae robust, prominent. 

2. B. fulvopustulata. Deep black above ; front, lateral margins of the 
thorax, and four spots on each elytrum, fulvous; tibiae and tarsi, testaceous. 

I I. long. Pennsylvania. 

Deep black, shining, densely and very minutely punctured : head with a 
jarge yellowish or fulvous frontal spot ; labrum and antennae, testaceous : 
thorax with a large whitish spot on each of the lateral margins, contracted 
on the posterior angles : elytra, each with four pale fulvous spots, placed 
1, 2, 1 ; anterior spot occupies the inner basal angle; posterior one is 
placed a little before the apex, nearly equidistant from the suture and 
lateral edge : beneath and femora, dull ferruginous ; tibiae, tarsi, and 



Feb., 1847.] 179 

apex of the femora testaceous ; tooth of the anterior tibiae small. Resem- 
bles somewhat ursina, Fabr., but is smaller than that species, and differs 
in the elytral spots. 

3. B. basalts. Head, aaterior and lateral margins of the thorax, four 
basal and two apical spots of the elytra, pale sulphureous: two thoracic 
spots, elytra and beneath, black. 1 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Hemispheric, very minutely punctured, shining : head pale sulphureous ; 
eyes similarly colored, with a dusky pupil, antennae and feet color of the 
head : thorax color of the head, with two large subtriangular black basal 
spots, separated by a narrow dorsal line : elytra black, each with three 
large pale sulphureous spots, of which two are at base and one at apex 5 
the inner basal spot is much larger than the humeral one ; the apical spot 
is suborbiculate, and is placed nearer the edge than the suture : beneath 
blackish. Perhaps a variety of feliiia, Fabr. 

Hyperasis, Chevr. 

1. H. maculifera. Black; head, anterior and lateral margins, eight elytral 
spots and feet, yellowish. 1 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Black, shining, densely punctulate : head yellowish, eyes black ; palpi 
and antennas color of the head : thorax with the anterior margin narrowly, 
and lateral margins broadly, yellowish : scutellum rather large, black, ob- 
scurely punctulate: elytra each with four yellowish spots, placed ], 2, 1 ; 
anterior spot humeral, the two intermediate ones are placed transverse- 
obliquely, and the posterior spot is posted near the apex : beneath blackish ; 
pleurae, epipleurae, parapleurae and feet, color of the head. 

Var. a. As in the type, but with the head and anterior margin of the 
thorax, black. Coccinella ^-guttata, Melsh. Catal. 

Var. b. As in var. a., but the humeral, intermediate and apical spots of 
the elytra are connected by a yellowish lateral margin. Coccinella confluent, 
J. Melsh. MS. 

2. H. 10-pustulata. Black ; head, lateral thoracic margins and ten elytral 
spots, fulvous ; feet testaceous-yellow. % 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Coccinella \O-pustulata, Melsh. Catal. 

Shining black : head indistinctly punctulate, yellowish-fulvous ; eye6 
black; antennae, palpi and feet yellowish: thorax puuctured like the head, 
with the lateral margins fulvous : scutellum comparatively large : elytra 
distinctly and densely punctulate, each with five roundish fulvous spots, 
placed 2,2,1; the terminal spot is confluent with the apical edge : beneath 
black ; pleura and epipleurae testaceous-yellow. 

Var. a. As in the type, with the head and thorax entirely b'.ack. Cocci- 
nella \0-guttata, Melsh. Catal. 

3. A. leucopsis. Black; head, lateral margins and anterior edge of the 
thorax white; elytra with two fulvous spots on the middle. $ 1. long. 
Pennsylvania. 

Black, shining, finely and densely punctured: head whitish; eyes blackish; 
antennae and anterior feet dull yellowish : thorax with the anterior edge and 
lateral margins white: scutellum moderate, acute-triangular: elytra each with 
an orbiculate fulvous spot on the middle; beneath blackish; hind feet fuscous 



180 [Feb., 1847. 

The elytral spots of this species are sometimes deep scarlet, and the tip of 
the clypeus dusky. It is the biguttata of Melsh. MS. 

4. H. fimbriolata. Punctulate, black; front, exterior margins of the thorax 
and elytra, fulvous: anterior feet dusky testaceous; beneath, and intermediate 
and posterior feet blackish or dusky piceous. 1^ 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Coccinella fimbriolata, Melsh. Catal. 

Var. a. Thorax immaculate. Coccinella lateralis, Melsh. Catal. 
Exochomus, Redtenbacher. 

E. praitexiatus. Black ; head, lateral margins of the thorax and elytra, 
two basal spots and a common central one of the latter, fulvous : feet tes- 
taceous-yellow. 1J 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Coccinella prcetextata, Melsh. Catal. 

Black, densely punctulate, shining : head fulvous or yellowish, with the 
clypeus at tip slightly emarginate and elevated : mouth sparsely whitish 
pilose ; antennae color of the head ; eyes blackish : thorax with the lateral 
margins broadly fulvous : scutellum very small, hardly apparent : elytra 
with the inner basal angles triangularly, and the lateral margins broadly, 
fulvous, the latter with the lateral margins similarly colored, and united to 
a large common central spot by a narrow fascia, spot and fascia color of the 
lateral margins : beneath blackish ; feet color of the head. The labrum is 
slightly produced. 

Var. a. Head and thorax uniform black ; femora blackish ; tibiae and 
tarsi dull dusky testaceous. Coccinellce fimbria, J. Melsh. MS. 

Chilocorus, Leach. 

C. verrucatus. Above and feet black; elytra with a common and two 
basal spots, and beneath, red. 3|- 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Coccinella verrucata, Enoch MS. 

" trimaculata, Melsh. Catal. 

" tripustulata, De Geer, Ins. v, 393, 2 ? 

Black above, shining, impunctured : head black, immaculate ; antennae 
rufo-testaceous : thorax with the anterior angles and edge, obscurely rufous; 
elytra each with an oblong basal spot, and suture a little behind the middle 
with a common linear one, cinnabar-red: feet blackish; beneath light 
scarlet-red : wings fuliginous. This may prove to be a variety, but no1 
type, of tripustulata, De Geer. 

Scvmnds, Kugelann. 

1. S. collaris. Black ; head, anterior and lateral margins of the thorax. 
and feet rufous. 1. long, Pennsylvania. 

Coccinella thoracica, Melsh. Catal. 

Subhemispheric, black, punctulate, pubescent : head and thorax, rufous, 
the latter with a semiorbicular black basal spot in front of the scutellum, 
the latter very small : elytra with the apical margin narrowly and obsoletely 
testaceous : beneath black, with the tip of the abdomen testaceous ; ante- 
pectus, antenna and feet, rufous ; hind femora at base dusky. Size, form 
and markings entirely of Coccinella parvula, Fabr., of which it may be a 
local variety. 

2. S. punctatus. Black, distinctly punctured ; elytra each with a red 
spot. $ 1. long. Pennsylvania. 



Feb., 1847.] 181 

Oval, deep black, shining, pubescent: head black, with an obscure, 
transverse, impressed line below the front labrura month and antennae, 
piceous : thorax finely punctured, with the anterior edge piceous : scutel- 
lum distinct : elytra comparatively strongly punctured, long somewhat di- 
lated before the middle, each with a small orbicular red sp>t near the mid- 
dle ; humeral tubercles small, distinct : beneath and feet blackish, the latter 
rather piceous. 

3. S. ftavifrons. Black ; head and a large spot behind the middle of each 
elytrum, yellowish ; tibiae and tarsi, testaceous. 1. long. Pennsylvania. 

Coceinella ftavifrons, Melsh. MS. 

Subhemispheric, black, shining, pubescent, punctulate : head and an- 
tennae, yellowish ; eyes black : thorax minutely punctured, with the ante- 
rior angles obsoletely testaceous : scutellum minute : elytra more distinctly 
punctulate than the thorax, each with a large orbicular yellowish spot be- 
hind the middle, and nearer to the suture than the lateral edge : beneath 
black : tibiae and tarsi, testaceous ; femora often dusky, sometimes testa- 
ceous. 



[Note. Dr. Melsheimer's " Descriptions of new North 
American Coleoptera" have heen in course of publication in 
these Proceedings since April, 1844. In Vol. II, No. 2, will 
be found the commencement of this valuable and elaborate 
paper. The additional portions have appeared at such inter- 
vals in succeeding numbers, as the limits to which the Society 
is in some measure obliged to restrict its publications, and 
the claims of other contributors to the pages of the Proceed- 
ings would justify. These descriptions, together numbering 
about six hundred, are now concluded. The great care and 
labour bestowed upon them by the author, afford the best 
evidence of their correctness, and consequently of their value 
to those interested in this particular order of Insects.] 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 

OF PHILADELPHIA.. 

Vol. III. MARCH AND APRIL, 1847. No. 8. 

Stated Meeting, March 2, 1847. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Mr. Richard C. Taylor presented a large and valuable col- 
lection of fossils and rocks, from various parts of the 
world, of which a list will be published in a future number. 

Specimen of Fluor spar with crystallized Galena, from Frei- 
burg, Saxony; specimens of crystallized Manganese and 
Manganese ore, from Ihlfeld, Harz Mountains ; Analcime 
from Fassathal, Tyrol, and two fossil fish from the Zech- 
stein formation. Presented by Mr. Theodore F. Moss. 

The following mounted skeletons were received from Dr. 
Morton in exchange, viz : Bradypus tridactylus, Podar- 
gus Stanleyanus, Dacelo gigantea, and Astur Novae Hol- 
landise. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Iconographie Ornithologique ; par 0. des Murs. 4to. 4th 
and 5th Livs. Deposited by Dr. T. B. Wilson. 

Revue Zoologique ; par la Societe Cuvierienne. Annees 
1838-1845. From the same. 

Magasin de Zoologie ; par F. E. Guerin, Annees 1831-1844. 

From the same. 

26 



184 [March 1847. 

Oken's Isis ; Encyclopsedische Zeitschrift vorzuglich fur Na- 
turgeschichte, vergleichencle Anatomie und Physiologic 
Hefts 1-8. 1846. From the same. 

The Dog : by William Youatt. Edited with additions by E. 
J. Lewis, M. D. Philadelphia, 1847. From Dr. Lewis. 

Hybridity in Animals and Plants, considered in reference to 
the question of the Unity of the Human Species. By S. 
G. Morton, M. D. New Haven, 1847. From the Author. 

Literary Record and Journal of the Linnean Association of 
Pennsylvania College. Vol. 3. No. 5. From the Associa- 
tion. 

American Journal of Agriculture and Science. Conducted 
by Dr. E. Emmons and A. Osborn, Esq. No. X. Feb. 
1847. From the Editors. 
The folkming were received from Dr. Morton, in exchange 

for fourteen Human Crania now in the cabinet of the Society : 

Fauna Boreali-Americana. By John Richardson, Esq., 
F. R. S., &c. Part 1, Mammalia. Part 2, Birds. 4to. 
London, 1829 and 1831. 

A Supplement to the Appendix of Captain Parry's Voyage 
for the discovery of a North-west passage, in the years 
1819-20. Containing an account of the subjects of Natu- 
ral History. 4to. London, 1824. 

Ornitholcgia Suecica. Auctore W. Nillson. Pars prior. 
8vo Havnise, 1817. 

Tentamen Systematis Amphibiorum. Auctore Blasio Mer- 
rem. 8vo. Marburgi, 1820. 

Histoire Naturelle generale des Pigeons et des Galinacees ; 
par C. J. Temminck. 3 vols. 8vo. Amsterdam and Paris, 

1813. 

Principles of Geology. By Charles Lyell, Esq., F. R. S. 
4 vols. 8vo. 4th Edition. London, 1835. 



Dr. Morton read a comunication from the Rev. Dr. Bach- 
man, of South Carolina, on the subject of Hybridity in Birds 
and Quadrupeds. 



March, 1847.] 185 

The following communication was read from Messrs. 
Aaron Sharpless and William Kite, of Chester country, Penn- 
sylvania, dated 2d mo. 18th, 1847, in reference to the living 
Hybrids between the Guinea fowl and the turkey, lately pre- 
sented by them to the Society. 

" The mother was a common Guinea fowl, the survivor of 
two or three chicks hatched under a common hen two years ago 
from eggs presented to us. From ^constantly associating with 
the poultry, and having none of her own species for companions, 
she was rather unusually domestic. 

The father was a common turkey cock, the reputed father of 
our flock of turkeys, having nothing very remarkable in his 
habits 

Last spring the hen having arrived at maturity, was observed 
to drop one or two eggs, as though preparing for incubation. 
Supposing them to lack vitality, we procured a cock of the same 
species from a neighbor, and confined them together in a coop 
for a few days. On releasing them, the new comer remained for 
some days and then disappeared. Supposing our object to have 
been accomplished, the hen was now suffered to form her nest in 
peace, which she did, laying twenty-two eggs, differing in no re- 
spect that we can now remember, either in size or colour from 
common. 

When within a few days of maturing these eggs, her nest was 
broken up by an opossum, which destroyed nearly all of them ; 
she however gathered the remnant together and brought off three 
chicks : the surviving two are those now in the possession of the 
Academy ; discovering the hybridity of these, we have much re- 
gretted the loss of the rest of the brood. 

As the chicks advanced toward maturity, 'they began to excite 
our attention by peculiarities which induced us to suspect their 
hybridity. The young of the guinea fowl assume the colour of 
the adult, but these always had the rusty brown tinge on their 
plumage which now marks them. They never were able to com- 
pass the note of their mother so familiar to our boyish reminis- 
cence, but always ran into a cracked or falsetto key, which seem- 
ed laboured. They were quiet birds, differing in this from 
the guinea, whose clamor is so disagreeable in the poultry 



186 March, 1847.] 

yard as to induce many persona to discard them. In the figure 
of these birds, their heads, and the size and appearance of 
their legs and feet, there is a greater resemblance to the turkey 
than to the dung-hill fowl, the only other bird a cross like the 
present could be traced to. One habit they had peculiar to 
the turkey, that of erecting the feathers on the back of the neck. 
The plumage of these birds also partakes somewhat of the pecu- 
liarities of that of the turkey, though curiously blended with 
that of the pintado. 

In a poultry yard we always find the guinea fowls masters 
of the place, in which peculiarity our hen shared, boldly attack- 
ing any who offended her, and readily putting the cocks to flight. 
This latter circumstance seems to negative the probability of the 
cross we are examining being with the latter fowl. 

We consider ourselves further confirmed in supposing the 
turkey before alluded to, to be the father of these hybirds, from 
the face that he was the only male turkey then in the poultry 
yard, and very close attentions were noticed between him and 
the hen, which were fully reciprocated on her part, though the 
act of sexual intercourse escaped our observation." 



Professor Johnson offered some observations on the cellu- 
lose of the Borneo Palm, and its reaction with Nitric and 
Sulphuric acids, bywhich it was apparently converted into 
Zyloidine, and not into Pyroxiline. 

The Curators exhibited a mass of minute black insects, 
"(Acari?) which had been received from the Rev. James H. 
McFarland, of Reading, Pa., by whom they had been collected 
on the Broad mountain, ''near the Summit Coal mines, Schuyl- 
kill county, Pa, on the 28th of December last. The snow for a 
quarter of a mile along the road was covered to blackness 
with these insects, and heaps from which a peck could have 
been collected, were frequent on the road. The day was 
warm for the season. A few more were obtained on a sub- 
sequent day, during a fall of snow. 



March, 1847.] 187 

The Curators having announced that a National Medical 
Convention was to assemble in this city in the early part of 
May next, it was on motion, 

Resolved, That the Curators be authorized to tender to the 
delegates from the city and county of Philadelphia to the 
National Medical Convention, the use of the Hall of the 
Academy during the session of the Convention. 

Also, on motion, Resolved, That the Library Committee, 
in conjunction with the Librarian, be instructed to devise 
plans for book cases in the new Library and Meeting room, 
and report the same at the next meeting of the Society. 



Stated Meeting, March 9th, 1847. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Professor Johnson presented the following : 

Sigillaria pachyderma, from South Joggins, Bay of Fundy, 
N. S., and also from Cranberry Head, Cape Breton ; Stig- 
maria fucoides from the same localities. 
The following minerals were presented by Mr. Moss : 

Feather Ore, and Galena, from Freiburg, Saxony ; Carbonate 
of Iron, from Erzburg, Styria ; and Arragonite from Bohe- 
mia. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

American Journal of Science and Arts, No. 8. Vol. 3. New 

series. From the Editors. 
Proceedings of the Boston Natural History Society ; pp. 177 

to 192 inclusive. From the Society. 
Geological results of the Earth's contraction in consequence of 

cooling. By James D. Dana. New Haven. 1847- From 

the Author. 



188 [March, 1847 

Anniversary Address of the State Agricultural Society of 
South Carolina, delivered Nov. 26, 1847. By the Hon. 
Mitchel King. Columbia, S. C, 1846. From Dr. R. W. 
Gibbes, of S. C. 

Proceeedings of the Agricultural Convention, and of the State 
Agricultural Society of South Carolina, from ] 839 to 1845 
inclusive : to which are added a memoir on the subject of 
slavery, by Chancellor William Harper, and a letter on 
Marl by Ex-Governor James H. Hammond. 8vo. Co- 
lumbia, S. C, 1846. From the same. 
The following works were deposited by J. Price Wether- 
rill, Esq. : 

Histoire des Vegetaux fossiles ou Recherches Botaniques et 
Geologiques sur les vegetaux renfermes dans les diverses 
couches du globe. Par M. Adolphe Brogniart. Livs. 1, 
2, 7 to 15 inclusive. 4to. 

Descriptions of the inferior maxillary bones of Mastodons in 
the cabinet of the American Philosophical Society, with 
remarks on the genus Tetracaulodon, &c. By Isaac 
Hays, M. D. 4to, Philadelphia, 1833, 

Abbildungen und Beschreibungen der Petrefacten Deutsch- 
lands und der angrawzenden Lander, unter Mitwirkung 
des Herrn Grafen Georg zu Miinster, herausgegeben von 
August Goldfuss. Nos. 1 to 6 inclusive. Folio. 

Recherches sur less Ossemens fossiles, &c, par Georges Cu- 
vier. 4me. edition. Vols. 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8 (1st part) 9, 
10 (1st part.) 

The Fossil Flora of Great Britain. By John Lindley, Ph. 
D., &c, and Wm. Hutton, F. G. S., &c. Vols. 1, 2, and 
Nos. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8, of vol. 3. 

The Mineral Conchology of Great Britian. By James 
Sowerby, F. L. S., &c, continued by James D. C. Sowerby 
F. L. S. Vol. 6. 

A dissertation on the nature and character of the Chinese 
system of writing, in a letter to J. Vaughan, Esq. By 
Peter S* Duponceau, L. L. D. ; to which is subjoined a 



March, 1847.] 189 

vocabulary of the Cochinchinese language. By Father 
Jos. Morrone. R. C. Missionary at Saigron. 8vo. Phila- 
delphia. 1838. 
Plates 60, 63 to 68 inclus., 70 to 75 inclus., 86 to 89 inclus. 
of Achille Comte's Regne Animal. 



A letter was read from C. B. Adams, Esq., of Middlebury, 
Vermont, dated 17th Feb., 1847, desiring a copy of vol. 1, of 
the Proceedings, and an entire copy of the Journal of the 
Academy. 

Also, a letter from Mr. Charles Cramer, of St. Petersburg, 
requesting certain portions of the Proceedings. 

Dr. Bridges, from the Library Committee, in compliance 
with the instructions given at last meeting, submitted a plan 
for Book cases in the new Library room, which, at the sug- 
gestion of the Committee, was laid upon the table for the 
present. 



Stated Meeting, March 16th, 1847. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Specimens of Sigillaria pachyderma, Lepidodendron elegans, 
and Fucus? From Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. From 
Prof. Johnson. 

An additional number of larvae of Cicada septemdecim, firmly 
attached by means of the proboscis to the roots of fruit 
trees. From Miss Morris of Germantown. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

On the Geological position of the Castoroides Ohioensis. By 
James Hall, Esq., one of the New York State Geologists. 
Also, a description of the cranium of the same. By Jeffries 
Wyman, M. D. 4to. Boston, 1846. From Prof. Hall. 



190 [March, 1847. 

American Journal of Science and Agriculture ; conducted by 
Dr. E. Emmons and A. Osborn, Esq. January and March, 
1847. From the Editors. 

A letter was read from Miss Morris, dated Germantown, 
March 5th, 1847, addressed to the Corresponding Secretary, 
containing the following in relation to the larvae of Cicada 
septemdecim, presented this evening. 

" I send with this a box containing the larvae of the Cicada 
which I promised, and believe you will find them satisfactory 
evidence of the truth of my theory; they were found on the 
roots of a pear tree, which I had under examination this morning 
in company with between four and five hundred, which I gathered 
while the earth was being removed from a trench four feet wide 
and two deep that was dug around the tree. This experiment 
was in every way satisfactory, and proved beyond a doubt the 
correctness of my former observations.* My only surprise was 
that the tree had lived so long. I then removed the earth from a 
tree, distant about twelve feet. A quantity of earth and rubbish 
had been thrown around this tree, some years since, in conse- 
quence of which, the tree had produced a fresh and vigorous set 
of roots above those attacked by the Cicada ; passing below these, 
about two feet, I found the larvae in great numbers, but from the 
difficulty of getting at them, I believed the remedy would prove 
worse than the disease ; so covering them up with fresh earth and 
manure I left the tree to its fate. I then went to a distant part of 
the garden, and caused the roots of another tree to be exposed, 
but to my surprise, found but few Cicada, not more than a dozen. 
This tree had long ceased to bear fruit, and had become withered 
and dried, several years before any other tree appeared to suffer, 
but in 1845 it again showed signs of returning life, though no 
care had been bestowed to restore it ; and in the following year it 
threw out several fine and vigorous shoots from the branches. 
On a little further search I found the remedy, as well as the dis- 
ease, at the root. Mole tracks were to be seen in every direction 
around the tree and in that portion of the garden. I then ex- 
amined four other trees, and found that where the mole tracks 

*See No. 6, page 132. 



March, 1847.] 191 

were to be found, the Cicada had nearly disappeared, while they 
abounded where the moles had not been. Many larvse of the 
Scarites Icevigatus were found, no doubt doing their full share 
to rid us of so great an evil." 

Dr. Leidy, from the Curators, read a letter from Dr. J. K. 
Mitchell, Chairman of a committee of the delegation from the 
city and county of Philadelphia to the National Medical 
Convention, returning acknowledgments to the Academy for 
the offer of its Hall for the use of the Convention, and accept- 
ing the same. 

The Corresponding Secretary read a letter from Judge 
Tremper, dated Dresden, N. Y., March 8, 1847, containing 
some Meteorological observations. 

Professor Johnson communicated some observations and experi- 
ments on the dust of anthracite furnace flues. Having several 
years since ascertained the presence of large quantities of salts of 
ammonia, both sulphates and chlorides, in flues aud stove pipes 
where anthracite is consumed, he had recentry directed attention 
to this as a source from which a moderate supply of these salts 
for the uses of horticulture may readily be obtained. It was 
therefore deemed worthy of a trial to ascertain in what proportion 
the salts soluble in water might occur in the dust of a flue, such 
as ordinary practice in domestic use would afford. For this pur- 
pose, oue pound of the dry dust was heated with successive por- 
tions of distilled water until the liquid ceased to be coloured, or to 
give a saline residuum on complete evaporation. The liquid 
was of a dark brown colour, and on analysis afforded. 

Sulphate of lime, ..... 12.3 grains 

Sulphate of Ammonia, .... 285.5 
Chlor-hydrate of Ammonia with undetermined 

compound tarry matter, - - 20.4 



Total in 1 pound - 478.8 grains, or 

6.84 per cent., or including the losses incident to the several steps 
of analysis, may be taken at 7 per cent. 



192 March, 1847. 

Professor Johnson exhibited some fine specimens of the 
bark of a Sigillaria, converted into coal, obtained from the 
coal fields of Nova Scotia. 



Stated Meeting, March 23d, 1847. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Micaceous Oxide of Iron, from Nova Scotia. From Dr. 

Hallowell. 
Lepidodendron elegans, Asterophyllites equisitiformis, and 

Calamites connseformis ; from Sydney, Cape Breton. From 

Prof. Johnson. 



A letter was read from Thomas C. Eyton, Esq., dated 
Wellington, Shropshire, England, Feb. 18, 1847, presenting 
a case of insects, and asking for certain exchanges with the 
Academy. Referred to the Zoological Committee. 

A communication from the Secretary of the American 
Philosophical Society was read, acknowledging the receipt 
of late numbers of the Proceedings. 

A paper by Peter A. Browne, Esq., proposing a new no- 
menclature for the Class Mammalia was read and referred 
to Dr. Leidy, Mr. Haldeman, and Dr. Hallowell. 



[ Meeting for Business, March 30, 1847. 

Mr. Phillips in the Chair. 

Dr. Leidy announced the recent decease of Dr. Amos 
Binney, of Boston, late a Correspondent of the Academy, and 
offered the following resolutions, which were unanimously 
adopted. 



April, 1847.] 193 

Resolved, That this Society has heard with feelings of 
sincere regret, of the decease of our late Correspondent, Dr. 
Ainos Binney, of Boston, President of the Natural History 
Society, a most liberal patron of, and contributor to the Sci- 
ence of this country. 

Resolved, That this Society condoles with the Boston Na- 
tural History Society for the loss they have sustained. 

Resolved, That the Corresponding Secretary transmit a 
copy of the above resolutions to the Natural History Society. 



The following gentlemen were elected Correspondents of 
the Academy : 

Ogden Hammond, Esq., of Charleston, S. C. 
Wm. A. Bromfield, M. D., of the Isle of Wight. 



Stated Meeting, April 6, 1847. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Several specimens, in spirits, of the very young foetus of 
Didelphis Virginiana, taken from the pouch of the living 
animal. From Mr. Thomas Beasley, of New Jersey. 

Several specimens, in skin, of Pipra chrysoptera. From Mr. 
John Bell, of New York. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Oken's Isis, No. 9, for 1846. Deposited by Dr. T. B. Wil- 
son. 

The Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America : By J. J. 
Audubon and Rev. H. Bachman. No. 21. From the same. 



194 [April, 1847. 

Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa : consisting 
chiefly of figures and descriptions of the objects of Natural 
History, collected during an expedition into the interior 
of South Africa in 1834, '35, '36, fitted out by " The Cape 
of Good Hope Association for exploring Central Africa," 
&c. &c. By Andrew Smith, M. D., Director and Surgeon 
to the Expedition. Nos. 1 to 23 inclusive. 4to. London. 
From the same. 

Mr. Webster's vindication of the Treaty of Washington of 
1842, in a speech delivered in the United States Senate, 
April 1, 1846. From Prof. Johnson. 

The Literary Record and Journal of the Linnean Associa- 
tion of Pennsylvania College. Vol. 3. No. 6. From the 
Association. 



A letter was read from Dr. John P. Barratt, of South 
Carolina, acknowledging the receipt of his notice of election 
as a Correspondent.] 



Stated Meeting, April 13, 1847. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Dr. T. B. Wilson presented a number of specimens, in 
spirits, of Platydactylus, Scorpio, &c, from Cuba. 

Dr. Morton deposited a skull of Manatus americanus, from 
the river Amazon, Saurian bones from Mount Holly, N. J. 
and a tooth of the Asiatic Elephant. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York. 

Vol. 4. Nos. 8 and 9. From the Lyceum. 
Boston Journal of Natural History. Vol. 5. No. 3. From 

the Boston Society ofNatural History. 



April, 1847.] 195 

A letter was read from the Rev. Dr. Thomas S. Savage, 
dated Cape Palmas, Western Africa, January 1, 1847, ac- 
knowledging the receipt of his notice of election as Corres- 
pondent. 

Dr. Leidy mentioned, as a remarkable instance of the great 
fecundity of the Cryptogamia, that in a puff-ball (Lycoper- 
don) of large size, he counted under the microscope 27 
sporules in the cubic hundredth of a line, which by calcula- 
tion, allowing for cellular tissue, makes the total amount con- 
tained in the specimen, 1,007,669,000,000. 



On motion of Prof. Johnson, Resolved. That a committee 
be appointed to inquire into the conditions of the bequest of 
the late William S. Warder, Esq., to this Institution, and 
to ascertain whether the conditions on which said bequest 
was made, have not been so for realized that the Academy 
may be justly entitled to receive the benefit intended by the 
testator. 

Messrs. Johnson, Pearsall and Carpenter were then ap- 
pointed the Committee. 



Stated Meeting, April 20, 1847. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Dr. Thomas B. Wilson deposited four remarkably perfect Sau- 
rian skeletons from the Lias of England, each contained in 
its original matrix, as follow : 

Skeleton of Icthyosaurus tenuirostris, measuring 8 feet, 4 
inches from the tip of the rostrum to the end of the tail. 
From Glastonbury, England. 

Skeleton of Icthyosaurus , 7 feet 7 inches from the tip of 

the rostrum to end of the tail. From the same locality. 



196 April, 1847. 

Skeleton of Icthyosaurus , 6 feet 7 inches from the tip 

of rostrum to the end of tail. From Lyme Regis, England. 

Skeleton of Plesiosaurus dolichodeirus ? measuring 6 feet 4 
inches from tip of snout to end of tail. From Lyme Regis. 

Dr. Morton deposited a human cranium from an embalmed 
body found in a tomb at Midian, in Arabia, by M. Fresnel, 
and by him presented to Dr. Morton. 

Also, skulls of Beaver, (Castor fiber,) and the Coati of Para- 
guay. 

Specimens of Sponge from the West Indies : presented by Mr. 
John C. De Costa. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

American Journal of Agriculture and Science. By D. E. 
Emmons and A. Osborn, Esq. No. 12. April, 1847. From 
the Editors. 

Catalogue of the genera and species of Recent Shells, in the 
Collection of C. B. Adams, A. M. Middlebury, Vt. 1847. 
From the Author. 

Charts of New Haven and Little Egg Harbor. From the 
Treasury Department, through A. Bache, Esq. 

Dr. Thomas B. Wilson deposited the following splendid 
works : 

The Birds of Europe. By John Gould, F. L. S., &c. 6 vols. 
Folio. London, 1837. 

A Monograph of the Odontophorinse, or Partridges of Ame- 
rica. By John Gould, Folio. Parts 1 and 2. London, 
1844 and 1846. 

Icones Avium, or Figures and Descriptions of new and inter- 
esting species of Birds from various parts of the globe. By 
John Gould. Folio. Parts 1 and 2. London, 1837 and 1838. 

A Century of Birds from the Himalaya Mountains. By John 
Gould. Folio. London, 1832. 

A. Monograph of the Trogonidae, or family of Trogons. By 
John Gould. Folio. London, 1838. 

A Monograph of the Rhamphastidse, or family of Toucans, 
By John Gould. Folio. London, 1834. 



April, 1847.] 197 

The Birds of Australia. By John Gould. Parts 1 to 25 in- 
clusive. Folio. 

The Mammals of Australia. By John Gould. Folio. Part 1. 

Zoologia Typica ; or figures of new and rare Mammals and 
Birds described in the Proceedings, or exhibited in the col- 
lections of the Zoological Society of London. By Louis 
Fraser. Quarto. Parts 1 to 8 inclusive. 

The Zoology of the Voyage of H. M. S. Erebus and Terror, 

. under the command of Capt. Sir James Clark Ross, R. N., 

F. R. S., during the years 1839 to 1843'. Edited by John 

Richardson, M. D., F. R. S. 4to. Parts 1 to 5 inclusive. 

Iconografia della Fauna Italica par le Quattro Classi degli- 
Animali vertebrati di Carlo L. Principe Bonaparte, Prin- 
cipe de Canino e Musignano, &c. Tom. 1, 2 and 3. 

Monographic de la famille des Myiotherinse : par E. Mene- 
tries. 4to. 

Notices of the Ornithology of Napal. By B. H. Hodgson. 
4to. pamphlet. 

Recherches sur l'appareil sternal des Oiseaux considere sous 
le double rapport de l'osteologie et de la myologie, &c, 
par M. le docteur F. J. Herminier. 2d edition, 8vo. 
Paris, 1828. 

An account of the change of plumage exhibited by many 
species of female Birds, at an advanced period of life, &c. 
By John Butter, F. L. S., &c. 8vo. pamphlet. 

Revue Zoologique ; par la Societe Cuvierienne. Nos. 1 to 8 
for 1846, and No. 1 for 1847. 

The Zoological Journal : conducted by Thomas Bell, J. G. 
Children, J. de Carle Sowerby, and G. B. Sowerby. 5 
vols. 8vo. and an Atlas. 



A letter was read from Mr. Ogden Hammond, dated 19th 
April, 1847, returning acknowledgments for his election as a 
Correspondent. 

Mr. Gambel read a continuation of his " Remarks on the 
Birds observed in Upper California." Referred to the Com- 
mittee on former portions of the paper. 



198 [April, 1847. 

Mr. Cassin read a " Description of a new rapacious Bird 
in the collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia." Referred to Messrs, Harris, Townsend, and 
Gambel. 

Dr. Morton read " A description of Fossil Remains from 
the Eocene green sand of South Carolina. By Robert W. 
Gibbes, M, D. ;" which was referred to Drs. Morton, Wilson 
and Leidy. 



Dr. Leidy communicated an observation which he had 
made in the human adult subject, of the existence of a spicu- 
lum of bone developed between the lamina of the dura 
mater, just over the point at which the trigeminus nerve 
pierces that membrane, the purpose of which he supposes to 
be, to protect the nerve from pressure as it passes over the 
superior edge of the petrous portions of the temporal bone to 
join the Casserian ganglion. 



Mr. Phillips offered the following, Avhich was adopted : 
Resolved, That a copy of the Journal of the Academy, as 
far as can be spared, be transmitted to Mr. Moricand, o* 
Geneva, in exchange for several numbers of his ' Plants of 
Brazil, lately presented to the Academy. 

On motion of Mr. Gambel, Resolved, That the Publication 
Committee be authorized to commence the publication of a 
new series of the Journal of the Academy, in quarto form. 



Meeting for Business, April 27, 1847. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

The Committee on Dr. Gibbes' paper describing fossil re- 
mains from the Eocene green sand of South Carolina, re- 
ported in favour of publication in the forthcoming number of 
the Journal of the Academy. 

The Committee on M. Cassin's paper read at last meeting 
reported in favour of publication. 



April, 1847,] 199 



Description of a new rapacious Bird in the Museum of the Academy of 

Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

By John Cassin. 

Genus Cymindis, Cuvier. 

Cymindis Wilsonii, Nobis. 5 . Body above entirely dark brown, palest 
on the head, beneath white ; every feather from chin to under tail coverts 
crossed by several bars of bright rufous chesnut, and these colours extending 
upwards into a collar around the neck; fourth, fifth and sixth primaries longest 
and nearly equal, external webs nearly black, internal webs of outer primaries 
white at base and for nearly half their length, the remaining part reddish in- 
clining to chesnut, every primary (on its inner web) having two irregularly 
shaped black marks and tipped with black. Tail of the same colour as the 
back but paler, white at base, and crossed by about four broad bars which are 
nearly black, the second bar from the tip accompanied by a narrow rather in- 
distinct bar of rufous ; tip of tail narrowly edged with white. Bill very large, 
(larger than in any other species of this genus,) yellowish white, inclining to 
bluish horn colour at base. 

. Body above entirely slate colour, palest onjthe head, beneath barred with 
the same, the bars having a ferruginous tinge. 

Total length of mounted specimen, from tip of bill to end of tail, 17 inches. 

Hab. Island of Cuba. 

The two specimens here described, were presented to the Academy by its 
esteemed member, Richard G Taylor, Esq., the eminent Geologist, who has 
kindly favoured me with the following note and memorandum from hia 
journal : 

Philadelphia, April 5th, 1847. 

Dear Sir :I make the best reply in my power respecting the pair of Hawks, 
the skins of which and of other birds were brought by me from the Island of 
Cuba ; but not being an Ornithologist, the very concise description that I can 
give of them may not be very intelligible nor useful. 

The locality was towards the north-eastern part of the island, in the vicinity 
of the port of Gibara, in the province of Holguin. The range of country more 
especially traversed by me, during six months residence, extended from the sea 
coast to thirty miles inland, either into the savanna, or copper region of the 
mountains. I have particularly described this country in the Transactions of 
the Am. Phil. Society, vol. ix., pp. 204 to 218, where I have also given a re- 
connoisance map. 

My journal contains a short note, made at the time these hawks were shot. 
My companion and myself saw this pair in company, hovering over the crest 

28 



200 [April, 1847. 

of the high limestone mountain called La Silla, about seven miles from the 
coast : my attention was called to them by my companion, a resident of the 
island, who assured me they were extremly rare, and he hoped we should be 
able to shoot them ; we were then on the peak of the mountain, and after a 
little chase, were so fortunate as to obtain both the male and female. My note 
is literally as follows : 

" Gabilan azul, blue hawk of the Spaniards, male and female, very rare and 
difficult to shoot. Pupil black, with a greenish-yellow iris." 

The food of these birds was stated to be various birds, of which doves were 
the most abundant on the spot, with perhaps an occasional relish of lizards, 
which were also abundant. I understood that these hawks frequented the 
most lofty and solitary peaks and were not often seen below. We considered 
ourselves extremely fortunate in the acquisition of this fine pair of birds. 
Respectfully yours, Richard C. Taylor. 

Mr. John Cassin. 

The bill in this species is very large in proportion to the size of the bird, and 
it agrees, moreover, tolerably well with the leritten description of Falco magni- 
rostris, Gmelin, so does the young Cymindis uncaDitus, Illig. All authors, 
however, except Dr. Latham, clearly understood the F. magnirostri3 to be 
the bird figured in Enl. 464, which is a common South American species of 
the genus Astur. 

Dr. Latham, in his article on F. magnirostris, Gen. His. vol. 1, p. 282, gives a 
description of a bird suspected by him to be the species intended by Gmelin, 
which applies very well to Cymindis cayanensis,Gm., in young plumage, but 
not to C. Wilsonii. 

I have named this species in honor of Dr. Thomas B. Wilson, as a slight 
tribute to his merits as a man, and his munificence as a patron of Zoological 
science. 



Remarks on the Birds observed in Upper California. 

By Wm. Gambel. 

(Continued from page 158.) 

PASSERES. 

Lanius Ludovicianus, Linn. Loggerhead Shrike. 

L. excubitoroides, Swains. Northern Zool. p. 115, pi. 34. 

In the Shrikes we are presented with a group of birds closely allied to each 
other, and undergoing such changes in plumage as renders them difficult to 
discriminate. Although examined with great care by Swainson in the Fauna 



April, 1847.] 201 

Boreali-Americana, yet he appears to have laid too much stress upon char- 
acters subject to great variation, as size, relative length of quills and color. 
The adult of the Loggerhead is a beautiful bird, and might well have been 
called excubitoroides, for the resemblance in colour and marking to the Euro- 
pean excubitor is very great. Above, it is of a clear pearl grey colour with the 
upper tail coverts, and exterior edges of the scapulars, nearly pure white; be- 
neath pure white ; the quantity of white on the tail feathers varies, but gene- 
rally is in proportion to the age of the bird. 

The relative length of quills in the Shrikes is an uncertain character, and 
differs very much according to age. In the young of this species, the second 
quill is generally much shorter than the sixth, but in the adult, equals and may 
even exceed the sixth in length; the proportion of the third, fourth and fifth to 
each other is also exceedingly various, and indeed in each wing of the same 
bird it is very common to find the proportion of the quills differing very mate- 
rially. This I have found to be the case in the European and both American 
species. 

It is rather strange that this bird so abundant in the southern, western and 
north western portions of our country, should not be found in the middle and 
northern Atlantic States. In California it is very common. 
Lanius septentrionalis, Gmel. Northern Shrike. 
L. borealis, Vieill. Swains. 

I found our Butcher Bird in the Californian ridge of mountains in Novem- 
ber, but did not meet with it along the coast during summer, appearing to be 
replaced by the Loggerhead, which is a summer resident. 
Perisoreus Canadensis, (Linn.) Bonap. Canada Jay. 
We met with numbers of this plain and familiar bird in the Rocky moun= 
tains of the interior. 

Cyanocorax Stelleri, (Pallas) Bonap. Steller's Jay. 

This species is occasionally met with in the pine groves of the mountains 
from New Mexico to California. 

Cyanocorax Californicus, (Vigors) Nobis. California Jay. 
Garrulus Californicus, Vigors, Zool. Beechy's voyage. 
O. ultramarinus, Aud. Nutt. non Bonap. 
The California Jay has been hitherto confounded by American ornithologists 
with the Mexican G. ultramarinus, accurately described by Prince Bonaparte, 
in the Journal of this Society, in 1825, and afterwards described and figured 
also, by Temminck in his Planches colorees, 439. It is strange that the 
Prince himself should have committed the same error of confoundiug the two 
species in his Comparative list of the Birds of Europe and North America, 
quoting at the same time Audubon's plate and description, which is clearly 
the Californicus. 



f* 



r 



202 [April, 184T. 

The distinctions between the two species are very considerable, and may be 
thus stated. 

Cyanocorax ultramarinus. Cyanocorax Californicus. 

Much larger, 13 to 13 J inches in Length 11J to 12 inches. 

length. 

TT - ,. , , , , , Back brown. A broad line of 

Upper parts entirely blue ; head 

, , , , , . , white spots extending over the eye 

and cheeks blue also, except space l 

, . ., , ,. ,. , . the length of the head, and with the 

between the eye and bill which is s 

black space anterior to the eye and auri- 

culars dusky. 

The blue extending down the sides A crescent of blue surrounds the 

of the neck, but without a pectoral u PP er P art of the breast - 

ban(i - Throat and upper part of breast 

Throat only, whitish; all the rest of whitej streaked with lines of dusky . 

the under parts of a dirty brownish &n the pegt beneath tfae collar of w 



white, darker on the breast. , . i , .. 

' brownish white. 

Length of wing 7 inches. Length of wing nearly 5 inches. 

Tail nearly even, length Gf inches. Tail graduated or much rounded, 

length 5| innhes. 

Tarsus If inches. Tarsus 1| inches. 

The C. ultramarinus by its greater size, blue colour above, and absence of 
pectoral band, together with its very different proportion, is easily distin- 
guished from the C. Californicus, which is much smaller, has a brown back, 
a white superciliary line, and a dull white throat, and breast surrounded by 
a collar of blue. 

The G. sordidus, Swains. (Syn. Bds. Mex.) generally quoted as a synonym 
of the ultramarinus, dose not agree very well with it, unless the description 
were taken from a young bird, in which the tail is irregularly rounded, and 
the size somewhat less. 

The California Jay is a very abundant species, and a constant resident. 
In its actions it is exceedingly restless, and at the same time sprightly and 
graceful, ever flitting from tree to tree, uttering a harsh grating jay, jay, and 
Sometimes altering it to kayic, hay ic. Like all the Jays, they are very fond 
of scolding, and a troop of them will surround and follow almost any object 
that attracts their attention, with their teasing disagreeable cries. 

Pica Hudsonica (Sabine) Bonap. Common Magpie. 

We frequently met with the Magpie on our route from New Mexico to Cali- 
fornia. It would linger around our camp to pick up the offal, and sometimes 
boldly steal the meat which was hung on the bushes around. 

Pica Nuttalii, Aud. Nuttall's Magpie. 

I felt great pleasure on arrivingat Santa Barbara, in Upper California, in see- 
ing in its native haunts, this distinct and beautiful Magpie, discovered by my 
fijend; the indefatigable naturalist and traveller after whom it is named : 



April, 1847.] 203 

among others, a just tribute for the invaluable services he has rendered to 
natural science, during more than thirty years of his life, spent among us, 
in untiring investigation of the productions of our country. 

In California, at least, and where as yet I believe it has alone been found, 
this Magpie is exceedingly local, being confined, as far as I have observed, to 
the immediate neighborhood of Santa Barbara, where among the beautiful 
evergreen oaks (Quercus agri/olia) of the vicinity, it is abundant. 

Sprightly and graceful in its movements, it is a favorite with the inhabitants; 
and when not molested shows considerable confidence, often being seen about 
the doors of the houses, but becoming remarkably shy and cautious when 
chased or shot at. During my stay, from frequently shooting at them, although 
at first they were numerous in small flocks, they at length became so scarce 
that during the breeding season very few were to be seen, apparently having 
gone to the ravines of the neighboring mountains, so that I did not find a sin- 
gle recent nest, although the woods were full of those of the last year. The 
old nests were large, and built loosely of sticks like that of a crow, and situat- 
ed in the topmost forks of the trees, well concealed by the foliage. 

Corvus ossifragus, Wils. Fish Crow. 

Abundant along the Pacific coast. 

Corvus A7nerica?ius, Aud. Common Crow. 

Also abundant throughout the Pacific coast, as well as in the interior. 

Corvus catatotl, Wagler. American Raven. 

Fitted by its organization for any means of subsistence, there are few parts 
of North America where the Raven may not be found. 

In the arid region between the Rio Colorado and California, its ominous 
croak renders the desert solitude more dismal, and on the rocky uninhabited 
Islands off the coast of California, it is the companion of the Fish-hawk and 
Gulls; but in California, instead of being scattered and solitary, it becomes 
one of the most abundant and familiar of birds, and in company with its 
fellow-scavengers, the Turkey vultures and dogs, it is exceedingly useful in 
consuming the refuse of the cattle which are slaughtered in such great num- 
bers. At the Pueblo de los Angeles, so abundant were they in and around 
the town, that I have counted in the corral, or courtyard of a single house, 
as many as 150 at one time. 

Nucifraga Columbiana, (Wils.) Aud. American Nutcracker. 

We occasionally met with this peculiar bird in the mountains of the interior, 
among the scattered pine groves. 

Quiscalus majors, Vieill. Boat-tailed Blackbird. 

This large and handsome blackbird is very abundant about the Gulf, and 
occasionally is seen as far north as Upper California. 
Scolcophagus ferrugineus, (Wils.) Bire. Rusty Blackbird. 
We found this species very common in New Mexico and California, as also 



204 [April, 1847. 

the S. Mexicanus, Swains, lately described and figured by Audubon as 
Quiscalus Breweri. 

Sturnella neglecta, Aud. Western Meadow Lark. 
This nearly allied species we found a bundant on the prairies in New Mexico, 
Rio Colorado, and California. In the spring around the Pueblo de los Angeles 
its delicate and melodious song was every where to be heard. About Monte- 
rey in the winter it kept in and along the margins of the pine woods. 

Molothrus pecorus, (Gmel.) Swains. Cow Blackbird. 

Abundant, in company with the Rusty Blackbird, frequenting, in flocks, 
the cattle corrals and farm houses of New Mexico and California. 

Icterus bullockii, Swains. Bullock's Oriole. 

The males of this beautiful bird arrive at their summer quarters about the 
Pueblo de los Angeles and Santa Barbara, in California, about the first week 
in April, and the female in a week or so afterwards. They resort to the 
retired hedges of vineyards and orchards, and occasionally are seen among 
the trees in the town. Its song during this joyful season is uttered in a 
loud clear tone, and sometimes varied, but generally wek te tek tshe-o tske-o 
tshe-o, wek te tek tshe-o. This is continued at intervals while flitting through 
the budding trees in search of their insect fare. When it observes any ob- 
ject of suspicion, it utters a few guttural croaking scolding notes, and con-? 
ceals itself among the leafy boughs. 

About the middle of April I saw them commencing to hang their nests in 
the manner of our golden Robin, on the pendulous branches ef the willow and 
other trees surrounding the vineyards, and as far as I remained to see them 
completed, they were made with the same ingenious interweaving of delicate 
materials to form a pouch. 

Ageliaus xantkrocephalus, Bonap. Yellow-headed Blackbird. 
Abundant in California. 

A. phaniceus, (Linn.) Vieill. Red winged Blackbird. 
Abundant in New Mexico and California. 

A. tricolor, Aud. Three colored Blackbird. 

This handsome species, discovered by Mr. Nuttall, and sent to Audubon 
with the above name, is abundant in California, going in small flocks in 
company with the other species. Its notes are very different from those of 
the red-wing, with which it associates, being a kind of guttural squeaking, 
like that made by a dying animal. The red of the wing cannot be seen 
when they are closed, looking as if it only had a white band. 

A. gubernator, (Wagler) Bonap. Two colored Blackbird. 
This pretty species is abundant, also, in California, and along the western 
coast of Mexico, It is often found in company with the phceniceus, which it 



April, 1847.] 205 

so much resembles, together keeping about corrals and places where cattle 
have been. 



ELECTION. 

The following gentlemen were elected Members ; 
David C. Skerrett, M. D., of Philadelphia. 
Mr, George Boyd Allinson, M 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ACADEMY* OF NATURAL SCIENCES 

OF PHILADELPHIA.. 
Vol. III. MAY AND JUNE, 1847. No. 9. 

Stated Meeting, May 4, 1847. 

The Society convened this evening, for the first time, in the 
new and commodious Library and Meeting Room in the 
basement of their Hall. On this occasion, Vice-President 
Morton, upon taking the Chair, addressed the Society as 
follows : 

Gentlemen, As we now meet here for the first time, and 
under circumstances highly auspicious to the success of our In- 
stitution and to the interests of science, 1 beg to be indulged in a 
few remarks. 

On the evening of the 25th of January, 1812, six gentlemen 
met at a private residence, the home of one of them, in this city. 
Their objects were, conversation and improvement. They had 
often met before, but without any definite intention ; but they 
we're now incited by a new impulse, a prospective enterprise. 
Let them speak for themselves, in the following brief but emphatic 
declaration : 

" We will contribute to the formation of a museum of natural 
history, a library of works of science, a chemical experimental 
laboratory, an experimental philosophical apparatus, and every 
other desirable appendage or convenience for the illustration and 
advancement of natural knowledge, and for the common benefit 
of all those individuals who may be admitted members of our In- 
stitution." 

This resolve waa adopted at the second meeting of the found- 
ers, one week after their primary sitting, on which occasion 

29 ' 



208 [May, 1847- 

Thomas Say was also present, and Dr. Gerard Troost was elect- 
ed first President of this Society. Little did these two gentle- 
men, and their five colleagues, foresee the results of their unpre- 
tending enterprise ; for Science, in this country, was then in its 
infancy, and the number of those who fostered it was few indeed. 

From the acorn springs the oak ; and from the humble efforts 
and continued self-sacrifices of a few private individuals, has 
arisen this Institution, now grown to the manhood of science. 

Thirty-five years have elapsed since those seven persons, pri- 
vate citizens, men without fortune or influence, laid the fouudation 
of our Society. That their intentions have been ably and zeal- 
ously sustained, through periods of probation and uncertainty, I 
can safely aver. Trials are the best incentives to exertion ; and 
the mind knows not its resources uutil forced to contend with ad- 
verse circumstances. There were those who resolved in their 
minds, who vowed in their hearts, that this institution should suc- 
ceed. Many of them are now in their graves; but their me- 
mory is inseparably blended with the annals and the honours of 
science. Maclure, Say, Grodman, Collins, Conrad, Harlan and 
Keating each has left his name on the tablet of nature ; and 
could the venerable Maclure now behold the institution which he 
so ably sustained, and so munificently provided for, how would 
he rejoice in the consummation of those hopes which he so ar- 
dently cherished during the last twenty-five years of his life ! 

Among our living members are many to whom I would gladly 
award the just meed of praise for their signal and successful exer- 
tions in this our common cause; and there is one among us in 
the prime of life, and full of zeal in diffusing those great truths 
which in part illustrate, in part constitute, the laws of Omnipo- 
tence. He has come to us clothed in the spirit of science. 
What he has accomplished, every eye can see. An hundred 
years of ordinary prosperity could not have realized so much. 
To say less would be unjust. To say more would wound a mind 
that shrinks from observation and eulogy. 

Let us continue our exertions to make this Institution a practi- 
cal school of Natural History, by throwing open our doors to all 
who seek knowledge ; and, supported and encouraged by the flat- 
tering auspices under which we have now met, let us redouble 
our zeal to unfold and diffuse the truths of Science. 



DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 



Dr. Wilson presented a very large and elegant polished slab of 
Dendritic Limestone, from the vicinity of Bristol, England. 

Dr. William Blanding presented a mounted specimen of 
Condylura cristata. 



May, 1847.] 209 

donations to library. 

The American Journal of Science and Arts. New Series. 

No. 9. May, 1847. From the Editors. 
Literary Record and Journal of the Linnean Association of 

Pennsylvania College. Vol. 3. No. 7. From the Asso- 
ciation. 
Proceedings of the Providence Franklin Society. Vol. 1. 

No. 1. April, 1847. From the Society. 
The following works were deposited by Dr. Thomas B. 

Wilson : 
Zoological Illustrations. By William Swainson, F. R. S. 

6 vols. 8vo. London, 1820-1832. 
New Illustrations of Zoology. By Peter Brown. 1 vol. 4to. 

London, 1770. 
Gleanings of Natural History. By George Edwards, F. R. S., 

&c. 7 vols. 4to. London. 
Zoological Illustrations in Java and the neighboring Islands. 

By Thomas Horsfield, M. D., F. R. S., &c. 1 vol. 4to. 

London, 1824. 
Illustrations of the family of Psittacidae, or Parrots. By 

Edward Lear, A. L. S. 1 vol. Folio. London, 1832. 
Cimelia Physica : figures of rare and curious quadrupeds, 

birds, &c. By George Shaw, M. D., F. R. S., &c. 1 vol. 

Folio. London, 1796. 



Mr. Gambel read a paper by Lieut. J. W. Abert, U. S. A., 
describing a new Quail, from New Mexico. Referred to 
Messrs. Gambel, Cassin, Harris and Townsend. 

Dr. Leidy read a letter from Prof. Spencer F. Baird, of 
Carlisle, Pennsylvania, describing a Hybrid between the 
Canvas-back Duck and the common Duck. 

The Librarian read a letter from the Rev. John G. Morris, 
of Baltimore, requesting certain exchanges of books. Re- 
ferred to the Librarian, with authority to act. 

Dr. Morton presented a paper from Dr. R. W. Gibbes, of 
Columbia, S. C, in continuation of his description of the 
fossil remains of the Zeuglodon, from the Eocene of South 



210 [May, 1847. 

Carolina, with additional drawings of the same. Referred to 
the Committee on the previous portions of the paper. 

Professor Hare made some observations on the combustion 
of gum in oxygen gas, and stated that the brilliant light which 
it emitted during combustion, proceeded from the presence of 
lime, which he considered an essential constituent of gums. 

Dr. Leidy stated that whilst engaged in examining the 
structure of some Lichens, he discovered numerous octagonal 
crystals intermingled with the cellular structure of several 
species of Parmelia. Many of the crystals equalled in size 
the greenish cells themselves, although none of them appeared 
to be contained within the latter. As chemical analysis has 
detected in these plants a large proportion of oxalate of 
lime, Dr. Leidy supposed these crystals to be that salt. 



Stated Meeting, May 11, 1847. 
Mr. Phillips in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

A large massive specimen of Copper ore from the Fleming- 
ton Copper Mines, New Jersey. Presented by Dr. Thos. 
McEuen. 

An earthenware Indian utensil, taken from a crevice in a 
rock on Pine creek, Lycoming county, Pennsylvania. 
From Mr Thos. H. Taylor. 

Specimen of Astacus affinis, from Kentucky. From Prof. 
Haldeman. 

Bituminous coal from the Tippecanoe pit, Clover Hill, Va., 
and Fuller's earth from the same locality. From Profossor 
Johnson. 

Mounted specimen of Callipepla squammata, Gould, from 
Mexico. From Lieut. J. W. Abert, U. S. A. 



May, 1847.] 211 

The following specimens in spirits, of Reptilia, originally 

part of Prof. Rafinesque's collection, were presented by 

Dr. Hallowell, viz. : 
Lacerta viridis, var. agilis, Linn. ; L. caerulescens, m. & f. , L. 

Brongniartii Daudin ; L. muralis ; L. crocea ; Anguis fra- 

gilis ; Coluber iEsculapii ; C. austriacus ; C. tesselatus ; C. 

natrix, L.; Vipera ammodytes ; Ranaarborea; R. esculenta; 

R. temporaria ; R. fusca ; R ignea ; R. variabilis ; R. 

vulgaris ; Salamandra maculosa ; S. atra ; S. cristata ; S. 

ignea ; S. tseniata. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Medical Botany ; or descriptions of the more important plants 
used in medicine ; with their history, properties and mode 
of administration. By R. Eglesfeld Griffith, M. D. 8vo. 
Philadelphia, 1847. From the Author. 

On Hybridization amongst vegetables. By the Hon. and 
very Rev. William Herbert, L. S. D., Dean of Manchester. 
Part 1. From the Author, through Dr. Elwyn. 



The Corresponding Secretary read a letter from Richard 
Kippist, Esq., Librarian of the Linnean Society of London, 
dated March 4, 1847, acknowledging the receipt of his notice 
of election as a Correspondent. 

Prof. Johnson made some remarks upon the Tippecanoe 
coal mines of Clover Hill, Virginia, from which the specimens 
presented this evening were obtained. 



Stated Meeting, May 18, 1847. 
Mr. Phillips in the Chair. 



DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

The following collections of Bivalve Shells (consisting of 
162 species) was presented by Dr. Robert E. Griffith, 
viz. : 



212 [May, 1847. 

Aspergillum 1 species ; Gastrochseia, 4 do. ; Toredo, 4 do. ; 
Pholas, 8 do.; Solen, 12 do.; Solecurtis, 2 do.; Mesodesma, 5 
do.; Leguminaria, 1 do.; Panopcea, 2 do.; Periploma, 1 do.; 
Lutraria, 4 do ; Mactra, 15 do.; Crassitella, 3 do.; Erycina, 
2 do.; Mya, 2 do.; Corbula, 1 do; Pandora, 4 do.; Anatina, 
1 do.: Thracia, 1 do.; Telliua, 78 do.; Psammobia, 11 do. 

A fine specimen of Isis hippuris, from the China seas. Pre- 
sented by Capt. John Land. 

Calamites approximatus, from Hazleton, Luzerne county, 
Pennsylvania. From Prof. Johnson. 



Dr. Leidy presented a paper by John L. Le Conte, M D., 
of New York, entitled " Fragmenta Entomologica," describ- 
ing the following new species of Coleopterous Insects, viz.: 

Triplax atriventris, T. vittata, T. ruficeps, T. taeniata ; Dyctiop- 
tera substriata ; Digrapba affinis, D. apicalis, Celetes basalis, 
C. tabida ; Pedilus Pulcber, Canthon perplexus ; Hybosorus 
carolinus ; Ocbodseus obscurus ; Bothynus uiorio, B. obsoletus, 

B. pyriformis, B. variolosus ; Cantbaris fulgii'er, C. nigricomis, 

C. filiformis; Spondylus spbcericollis ; Eros incestus, E. timi- 
dus, E. seger, E. solicitus, E. socius, E. mollis, E. lascivus, 
E. vilis ; Phanaeus torrens, P. difformis ; Zenoa vulnerata ; 
Steropes occidentals ; Monocerus bifasciatus, M. serratus ; 
Pyrota Engelmanii ; Heliophilus latimanus ; Opatrum fossor ; 
Tetraopes femoratus ; T. annulatus. 

The paper was referred to the following Committee : Prof. 
Haldeman, Dr. R. E. Griffith, and Dr. Pickering. 



Meeting for Business, May 25, 1847. 

Yice President Morton in the Chair. 

After some preliminary business had been concluded, Dr. 
Morton made a few remarks on an aboriginal cranium ob- 
tained by Dr. Davis and Mr. Squier, during their researches 
in the mounds near Chilicothe, Ohio. Dr. M. observed that 
it possessed in a remarkable manner all those characteristics 
which pertain, in varioiis degrees, to the Indian skull in every 
region of this continent, viz.: the vertical occiput, great 
vertical diameter, and corresponding width between the parie- 



May, 1847.] 2ia 

tal bones, so that the several diameters are nearly equal, 
giving the whole head a singularly high, and squared or conical 
form, while the forehead recedes less and the face is less 
prominent than is usual in skulls of the American race. Dr- 
M. added, that he had in his possession upwards of four hun- 
dred Indian crania, but that this was more beautifully de- 
veloped, in all its proportions, than any one of them. The 
relic in question possesses additional interest from the opi- 
nion of the gentlemen who found it, that it pertains to the 
race of aboriginal mound builders. 

ELECTION. 

Edward Hartshorne, M. D. ; John Neill, M. D. ; and Mr. 
Richard Kern, of Philadelphia, were elected Members. 

And the following gentlemen were elected Correspondents. 

Prof. Isaac L. Chipman, of Acadia College, Nova Scotia ; 
George N. Lawrence, Esq., of New York. 



Stated Meeting, June 1, 1847. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Dr. Wilson deposited the following valuable casts : 

Icthyosaurus latimanus, and Icthyosaurus intermedius, the 
originals of both in the Bristol Institution, England ; Ptero- 
dactylus crassirostris, upper and under view ; and Head 
of Pistosaurus. Also, an original specimen of Teleosaurus 
Chipmani ? from the Lias of Wurtemburg. 

Dr. Wilson also presented three casts of Egyptian tablets from 
originals found at Thebes, and now in the possession of 
Mr. Goldney. 

The following collection of Shells from the Island of Jamaica 

was presented by Prof. C. B. Adams, of Vermont, viz. : 



214 [June, 1847. 

Helix aspera, H. acutissima and var. H. lucerna, H. Cookiana, 
H. epistylium, H. pulla, H. nemoraloides, II. sinuata, H. 
Brownii, H. per-affinis, H. marginata, H. turbiniformis, H. 
arboreoides; Helicina Leana, H. aureola, H. costata, H. pul- 
chella, H. Brownii ; Cylindrella nobilior, H. brevis ; H. san- 
guinea, H. carnea, H. Cumingii, H. seminuda; Truncatella 
Cumingii ; Pedipes quadrideDs; Cvclostovna mirabile, C. cre- 
nulatum, C. articulaturn, C. Grayanum, C. maritinura, C co 
lunina, C. pulchrius, 0. fascia, C. album, var. fuscura, C 
Brownii, C corrugatum, C. lincina, C. album, and C. linea. 

Dr. R. E. Griffith presented a collection of Shells consisting of 
fifty species of Murex, thirty-two species of Triton, and 
twenty species of Ranella. 



DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

On the new planet Neptune ; (from the Proceedings, of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences, March, 1846.) 
From Prof. Pierce. 

Genera Plantarum secundum ordines naturales disposita : 
Auctore Stephano Endlicher. Nos. 1 to 8. 8vo. From 
Dr. William Darlington. 
Dr. Wilson deposited the following : 

Iconographie Ornithologique, Par. 0. Des Murs. 7th Liv. 

The Genera of Birds. By George Robert Gray ; with plates 
by David William Mitchell. Parts 29 to 36 inclusive. 

Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa, &c. By Andrew 
Smith, M. D., &c. No. 24. 

Oken's Isis. No. 10 for 1846, and No. 1 for 1847. 

The Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America. By Audu- 
bon & Bachman. No. 22. 

Fauna Japonica. Auctore P. H. von Siebold. No. 14. 

Verhandelingen over de Natuurligke geschiedenis der Neder- 
landsche overzesche bezettingen, door de leden der Natuur- 
kundige cpmmissie in Oost-Indie en andere Schrijvers. 
Botanie, parts 1 to 7 ; Land-en Volkenkunde, parts 1 to 9. 

Zoologia typica, &c. By Louis Fraser. Nos. 9 and 10. 

The Birds of Australia. By J. Gould. No. 26. 



June, 1847.] 215 

A Natural History of the Birds of New South Wales. By- 
John Wm. Lewin, A. L. S. 1 vol. 4to. London, 1828. 

Iconographie du Regne Animal de M. le Baron Cuvier. 
Par M. F. E. Guerin. Vols. 1 and 2, coloured plates. 
Vol. 3, text. 8vo. 

History and Description of the Royal Museum of Natural 
History. Translated from the French of M. Delouze. 
Parts 1 and 2. 8vo. Paris, 1823. 

Travels in New Zealand ; with contributions to the geogra- 
phy, geology, botany, &c, of that country. By Ernest 
Dieffenbach, M. D. 2 vols. 8vo. London, 1843. 

A specimen of the Botany of New Holland ; by James 
Ed. Smith, M. D., F. R. S., the figures by James Sowerby, 
F. R. S. Zoology of New Holland: by George Shaw, 
M. D., F. R. S., the figures by James Sowerby. In 1 vol. 
4to. London, 1793-94. 

Histoire naturelle des plus beaux Oiseaux chanteurs de la 
Zone Torride ; par L. P. Vieillott. 1 vol. folio. Paris* 
1805. 

The Magazine of Natural History and Journal of Zoology, 
Botany, &c, conducted by J. C. Loudon, F. L. S., &c. '9 
vols., 8vo. London, 1829 to 1837. 

New series of the same work ; by Edward Charlesworth, 
F. L. S. 4 vols. 8vo. 

Annals of Natural History, or Magazine of Zoology, Botany, 
and Geology, (being a continuation of Loudon's Magazine 
of Zoology and Botany, and of Hooker's Botanical compa- 
nion) 18 vols. 8vo. and 3 Nos. of vol. 19. 

Magazine of Zoology and Botany ; conducted by Sir Wm. 
Jardine, P. J. Selby, and Dr. Johnson. 2 vols. 8vo. 

The Zoology of the Voyage of H. M. S. Beagle, under the 
command of Capt. Fitzroy, R. N., during the years 1832, 
to '36. 1 vol. 4to. London, 1840. 

The Zoology of the Voyage of H. M. S. Blossom, under the 
command of F. W. Beechey, R. N., in the years 1826 to 
'28. 1 vol. 4to. 1839. 

Illustrations of British Ornithology. By Prideaux T. Selby, 
Esq. 2 vols., plates, folio max. 



216 [June, 1847. 

A letter was read from Prof. Andreas Retzius, dated 
Stockholm, April 25, 1847, acknowledging the receipt of his 
notice of election as a Correspondent of the Academy, and 
communicating the result of Prof. Muller's examination of the 
Hydrarchos of Dr. Kock, which he is satisfied is identical with 
the Basilosaurus of Harlan, (Zeuglodon cetoides, Owen ;) a 
fact long since announced by this Society, and published in 
its Proceedings. 

Prof. Retzius also stated that he had detected a cutaneous 
gland in the Fox, (Canis vulpes) near the root of the tail, 
opening on the surface, and emitting an agreeable odour. He 
considered this gland characteristic of the genus Vulpes, and 
desires further investigation of the subject. 

Prof. Hare made some observations on the weather of the 
past spring, referring particularly to the great prevalence of 
easterly winds, and their unnsual and remarkable aridity, and 
as a consequence, the retarding of vegetation. 

He also expressed his conviction that rain only occurred 
when two strata of clouds existed ; if only one was present, 
its moisture would be absorbed by the surrounding atmos- 
phere. 

Mr. Gliddon remarked that the casts of Egyptian tablets, 
presented this evening, were those of ordinary funereal tablets, 
which were frequently found with the mummies, deposited 
by the friends of the deceased. They probably belonged to 
the 18th or 19th Dynasty. 



June, 1847.] 217 

Stated Meeting, June 8, 1847. 
Dr. McEuen in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Several specimens of copper ore from the Flemington Copper 

Mine, N. J. From Dr. McEuen. 
A collection of bird skins, reptiles, &c, from the Island of 

Jamaica. From Dr. C. \V. Pennock. 
A portrait of the late distinguished Botanist, A. P. De Can- 

dolle. Received through Prof. Asa Gray. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Memoirs de la Societe de Physique et d' Histoire Naturelle 

de Geneve. Tome x., pt. 2. Tome xi., pt. 1. From the 

Society. 
Troisieme Supplement au Memoire sur les Coquilles terrestres 

et fluviatiles de la Province de Bahia. Par D. J. Mori- 

cand. From the author. 



The Corresponding Secretary read a letter from Prof. C. B. 
Adams, dated Boston, May 22d, 1847, accompanying the 
donation of shells announced at last meeting, and proposing 
to the Society, for publication in its Journal, a Memoir on the 
Natural History of the Island of Jamaica, of which he was 
the author. 

The letter was, on motion, referred to the Publication Com- 
mittee. 

A letter was read from Dr. Frederick Tamnau, of Berlin, 
dated March 22d, 1847, making enquiry relative to a box of 
minerals which he had transmitted to the Academy at a for- 
mer period, and asking an equivalent for the same ; which 
was accordingly ordered by resolution of the Society. 

Dr. Leidy called the attention of the Society to a cranium 
of a NeAv Hollander, in which the remains of sutures of the 
incisive bone could be distinctly traced. 

Mr. Edward Harris exhibited specimens of Amorpha 



218 [June, 1847. 

fruticosa, raised from seed brought by himself from the 
State of Missouri. 

Prof. Johnson exhibited a plan for forming geological sec- 
tions, in which the different strata were represented by the 
rock itself in a pulverized state upon paper. 



Stated Meeting, June 15, 1847. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Report of the Commissioner of Patents, exhibiting the opera- 
tions of the Patent office during the year ending Dec. 31, 
1845. From Peter A. Browne, Esq. 

The history and culture of the Olive. The anniversary ad- 
dress of the State Agricultural Society of South Carolina, 
delivered Nov. 26, 1846, by the Hon. Mitchel King. Co- 
lumbia, S. C , 1846. From Dr. R. W. Gibbes, of South 
Carolina. 

Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. Vol.4. 
Nos. 36 and 37 ; July 1846 to March 1847. From the 
Society. 

The Literary Record and Journal of the Linnean Association 
of Pennsylvania College. Vol. 3, No. 8. From the Asso- 
ciation. 
Dr. Wilson deposited the following fine works : 

Planches colorees d'Oiseaux : par C. J. Temminck. 5 vols, 
folio. 

Voyage autour de Monde de la Coquille, pendant les annees 
1822, '23, '24 and '25, par M. L. Duperry. Zoologie : 
par MM. Lesson and Garnot. 2 vols. 4to. and Atlas, 
folio. Paris, 1826, '30. 
Histoire naturelle generale des Pigeons : par C. J. Temminck, 
(with his original introduction, and proof plates before let- 
tering,) 1 vol. folio. Paris, 1808. 



June, 1847.] 219 

Les Pigeons ; par Madame Knip, nee Pauline de Courcelles, 
premies peintre d'histoire naturelle de S. M. l'lmpera- 
trice Reine Marie Louise : le texte (ler. tome) par C. J. 
Temminck, et (2e. tome) Florent Prevost. Folio. Paris, 
1811, 1834. 

A letter was read from the Royal Bavarian Academy of 
Sciences, dated Munich, April 26, 1847, requesting certain 
portions of the publications of this Society for completing 
the series of the same in the Bavarian Academy. 

A communication was read from the Secretary of the 
American Philosophical Society, dated May 7, 1847, return- 
ing acknowledgments for late numbers of the Academy's 
Proceedings. 

Professor Hare read a memoir intended for publication in 
the Journal of the Academy, entitled " Objections to the 
electrical theories of Franklin, Du Faye and Ampere, with 
some suggestions as a substitute." 

Referred to a committee consisting of Dr. Bridges, Mr. H. 
Seybert, and Prof. Johnson. 

Professor Hare stated that among the results of the com- 
bustion of gunpowder, he had detected the formation of Sul- 
pho-cyanide of Potassium, indicated by its producing a blood- 
red precipitate with the per-salts of iron. 



Stated Meeting, June 22d, 1847. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

A collection, in spirits, of Reptiles from Jamaica. Presented 
by Dr. C. W. Pennock. 

Dr. C. D. Meigs presented a living specimen of Hydrochoerus 
capybara (Cavy,) from South America, and a living speci- 
men of Didelphis Virginiana. 



220 [June, 1847. 

Dr. Morton deposited five crania of Malays, and one of an 
Oceanic Negro. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

American Journal of Agriculture and Science, conducted by 

Dr. E. Emmons and A. Osborn, Esq. June 1847. From 

the Editors. 
On the destruction and partial reproduction of forests in British 

North America. By John William Dawson, Esq., of 

Pictou. From the Author. 

Dr. Wilson deposited the following : 
The Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America ; by J. J. 

Audubon and Rev. J. Bachman, D. D. Vol. 1, large 8vo. 

New York, 1846. 
Oken's Isis, No. 2, for 1847, and Revue Zoologique, No. 2, 

for 1847. 



A letter was read from J. W. Dawson, Esq., dated Pictou, 
N. S., May 25, 1847, acknowledging the receipt of his notice 
of election as a Correspondent. 



Dr. Leidy exhibited a drawing of an Entozoon, (a species 
of Distoma,) found in the pericardium of Helix alternata. 
This entozoon is half a line in length by a quarter of a line in 
breadth, a large comparative size, when its situation is con- 
sidered, being equal to that of the ventricle of the heart. 
The pericardium was perfectly transparent, and presented no 
appearance of cicatrix, or marks of external communication. 
Dr. Leidy then read the following description of 

Distoma Helicis. Oval, flattened, white in colour ; oral 
disk large, round, marked by radiating lines : posterior disk 
central, about the size of that of the mouth, radiate, with a 
dark spot in the centre. Intestinal canal commencing by a 
fusiform oesophagus, the apex of which joins a round stoma- 
chal cavity, from which passes off on each side a convoluted 
intestinum, which proceeds to the posterior extremity of the 
body. About half way between the central disk and the 



June, 1847.] 221 

posterior extremity of the animal, I indistinctly observed 
what I presumed to be the generative orifice. 

By permission of the Society, a report was received from 
the Committee on Dr. R. W. Gibbes' memoir, entitled " On 
the fossil genus Zeuglodon, Owen, with an account of speci- 
mens from the Eocene green sand of South Corolina," recom- 
mending the same for publication in the forthcoming number 
of the Journal of the Academy. The report was adopted. 



Meeting for Business, June 29, 1847. 

Mr. Phillips in the Chair. 

The Committee, to whom was referred Prof. Hare's paper 
entitled " Objections to the electrical theories of Franklin, 
Du Faye, and Ampere, with some suggestions as a substitute," 
reported in favour of publication in the Journal of the 
Academy. The report was adopted. 

The Committee on Mr. Peter A. Browne's paper, proposing 
a new nomenclature for the class Mammalia, reported that 
the views taken by the author, although novel and ingenious, 
did not, in their opinion, justify the substitution of the names 
proposed for those in use, and established by Cuvier and 
others. The Committee also requested that a copy of the 
paper might be deposited in the Library of the Academy. 
The report was adopted. 

The Committee on a paper by Lieut. J. W. Abert, U. S. A., 
describing a supposed new species of Quail inhabiting 
New Mexico, reported the same to be the Ortyx squamata, 
Vigors ; and recommended for publication the following por- 
tion of the communication. 

" This bird appears to be well known throughout the whole de- 
partment of New Mexico, for a sketch that I had made of it was 
universally recognized by the inhabitants of that country, who 
called it " La Codorniz." I met with several coveys on the 
banks of the " Rio del Norte," opposite to Socorro," but I had 
not the good fortune to obtain any specimens until Nov. 12th, 



222 [June, 1847. 

when in the neighbourhood of l Bosqaecito,' and again on the 
9th of Dec., when hunting, about eight miles to the north of 
1 Fray Cristobal.' 

These birds congregate in flocks or coveys of from 20 to 30 ; 
when alarmed, they emit a chicking note, and run with such ra- 
pidity, that it is difficult to get a second sight of a covey, that one 
may have startled ; they seem to love the low sandy bottoms 
where the wild sage grows ; as these bottoms are covered with 
little knolls, which with the sage, serves to secure them from 
their enemies. Although not hunted by the people, they are 
shy. When forced to take wing, they make a whizzing sound 
that startles one, scattering as they fly, so that when they alight, 
they are at considerable intervals from each other, but they soon call 
together, with the uttering of a single whistling note. I dissected 
several, and found them to contain small green insects of the 
Hemipterous order, also grass seed and the berries of the mistle- 
toe, which in that country grows on nearly every cotton-wood 
tree. The female bears so great a resemblance to the male, that 
dissection alone can serve to determine the sex." 

The Publication Committee, to whom was referred Prof. 
C. B. Adams' letter of May 22d, relative to a paper on the 
Natural History of Jamaica, reported that they deem it at 
present inexpedient to accept the proposal of Prof. Adams, in 
regard to publishing the same in the first number of the new 
series of the Journal of the Academy. The report was 
adopted. 

The report of the Corresponding Secretary was read and 
adopted. 

The following resolution was adopted. 

Resolved, That subscribers to the Journal of the Academy 
be entitled to the Proceedings of the same, free of charge 
during the period of their subscription. 

ELECTION. 

The following gentlemen were elected Correspondents of 
the Academy : 

E. George Squire, Esq., of Chilicothe, Ohio, 
Dr. Edwin H. Davis, do. do. 

James Carson Brevoort, Esq., of New York, 
Major George A. McCall, U. S. A.. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 

OF PHILADELPHIA. 

Vol. III. JULY AND AUGUST, 1847. No. 10. 

Stated Meeting, July 6, 1847. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

The following collection of rare and valuable shells, princi- 
pally from the East Indies and the South Seas, was presented 
by Dr. Wilson ; viz : 

Helix Busbyii, 1 specimen ; Bulimus Downsii, 4 ; B. inindoren- 
sis, 3; B. (undescribed) from Venezuela, 1 ; B. do. do., 2 ; B. 
citrinus, 2 ; B. do. reversed, 2 ; B. Funchii, 1 ; Cardium 
rnultipunctatum, 1 ; Pyrula Mawei, 1 ; Bivalve (undescribed, 
from Japan,) 1 ; Murex tenuispinosus and operculum, 1 ; Co- 
nus regius (princeps), 2 ; Trochus Guilfordii, 1 ; Ovula volva, 
1 ; Ranella imperialis, 2 ; Oliva undata, (white) 2 ; Trigonia 
pectinata, 2 ; Rostellaria Powisii, 1 ; Voluta Delesertii, 1 ; Ca- 
rinaria vitrea, 1 ; Cyprsea vitellus (white). 3 ; Scalaria varieosa, 
2 ; Cyclostoma inca, 3 ; Unio discus ? 1 valve ; Ostrea iris 
(prismatica), 1; Noera longirostra, 1; N. undescribed. 1 ; He- 
licina (undescribed, from Venezuela, 2; Spondylus gsederopus, 
1 ; Auricula Caledonica. 

Dr. Wilson also presented a collection of British shells, con- 
sisting of 65 specimens : also seven masses of Anatifa, Sabella, 
Spatangus, Balanus, Serpula, and Velhella. 

Dr. R. E. Griffith presented a collection of shells comprising 



224 [j ULY , 1847. 

41 specimens of Fusus, 11 of Pyrula, 8 of Fasciolaria, 26 of 
Turbinella, and 56 of Pleurotoma. 

Mr. T. C. Percival presented several specimens of Minerals 
from Montgomery County, Penn. Also, some very fine spe- 
cimens of the fruit of Vanilla aromatica, both wild and culti- 
vated, from Tamaulipas, Mexico. 

A specimen in skin, of Garrulus peruvianus, and one of 
Icterus cucullatus, from Mexico. Presented by Major G. A. 
McCall, U. S. A. 

Prof. Johnson announced that the collection of Chemical 

apparatus of Mr. Henry Seybert, together with his library of 

Chemical works, had been received, and were now on deposit 

in the Institution. The apparatus consists of 1500 pieces of 

the following descriptions : 

Among the articles of glass are large assortments of digesters, 
phials, tincture bottles, jars, globular receivers, matrasses, tubes, 
funnels, alembics, retorts, conical foot glasses, air pump receivers, 
precipitating jars, syphons, eudiometers, alkalimeters, mercurial 
bath receivers, adapters, areometers for all liquids, with 250 re- 
agents and other preparations in jars and phials. The porcelain 
ware includes capsules with sockets, evaporating dishes, mortars 
and pestles, plain and branched tubes, calcining tests, funnels, 
plates, retorts, cups, &c. The earthen ware embraces fire-clay 
" tests," crucibles, retorts, crucible covers and stands, assay fur- 
naces, chauffers, muffles, cupels, &c. The platina includes co- 
vered crucibles, forceps, spatula, spoon, wire, plate, foil and grains 
Among the miscellaneous articles are agate mortars, chemical 
lamps, mouth and table blowpipes, portable forge, Papin's di- 
gesters, leaden tubes, assayer's table, blowpipe table and bellows, a 
work table, a variety of furnace implements, and other furniture 
essential to an analytical laboratory. The scales and weights are 
in six cases, and of sizes adapting them to different chemical re- 
searches. 

The Library contains 259 volumes, by the following 
authors : 

Thenard, Haiiy, Brard, Beudant, Orfila, Rickerand, Magendie, 
(}ay Lussac, Bergmann, Murray, Fourcroy, Kapeler and Caventou, 
Jourdan, Karsten, Ure, Thompson, Mirbel, Faraday, De Lisle, 
Chaptal, Berthollet, Klaproth, Sage, Cramer, Priestly, Black, 
Schmeiser, Kirwan, Brongniart, Berthier, Lucas, Humboldt, Park, 
Jameson, Accum, Ingenhouz, Spallanzani, Chcvreul, Homassel, 
Lavoisier, Bache, Lewis, Maquer, Henry, Payen and Chevallier, 



July, 1847.] 225 

Vitalis, Berzelius, Aiken, Cuvier, Stromeyer, Barat, and Rose ; to- 
gether with 44 volumes of the Annales de Chimie, and 47 volumes 
of the Annales de Chimie et de Physique. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

A voyage round the world in the years 1800 to 1809, in 
which the author visited the principal islands in the Pacific 
Ocean, and the English settlements of Port Jackson and 
Norfolk Island. By John Turnbull. 3 vols. 12mo. Lon- 
don, 1805. From Dr. Joseph Leidy. 

The Literary Record and Journal of the Linnean Association 
of Penn. College. Vol. 3. No. 9. From the Association. 

Review of Dr. M. Gay's statement of Dr. Jackson's claims to 
the discovery of the inhalation of ether as a preventive of 
pain. By J. B. S. Jackson, M. D. From the author. 

De Candolle's Prodromus, Pars 7, sectio posterior. Pur- 
chased by Academy to complete its series. 
Dr. Wilson deposited the following works : 

A History of the fossil fruits and seeds of the London Clay : 
by James Scott Bowerbank, F. G. S. Part 1. 8vo. Lon- 
don : 1840. 

Illustrations of the Geology of Yorkshire : by John Phillips, 

F. R. S., fec. Part 1, the Yorkshire Coast ; Part 2, the 
Mountain limestone District. 4to. London : 1835-86. 

Iconographie Ornithologique : par O. Des Murs. 8th Liv. 

Spicilegia Ornithologica exotica. Auctore J. F. Brandt. 
Fascia 1. 4to. Petropoli : 1839. 

The Animal Kingdom of the Baron Cuvier, enlarged and 
adapted to the present state of Zoological Science ; illus- 
trated after the original drawings of Audebert, Baraband, 
Cuvier, &c, (comprising Mammalia, orders Bimana, Quad- 
rumana and Cheiroptera.) 2 vols, in one. 4to. Edinburgh : 
1839. 

Description des Coquilles fossiles des environs de Paris : par 

G. P. Deshayes. Tomes 1 and 2, and Atlas, 4to. Paris : 
1824. 



226 [July, 1847. 

Monographie des plantes fossiles du Gres Bigarre de la Chaine 

des Vosges : par W. P. Schiuiper et A. Mougeot. 1 vol. 

4to. Leipzig: 1844. 

Mr. James Read presented the following works : 
Oalendricr de Flore ; ou. etudes de fleurs d'apres nature : par 

Madame V. D. C ; 3 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1802. 

Traite des Jardins ; ou le nouveau de la Quintinye, &c; par 

M. L. B ; 4 vols. 8vo. Paris 1775. 

Dr. Robert E. Griffith deposited a large collection of valua- 
ble works, many of them very rare : viz : 
D. Georgii Rudolphi Boehmeri Bibliotheca scriptorum His- 

torise naturalis (Economise aliarumque artium ac scienti- 

arum ad illam pertinentium realis systematica. 9 vols. 

8vo. Leipzig. 1685 to 1789. 

Kecreatio mentis et oculi, in observatione animalium testace- 
orum curiosis naturae inspectoribus Italico sermone primum 
propositi A. P. Phillippo Bonanno, 1 vol. 4to. Rome, 
1684. 

Deliciae Cobresianse ; J. P. Cobres Buchersammluna; zur 
Naturgeschicte. 2 vols. 8vo. 

Fauna Groenlandica ; systematica sistens animalia Groenlan- 
dioe occidentalis hactenus indagata, &c, secundum proprias 
observationes Othonis Fabricii. 1 vol. 8vo. 1780. 

Zoologiee Danicee Prodromus ; seu animalium Danise et Nor- 
vegiee indigenarum characteres, nomina, et synonyma im- 
primis popularium. Auctore Othone Friderico Miiller. 1 
vol. 8vo., 1776. 

Synopsis novorum generum, specierum, et varietatum testa- 
ceorum viventium anno 1834 promulgatorum, &c. Auc- 
tore Th. Miiller. 1 vol. 8vo., 1836. 

Bibliotheca Physico-medica. Zu finden bii Leopold Voss in 
Leipzig. 1 vol. 8vo., 1835. 

Jo. Jacob. Baieri Sciagraphia Musei sui accedunt supplementa 
Oryctographise Noricse cum figuris Deneis. 1 vol. 4to. , 1730. 



July, 1847.] 227 

Classes Conchyliorurn. Auctore Carolo Augusto de Bergen. 

1 vol. 4to. 1760. 
Kleine beytrage zur Testaceotheologie oder zur erkantniss 

Gottes aus den Conchylien in einigen sendschreiben heraus- 

gegeben. 4to. Frankfort and Leipzig : 1760. 
De corporibus marinis lapidiscentibus quae defossa reperiuntur; 

auctore Augustino Scilla ; addita dissertatione Fabii Colum- 

.nae de Glossopetris. 4to. 1747. 
Enunieratio Molluscorum Sicilies cum viventium turn in tel- 

lure tertiaria fossilium, quae in itinere suo observavit auctor 

Rudolphus Aniandus Phillippi. 4to. Vol. 2d : 1844. 
Joann. Bapt. Bohadsch, de quibusdam animalibus marinis, 

eorumque proprietatibus, orbi litterario vel nonduni vel 

minus notis. 4to. 1761. 
Recherches sur 1' usage des feuilles dans les plantes, et sur 

quelques autres sujets relatifs a l'histoire de la vegetation. 

Par Charles Bonnet. 4to. 1754. 
Jacobi Theodori Klein tentamen methodi Ostracologicte, sive 

dispositio naturalis Cochlidum et Concharum in suas clas- 
ses, genera et species, &c. 4to. 1753. 
Jani Planci Ariminensis de Conchis minus notis liber. &c. 

4to. 1750. 

Gerardi Blasii Amstelrsedamensis Anatome Animalium. 4to. 
1681. 

Delia storia naturale marina dell' Adriatico. Saggio de Sig- 
nor dottore Vitaliano Donati giuntavi una lettera del Signer 
dottore Lionardo Sealer. 4to. 1750. 
Rariora Musei Besleriani quae olim Basilius et Michel Ru- 

pertus Besleri collegerunt; nunc commentariolo illustrate 

a Johanne Henrico Lochnero. Folio. 1716. 
Opere postume del Conte Giuseppe Giovanni Ravennate. 

Folio. 1755. 
Thesaurus imaginium Piscium Testaceorum, quse Georgius E. 

Rumphius, M. D. collegit. Folio. 1711. 
Zoophylacium Gronovianum, exhibens Animalia quae in 

Musco suo adservavit, examini subjecit, systematice dis- 



228 [July, 1847. 

posuit atque descripsit Laur. Theod. Gronovius, J. U. D. 

Folio. 1781. 
Musgeum calceolarianuni Veronense ab Andrea Chiocco, 4to. 
Jacobi Breynii Opera: (viz., Fasciculi rariorum planta- 

rum ; Icoues et descriptiones rariorum plantarum : J. 

P. Breyni Jacobi filii dissertatio botanico-medica de radica 

Ginsem, seu Nisi, et Chrysanthem Bidente Zeylanico ac- 

mella dicto : Epistola de Melonibus petrefactis Montis 

Carmel; Dissertatio pliysica de Poly thalamus.) 4to. 1739. 
Descriptiones Tubulorum Marinorum, &c, secundum disposi- 

tionem Musei Kleiniani. 4to. 1781. 
Ueber den innern bau der sec und einiger anslandischen erd 

und Flussclmecten. Ein bersuch von Johann Samuel 

Schraster. 4to. 1783. 
D. Joh. Fr. Blumenbach's Handbuch der Naturgeschichte. 

12mo. 1799. 
The Conchologist's Book of Species, containing 600 species 

of Univalves. By Sylvanus Hanly, B. A. 2d edition. 

8vo. London, 1842. * 
Kritisches Register zu Martini und Chemnitz's Systematis- 

chem Konchylien-kabinet von Dr. E. Pfeiffer. 8vo. 1840. 
British Marine Conchology : a descriptive catalogue of the 

Salt-water Shells of Great Britain. By Charles Thorpe. 

12mo. London 1844. 



Letters were read : 

From Dr. Wm. A. Bromfield, dated June 25, 1847 : from 
Wm. H. Edwards, Esq., dated New York, 29th June, 1847 ; 
from George N. Lawrence, Esq., dated New York, 28th June, 
1847 ; and from Major Geo. A. McCall, U. S. A., dated 
Philadelphia, July 2d, 1847, severally acknowledging the 
receipt of their notices of election as Correspondents. 

From Col. J. J. Abert, U. S. Topograph. Engineers, rela- 
ting to an Aerolite, which fell on the 25th of Feb. last, nine 
miles from the town of Marion, Iowa ; and enclosing a frag- 
ment of the same. 



July, 1847.] 229 

From Henry Seybert, Esq., dated Philadelphia, July 5, 
1847, in reference to the deposit of his chemical apparatus 
and books in the Institution, the conditions of the deposit 
being, that the whole is to become the property of the Society, 
unless withdrawn by himself during his life-time, under the 
usual rules regulating such deposits. 

From Richard Brown, Esq, dated Sydney Mines, Cape 
Breton, Nova Scotia, addressed to the Corresponding Secre- 
tary, of which the following is an extract : 

" During the last winter months I frequently went into the Pits, 
and rejoice to say was rewarded by the discovery of some remark- 
able fossils in the roof of the seam. One was an upright Lepidoden- 
dron 12 inches diameter, with roots spreading out in all directions 
to a distance of 7 to 8 feet from the stem. The roots near their 
junction with the stem, present rhomboidal markings combined 
with areolae of stigmaria nearer to the extremities of the roots, 
the rhomboidal spaces disappear and the surface assumes the ap- 
pearance of true stigmarise. A pith or core of iron pyrites is found 
in some of the roots. I sent drawings and descriptions of this fos- 
sil to Mr. Bunbury about a month ago. You will probably see 
them in the Loudon Geological Journal, for August next. 

I have also got another remarkable fossil, a complete root-stock 
i)f a dome-shaped figure, but the stem had been broken short off, 
and the bark squeezed together by the mud deposited upon it. It is 
covered with a coaly bark 10th of an inch thick ; presents leaf scars 
arranged in double lines similar to the Sigillaria alternans of Lind- 
ley and Hutton. Roots spread out in all directions, marked with 
areolae of stigmaria; but what is most curious, the under side of the 
root exhibits a series of short, obtuse tap roots, arranged nearly in 

a c i r cle these are marked with scars similar to stigmatise. The 

under side of the root is also covered with a thin coaly bark the 
vertical tap roots are 3 inches long, 2 in diameter at their junction 
with the root-stocks, and terminate downwards in an obtuse point, 
the shape being fusiform, or not unlike a short carrot. 

In addition to these, I have got some fine specimens of fossil 
fruits from the same locality. They appear to have been similar to 
those of Pandanus ; the seeds being arranged on the surface and 
continuing in towards the centre. Before compression they proba- 
bly resembled a fluted melon in shape, and were as large." 

Prof. Hare presented a Synopsis of his paper on Electricity 
(read at a late meeting of the Academy,) which being designed 



230 # [j ULYj 1847. 

for publication in the Journal, as the commencement of said 
paper, was referred to the same committee. 



On motion of Prof. Johnson, Resolved, that the thanks of 
the Academy be presented to Mr. H. Seybert for his liberality 
in depositing for the use of this Institution, to an indefinite 
period, his extensive and valuable chemical apparatus and 
collection of works on chemistry. 



Stated Meeting, July 13, 1847. 
Mr. Phillips in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Six teeth of Physeter macrocephalus, in different stages ; and 
two very fine specimens of recently crystallized Carbonate 
of Lime, obtained from an aqueduct upon the Erie Canal. 
Presented by Dr. R. E. Griffith. 

A mass of granite containing fine specimens of Tourmaline 
and crystallized Feldspar. From Mr. Kilvington. 

Dr. Griffith presented an additional collection of Shells, con- 
sisting of 57 specimens of Cardium, 4 of Cypricardia, 31 of 
Bulimus, and 118 of Helix. 

A collection of 200 species of Irish Shells. Presented by 
Wm. Thompson, Esq., President of the Belfast Society of 
Nat. Hist, 

Five specimens of Sertularia, three of Spongia, and one of 
Flustra, from England. Presented by Dr. Wilson. 

Prof. Johnson presented a set of Liebig's apparatus for analy- 
sing organic substances. 

The Curators exhibited two skeletons of the Hybrid birds be- 
tween the Guinea fowl and Turkey, and between the former 
and the common domestic fowl, both of which were recently 
presented in a living state to the Academy. 



July, 1847.] 231 

donations to library. 

Calcutta Journal of Natural History. Nos. 21, 22, 23, 24, 
from April 1845, to Jan. 1846. From the Editors. 

The American Journal of Science and Arts. No. 10. 2d 
Series. July, 1847. From the Editors. 

Geological Survey of Canada. Report of Progress for the 
year 1845-6. Same for 1846-7. From Wm. E. Logan, 
Esq. of Montreal. 

Eight Nos. of the Literary Record and Journal of the Linnean 
Association of Pennsylvania College, furnished at the re- 
quest of the Corresponding Secretary, for supplying the 
deficiencies of the same in the Library. 



Dr. Leidy read a paper, intended for publication in the 
New Series of the Journal, entitled "Natural History of 
Belostoma." Referred to Messrs. Haldeman, Wilson, and 
Griffith. 

Mr. Gambel read a communication from Major George A. 
M'Call, U. S. A., describing a new Pigeon from Mexico, and 
containing an account of the habits of the Geococcyx viaticus,. 
Wagler. Referred to Dr. Wilson, Mr. Gambel and Mr. 
assin. 

A letter was read from Wm. E. Logan, Esq., dated Mon- 
treal, 30th June, 1847, acknowledging the receipt of his notice 
of election as a Correspondent, and transmitting the Geologi- 
cal Reports announced this evening. 

Also a letter from Dr. Von Jaeger, dated Stuttgard, 25th 
March, 1847, acknowledging the receipt of some of the Pub- 
cations of the Academy, and stating his intention to transmit 
others in return. 

32 



232 [July, 1847. , 

Stated Meeting, July 20, 1847. 
Dr. Griffith in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

An additional collection of Shells presented by Dr. Griffith, 

consisting of 329 specimens of the following genera: 
Pecten, 45 sp. ; Cardita, 17 ; Venus, 1 ; Cardium, 1 ; Area, 

36 : Machsera, 2 ; Solen, 2 ; Periploma, 1 ; Strombus, 67 ; 

Rostellaria, 7; Pterocera, 8; Cassis, 24; Cassidaria, 5; 

Achatina, 38 ; Achatinella, 22 ; and Bulimus, 54. 
A specimen, in skin, of Geococcyx viaticus, from Agua 

Nueva, and one of Bassoris astuta, Lichst. c?,from Monclova, 

Presented by Capt. Eustis, U. S. A. 
Two mounted specimens of the chick of Numida meleagris, 

white variety. From Dr. Heermann. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Dr. Wilson deposited the following : 

A History of British Birds. By William Yarrell. 3 vols. 
8vo., and Supplement. 

Histoire du Voyage de la Coquille. Atlas. Folio. 

Summary of the Transactions of the College of Physicians of 
Philadelphia for Dec. 1846, to April 1847, containing a 
paper by Dr. Hallowell, entitled " Cases illustrative of the 
natural history of Tuberculous Diseases." From the 
author. 

On the endemic gastro-follicular Enteritis, or Summer com- 
plaint of children, as it prevails in the United States. 
Bv Edward Hallowell, M. D. From the same. 

Oatalogo metodico dei Pesci Europei di Carlo L. Principe 
Bonaparte. 4to. Napoli, 1846. From the author. 



Professor Johnson deposited, on the part of Mr. H. Seybert, 
nine additional chemical works, for use in the Laboratory, 



July, 1847.] 233 

A communication was read from J. F. Frazer, Esq., Secre- 
tary of the American Philosophical Society, acknowledging 
the reception of a recent number of the Proceedings of the 
Academy. v 



Meeting for Business, July 27, 1847. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

The Committee on Dr. Hare's Synopsis of his paper on 
Electricity, reported in favour of publication of the same in 
the Journal, as the commencement of said paper. 

The Committee on Major M' Call's communication read 
13th inst., reported in favour of publication in the Proceedings. 

Description of a supposed new species of Columba, inhabiting 
Mexico, with some account of the habits of the Geococcyx viaticus , 
Wagler. 

By George A. M'Oall. 
Columba *solitaria. 

Length 13 inches 9 lines. Alar extent 23 inches. Wing, from 
the flexure, 7 inches, 5 lines. Tarsus 1 inch; middle toe 1 
inch, 2 lines ; first toe 9 lines, and longer than the third ; Bails 
light flesh colour; feet and legs deep red. Iris dark-orange. Bill 
above, 1 inch, 1 line, but feathered to within 5 lines of the tip'; 
reddish near the base, whitish near the tip. Head chocolate-blue. 
Throat chocolate-white. Neck and breast bluish-chocolate with 
brilliant reflections. Back, belly, flanks, underwing-coverts and 
greater exterior wing-coverts light red colour, the last faintly 
bordered with white. Lesser wing-coverts chocolate red, forming 
a bright shoulder spot of elliptical shape. Quill feathers dusky, 
tinged with lead colour on the outer vanes. 3rd primary longest. 
Upper and under tail coverts bluish-lead colour. Tail 5 inches ; 
slightly rounded ; of twelve feathers ; dusky. 

Individuals of this fine species, which, in general contour, re- 
sembles Columba (Enas, were found on the Rio Grande, from 
Matamoras to Camargo these were shy, and only met with at 
intervals. They were again observed on one or two of the smaller 
water courses between the former place and Victoria, but never 
in flocks ; nor were more than half-a-dozen seen anywhere in 



234 [July, 1847. 

a single day while hunting over large extents. Their haunts 
were in the neighborhood of running streams or very large ponds 
of clear water here four or five might be found scattered over 
some 20 or 50 acres; thus showing little sociability even on their 
feeding grounds. But most frequently he is found alone, perched 
near the water, or with rapid wing shaping his solitary course 
across the extensive waste. His flight is extremely bold, as he 
pitches in wide irregular zig-zags through the air, with a velocity 
scarcely to be surpassed. The meat for delicacy of flavour is not 
excelled by any of the family. 

Geococcyx viaticus, Wagler. 

(For a description of this bird, see Proceedings of the Academy, 
vol. 2, No. 10.) 

The G. viaticus, which the Mexicans familiarly call Paisano. 
(countryman,) is found in Texas, from the River Nueces to the 
Rio Grande, and in Mexico, from the seaboard at least to the 
Sierre Hadre ; and being an inhabitant of the chaparral, or thorny 
thicket, he rarely ventures far beyond its borders. Although the 
toes of this bird are disposed in opposite pairs as in other species 
of his family, yet the outer hind toe being reverseable and of great 
flexibility, is in either position aptly applied in climbing or perch- 
ing, as well as on the ground. Thus he at times pitches along 
the ground in irregular but vigorous hops, and again when the 
outer toe is thrown forward, he runs smoothly, and with such 
velocity as always to be able to elude a dog in the chaparral, with- 
out taking wing. He feeds on coleoptera, and almost every 
species of insects. And near the Nueces where the snail (Lym- 
nceus stagnalis) abounds, it is also greedily eaten. These he 
snatches from the ground or plucks from the low branch of a 
bush, and as he rarely wanders far from his abode, the prize is 
carried to a particular spot, where the shell is broken with his 
strong bill and the animal devoured. Piles of these shells are 
often found that would half fill a hat crown. 

Although dwelling principally on the ground, he is ready and 
expert in catching his prey in the air, in which act his movements 
are full of animation bounding from the ground with a sudden 
impulse to the height of 8 or 10 feet, his wings and tail are seen 
expanded for a scarcely appreciable instant, and his bill is heard 
to snap as he takes his prey, when he drops as suddenly to the 
spot from which he sprang. Here he will stand for a moment, 
bis legs apart, and his tail flirted on one side with a wild and ec- 
centric expression of exultation in his attitude, before he scampers 
under corer of the thick chaparral. At first I thought as is the 
general impression among the Mexicans that his powers of flight 
were extremely limited; but he will, when suddenly alarmed in 



Aug, 1847.] 23f, 

open ground, rise with a light, quick motion, and continue his 
flight over the bushes for some hundred yards apparently with 
an ease that would argue the ability to sustain a longer flight. 

Though fond of shade and solitude, he will at an early hour in 
the morning, climb to the top of a straight leafless branch, there 
to sit and enjoy tbe first rays of the sun. 

He is said by the Mexican rancheros to build his nest of loose 
sticks either in a low thick bush, or in close cover on the ground. 
The eggs are about three in number, of a whitish colour. 



The Monthly Report of the Corresponding Secretary was 
read and adopted. 

Dr. Morton read some additions to Dr. Gibbes' paper, sug - 
gested by the author, which were referred for examination 
to the Committee by whom the paper had been reported for 
publication in the Journal. 



ELECTION. 

Samuel Powel, Esq., of Philadelphia, was elected a Mem- 



ber. 



Stated Meeting, Aug. 3, 1847. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Dr. Wilson presented a collection of Shells, consisting of 
285 specimens of the following genera ; 

Aspergillus, 2 : Teredo. 3 : Pholas, 1 : Solen, 12 : Solemya, 2 : 
Glauconome, 1 : Osteodesma, 2 : Thracia, 2 : Cleidothaerus, 1 : 
Lutraria, b' : Mactra, 13 : Crassatella, 3 : Amphidesrna, 6 : 
Psammobia, 8 : Telliua, 17 : Donax, 1 : Cyrena, 3 : Astarte, 
4 : Lima, 1 : Hinnita, 1 : Spondylus, 6 : Placuna, 2 : Terrebra- 
tula, 3 : Mya, 3 ; Melania, 3 : Neritina, 3 : Cancellaria, 2 : 
Turbinella, 1 : Oardium, 8 : Carnita, 3 : Area, 12 : Pectuncu- 
lus, 5 : Nucula, 1 : Unio and Anodonta, 13 : Hyria, 1 : My- 
tetopus, 1 : Etheria, 6 : Chama, 10 : Lithodomus, 1 : Modiola, 
2 : Mytilus, 6 : Pinna, 2 : Perna, 1 : Malleus, 2 : Avicula, 12 ; 
Pedum, 1 : Cytherea, Venus, Arthemis, 60 : Pecten, 8 : Pli- 
eatula, 3 : Ostrea, 2 : Lingula, 1 : Crania, 1 : Ungulina, 1 : 
Natica, 1 : Triton, 3: Cerithium, 2; Pterocera, 2: Pyrula, 1. 



236 [Aug. 1847. 

Mr. William Pease, of New, York, presented four species 
of Terebratula. 

Mr. T. A. Conrad presented the following Shells ; 

Anceulotus dilatatus : Tellina : Pecten dislocafu 5 ; ; P. : 

Lucina raduk : Pyrula piperata : Donax variabilis : Gnatho- 

don flexuosus : Cyclas : Cerithium , 3 : Buccinum 

: Coluinbella : Marginella : Unio , 8 : 

Dr. R. E. Griffith presented a collection of 264 specimens 
of Shells, of the genera Dolium, Harpa, Buccinum, Eburna, 
Cerithium, Pyrena, Crassitella, Haliotis, Purpura and Rici- 
nula. 

Dr. Thos. S. Savage, of Cape Palmas, West Africa, pre- 
sented an interesting series of the nests, or habitations in clay, 
of the large white ant (Termes bellicosus) of that region, 
and also portions of dwellings and other structures, which had 
been subjected to the ravages of this insect. Also, numerous 
specimens, in spirits, of African reptiles, fishes, cheiroptera, 
&c. Among the reptiles are the following : 

ChatuEeleo dilepis, Leach ; Typklops, 2 species, Crocodilus, Ceras- 
tes, Bucephalus, Leptophis, Eupressis, Hemidactylus, Tropi- 
dolepis, Calotes, Hyla. Fishes, Numerous specimens of 
Anabas and Leptorynchus. Of Cheiroptera, Pteropus Hal- 
demani, and an undescribed species of Phyllostoma. 

Additional specimens of the Hessian fly, and portions of , 
stems of the common raspberry plant, containing the eggs 
and larvse of an insect destructive to the plant. From 
Miss Morris, of Germantown. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Muscorum frondosorum novae species in Archipelago Indico 

et Japonia; conjunctis studiis scripserunt F. Dozy et J. K. 

Molkendoer. Lugduni Batavorum, 1844. From Dr. P. W. 

Korthals, of Leyden. 
Materials towards a history of the Coleoptera longicornia of 

the United States. By S. S. Haldeman, A. M. (From the 



Aug. 1847.] 237 

Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. vol. x.) 4to. Philada., 1847. From 
the author. 

Proceedings of the General Society of the Cincinnati, with 
the Act of Incorporation by the State of Pennsylvania, the 
By-Laws of the State Society, and the testimonial to the 
memory of General Washington, as adopted and commu- 
nicated to the meeting of the General Society, in may, 
1800. 12mo. Philada., 1841. 

Also, Proceedings of the same, with the original institution of 
the order, and fac simile of the signatures of the original 
members of the State Society of Pennsylvania. 8vo. Phi- 
ladelphia, 1847. From the Standing Committee of the 
Cincinnati Society, through Dr. T. McEuen. 

Transactions of the Geological Society of Pennsylvania. Vol. 
1, part 2. From Dr. Griffith. 

Account of an Expedition from Pittsburg to the Rocky Moun- 
tains, performed in the years 1819-20, under the command 
of Major Stephen B. Long. Compiled by Edwin James. 
2 vols. 8vo. and Atlas, 4to. Philada. 1823. 

A sketch of a Tour on the Continent in the years 1786-87. 
By James Edward Smith, M. D., F. R. S. 3 vols. 8vo. 
London, 1793. 

Enleitung in die Conchylienfenntniss nach Linne, von 
Johann S. Schrseter. 3 vols. 8vo. Halle, 1786. From the 
same, in exchange. 

Annual Report of the Regents of the University of the State 
of New York, made to the Legislature, April 24, 1847. 
8vo. Albany. From the Regents. 

Literary Record and Journal of the Linnean Association of 
Pennsylvania College. Vol. 3, No. 10. From the Associa- 
tion. 

Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History. 
Vol. 2, pp. 193 to 208. From the Society. 



Letters were read r 

From J. J. Bennet, Esq., Secretary of the Linnean Society 



238 [Aug. 1847. 

of London, dated Jan. 19, 1847, acknowledging the receipt 
of certain Nos. of the Journal, recently transmitted at the re- 
quest of that Society. 

From the Librarian of the Boston Society of Natural His- 
tory, transmitting certain portions of the Proceedings of that 
Society, at the request of the Corresponding Secretary of the 
Academy. 

From Miss Morris, of Germantown, dated July 20, 1847, 
addressed to the Corresponding Secretary, communicating 
the following in relation to the Hessian fly, and to the insect 
destructive to the Raspberry plant: 



" I have great pleasure in handing to you a box containing the 
larvje of the Cecidoniyia, described by me in 1841, and a vial 
with those described by Dr. Fitch. 

The difference is so marked that I think no doubt can arise in 
the mind of any one that there are two species. 

The species in the vial were procured from New Jersey by 
Mr. Haines, and presented to me ; from the same source I ex- 
pect pupre from which I hope to obtain the flies in September. 

What Las retarded the earlier development of the Larvae in the 
centre of the straw it is impossible to conjecture, but I fear now 
they will all perish, as they have not attained more than half their 
growth, and the straw is all dead and ready for the harvest. 

The three stems of raspberry which will accompany this, con- 
tain the nests of a Hymenopterous insect which has troubled us 
for some years, but whose history we were unacquainted with 
until this morning, when I discovered them, as as you will see, in 
the centre of the stem. In one you will find eggs, in another 
jiupse, and a third contains both pupae and the perfect insect. 

I am not prepared to say whether it be the parent or larva that 
causes the greatest injury, as I have not seen the worm feeding 
on the pith, but am well assured that they are too injurious to 
suffer them to remain unnoticed. This spring, in many of the 
gardens in this neighbourhood, entire rows of raspberries were 
blighted by them; it is said the worm fed on the pith, but I am 
in doubt, as I found a worm, which I am inclined to think was 
Lepidopterous, in their nest, but may have been a starved speci- 
men of their own brood. 

Since writing the above, I find that the worm feeds on the pith 
of the raspberry, and that its history is briefly this; the fly de- 
posits its eggs in the new shoot or summer growth in the fall, and 
the worm feeds on the pith until the following July, whea it un- 
dergoes its transformation." 



Aug., 1847.] 239 

A communication from Mr. Haldeman, intended for pub- 
lication in the new series of the Journal of the Academy, en- 
titled " Descriptions of Coleoptera, chiefly in the cabinet of 
J. L. Le Conte, M. D.," was read, and referred to the fol- 
lowing committee : Dr. Leidy, Mr. Townsend, and Dr. Pick- 
ering. 



Dr. Leidy requested permission, which was given, to 
change the name of a new genus of Entozoa, described by 
him in Vol. 3, No. 5 of the Proceedings, from that of 
Cryptobia to Crgptoieus, the former name having been pre- 
occupied. 

By permission of the Society, reports were presented by 
committees on papers by Dr. Gibbes, of South Carolina, Dr. 
J. L. Le Conte, of New York, and Dr. Joseph Leidy, read at 
recent meetings of the Society, recommending the same for 
publication in the Journal. The Reports were adopted. 



Stated Meeting, August 10, 1847. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. . 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Fifty-seven specimens of shells, of the following genera, 
presented by Dr. Wilson : 

Dolium, 1 ; Ostrea, 13 ; Aspergillus, 1 ; Chama, 1 ; Alasmo- 
donta, 2 ; Unio, 1 j Anodonta, 1 ; Mesodesma, 1 ; Sanguinola- 
ria, 2; Pholas, 4; Solen, 3; Grlauconome, 1; Cjtherea, 5; 
Venus, 1 : Solecurtis, 1 ; Pinna, 5 ; Circe, 1 ; Mactra, 1 ; Vul- 
cella; Pecten, 3 ; Cardita, 2 ; Trigonella, 1; Modiola, 1 ; Area, 
3 ; Monoceros, 1 ; Psammobia, 1. 

Mr. Conrad presented six specimens of shells of the genera 
Corbula, Cardita, Pecten, Cardium, Astarte and Ostrea. 

Mr. Cassin presented a collection of African shells, and also 
a specimen of Unio Nicklinianus. 

A number of shells from the Sandwich Islands. Presented 
by Mr. Gambel. 
J 33 



240 [Aug., 1847. 

Egg of Rhea Americana. From Miss Griffith. 

Eggs of Cassicus hsemorrhous ? C. icteronotus, Tinanius, (two 
species ;) Opisthocomus cristatus, Tantalus loeulator, Cyra- 
cus, Crotophaga major, Ardea alba, A. herodias, Crax 

alector, Psophia crepitans, Rallus , Platalea ajaja, 

Sterna cyanea, Charadrius ?. Also, one egg of a Che- 
Ionian, and one of a Saurian. Presented by Mr. Wm. H. 
Edwards of New York. 

Six specimens of fossils from the clay near Baltimore, and a 
collection of Silurian fossils. From Mr. Wm. S. Pease, of 
New York. 

Anhydrous peroxide of Iron, from York county, Pennsylva- 
nia. Presented by Prof. Johnson. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Practical Geology and Mineralogy, with instructions for the 
qualitative analysis of minerals. By Joshua Trimmer, 
F. G. S. 8vo. From Dr. Griffith, in exchange. 
Dizionario botanico-Italiano che compende i nomi volgari 
Italiani specialimenti Toscani a Vernacoli delle plante 
raccolti da diversi autori e dalla gente di campagnacol cor- 
respondente Latino Botanico compilatio dal dottore Otta. 
viano Targioni Tozzetti. 8vo. Firenze, 1825. From the 
same. 
The fables of iEsop, part 2d : in the Chinesejanguage. From 

Mr. John Morrison, of New York, through Dr. Watson. 
Agricultural Botany : an enumeration and description of use- 
ful plants and weeds which merit the notice, or require the 
attention of American agriculturists. By Wm. Darlington, 
M. D. 12mo. Philadelphia, 1847. From the Author. 
American Quarterly Journal of Agriculture and Science ; 
conducted by Dr. E. Emmons and A. Osborn : Vol. 1. No. 
2 ; Vol. 2, No. 1 ; Vol. 3, No. 1 ; Vol. 4, No. 1. From the 
Editors, in compliance with a request from the Society- 
Same work, for July, 1847. From the Editors. 



Aug., 1847.] 241 

The following valuable worksw ere deposited by Dr. Wilson : 
North American Herpetology ; or a description of the reptiles 

inhabiting the United States. By John Edwards Holbrook, 

M. D. 5 vols. 4to. Philadelphia, 1842. 
Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, and of 

the Museum of Economic Geology in London. Vol. 1. 8vo. 

London, 1846. 
The London Geological Journal, No. 1, Sept. 1846. 
The Quarterly Journal of the London Geological Society, 

Vols. 1 and 2, and No. 1, Vol. 3. 
Abbildungen neuer oder unvollstandig bekanntner Amphi- 

bien, nach der Natur oder dem Leben entworfen, heraus- 

gegeben und mit einem erlantunden Texte begleitit von Dr. 

H. Schlegel. 1 vol. 8vo. and Atlas, folio. Dusseldorf, 1837 

1844. 
Essai sur la Physionomie des Serpens : par H. Schlegel. 

2 vols. 8vo., and Atlas, folio. La Haye, 1847. 
Physical description of New South Wales and Van Diemen's 

land. By P. E. De Strzelecki. 1 vol. 8vo. London, 1845. 
Voyage a Meroe, au Fluve blanc au dela de Fazoql dans le 

midi du royaume de Sennar, a Syouah et dans cinq autres 

oasis : fait dans les annees 1819, '21 '22. Par M. Frederic 

Caillaud, de Nantes. 4 vols. 8vo., and Atlas, 2 vols, folio. 
The Medals of Creation : or first lessons in Geology, and in 

the study of organic remains. By Gideon A. Mantell, 

F. ft. S. 2 vols. 12mo.. London, 1846. 
Geological excursions round the Isle of Wight, and along the 

adjacent coast of Dorsetshire. 1 vol. 8vo. London, 1846. 
Histoire naturelle des Animaux sans vertebres. Par. J. B. 

P. A. De Lamarck. 10th edition. 11 vols. 8vo. London 

1833 to 1845. 
The Old Red Sandstone : or new walks in an old field. By 

Hugh Miller. 2d edition. 1 vol. 12mo. Edinburgh, 1842. 
The British Miscellany. By James Sowerby, F. L. S. 12 

numbers : Also the Malacological and Conchological 

Magazine, conducted by Geo. B. Sowerby, F. L. S. 2 Nos.: 

the whole bound in one volume, 8vo. 



242 [Aug., 1847. 

The Book of the great Sea-Dragons, Ichthyosauri and Plesio- 
sauri, &c, with 30 plates copied from skeletons in the 
author's collection of fossil organic remains, (deposited in 
the British Museum.) By Thomas Hawkins, Esq., F. G. S. 
Folio. London. 1840. * 



A letter was read from Dr. C. Hering, of Philadelphia, dated 
July 31, 1847, in reference to a Museum of Natural History 
in Leipzig, under the direction of Prof. Poppig, and asking 
on behalf of the latter, whether, and in what mode, certain 
objects of Natural History of this country could be procured 
for the same. Referred to the Zoological Committee. 

The following communication was read from Mr. Wm. S. 
Pease, of N. Y., containing some remarks ->a the localities 
whence the fossils presented by him this evening were ob- 
tained : 

" The basin of the Chesapeake and its tributaries, the Patapsco, 
Gunpowder, and other rivers, drain a vast number of shallow 
vallies, which have been rendered such by filling up with clay, 
mostly blue, sometimes variegated, containing stone, iron ore in 
nodular masses with lignite and sulphuret of Iron. Near Balti- 
more the ore is very abundant, whilst the pyrites and lignite are 
predominant lower down. The whole rests upon hornblende rocks. 
This clay is often intercalated with ferruginous sands and gravel. 
These gravels often unite and form a hard conglomerate rock, 
as the " White rocks" in the mouth of Patapsco river. The 
whole deposit is irregular in thickness, enlarging at some points 
and thinning off very much in others; varying much also in 
color and consistency. It is always, however, highly ferruginous in 
its composition, with one exception, and that in the case of a 
deep leaden or black colored clay, which, upon calcination, be- 
comes white. Hayden, in his Geological Essays, speaks of lignite 
having been found in this strata with shark's teeth, &c, (doubtful.) 
The fossils accompanying this were found in a thin vein passing 
through the above clay formation, which enlarges very much near 
the city of Baltimore, and forms the hill known as Telegraph or 
Federal Hill, associated with lignite and sulphuret of Iron. Cu- 
cullias have been found at Bear creek, (emptying into the Patap- 
sco) 5 or 6 miles from Baltimore, partly composed of earthy 
blue Phosphate of Iron. They were thrown out of an excavation 
for a well about 25 feet deep. With these, other fossil traces 



Aug., 1847.] 243 

were recognized, but they were not sufficiently distinct to be re- 
ferred to any class. 

Thuse vegetable impressions I would refer to the Henopteris 
or Glossopteris, and are new. 

In the Geological Keport of the State, this formation is placed 
below the Tertiary." 



The Chairman read a letter from Dr. Jeffries Wy man, dated 
Boston, Aug. 5, 1847, enclosing sketches of crania of a male 
and female supposed new species of Orang, inhabiting 
Western Africa, brought to this country by Dr. Thomas S. 
Savage. Information on the subject was requested from the 
Society. 

Dr. Morton read a portion of a memoir designed for pub- 
lication in the Journal, " On the position of the Ear in the 
statuary and paintings of the civilized nations of antiquity ;" 
which was referred to a Committee consisting of Mr. Grliddon, 
Dr. Pickering and Dr. Wilson. 

Dr. Leidy presented an instance of a curious optical illusion 
arising from a peculiarity in the structure of the intervertebral 
substance of man. He stated the external third of each disk to be 
composed of concentric layers of non elastic or white fibrous tis- 
sue, the fibres of which are oblique, those of the alternate layers 
crossing each other. This arrangement, when viewed from either 
side, gives rise to the appearance of alternating layers of while 
fibrous tissue, indicated by its shiniug whiteness and opacity, aod 
of cartilage, indicated by its semi-transparency and duluess, and 
this is actually stated to be the arrangement in anatomical works 
generally, and even in the late and very excellent Physiological 
Anatomy of Messrs. Todd and Bowman. 

The illusion is well marked : if a disk be held side-ways in the 
hand, and pins be stuck in what seem to be the alternating layers 
of cartilage, and then viewed from the other side, the pins will 
actually appear to have changed their position from the cartilage 
to the fibrous layers. 

Dr. L. explained the illusion by supposing it to be produced 
in the one case from the rays of light reflected from the numerous 
points of the fibres, when the eye is opposed to them, giving rise 
to a divided, and consequently white, opaque surface, while in the 
other direction, the rays of light being partly transmitted by the 
extremities of the fibres, give rise to the characteristic dulness and 
semitransparency of cartilage. 



244 [Aug., 1847. 

By permission of the Society, a report was received from 
the Committee on Prof. Haldeman's paper, containing de- 
scription of new Coleopterous Insects of the United States, 
recommending the same for publication in the new series of 
the Journal. The report was adopted. 



Stated Meeting, August IT, 184T. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS to MUSEUM. 

Nests of Cassicus icteronotus, and of C. hemorrhous. From 
Mr. Wm. H. Edwards, of New York. 

A collection of Reptilia, in spirits. From Mr. Amory Edwards. 

Fine specimen of crystallized Sulphate of Strontian. Pre- 
sented by Dr. Wilson, 

Native grains of Platinum. Presented by Dr. Joseph Leidy. 

Mounted specimen of Argus giganteus. From Mr. Richard 
Oakford. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Essai de Formules botaniques, representant les caracteres 

des plantes par des signes analytiques qui remplacent les 

phrases descriptives, &c. Par N. E. Seringe et Guillard. 

4to. Paris : 1836. From Dr. R, E. Griffith. 
Histoire naturelle drolatique et philosophique des Professeurs 

du Jardin des Plantes, &c. Par Isid. S. De Gosse. 12mo. 

Paris, 1847. From the same. 

The following were also received from Dr. Griffith, in ex- 
change : 
Voyages d'un Naturaliste, &o. Par M. E. Descourtilz. 3 vols. 

8vo. Paris, 1800. 
A Narrative of four voyages to the South Seas, Pacific Ocean, 
&c, &c, from the year 1822 to 1831. By Capt. Benjamin 
Morrell. 8vo. New York, 1832. 



Aug., 1847.] 245 

Lepidoptera Americana ; or original figures of the Moths and 
Butterflies of North America, &c. By Titian R. Peale. 
Vol. 1, No. 1. 4to. Philadelphia, 1833. 

.Dr. Wilson deposited the following : 

The Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America. By Audubon 
& Bachman. No. 23. Folio. 

The Genera of Birds. By George R. Gray, F. R. S. 4to. 
No. 37. 

The London Geological Journal. No. 2. Feb. 1847. 

The Annals and Magazine of Natural History. No. 127. 
May, 1847. 

The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London. 
No. 10. May, 1837. 

The Birds of Australia. By John Gould. No. 27. Folio. 

The Zoology of the Voyage of H. M. S. Beagle, under the 
command of Capt. Fitzroy, R. N., during the years 1832 
to 1836. Birds: by John Gould, Esq., 5 parts: Fishes; 
by the Rev. Leonard Jenyns, M. A. F. L. S., 4 parts. 
Heptiles : by Thomas Bell, Esq. 4 parts. 4to. 

Geology of the Beagle : 1st part, The structure and distribu- 
tion of Coral reefs, by Charles Darwin, M. A., &c. ; 2d 
part, Geological observations on the Volcanic Islands visited 
during the Voyage, by Charles Darwin. 8vo. 

A History of British Starfishes, and other animals of the class 
Echinodermata. By Edward Forbes. 8vo. London, 
1841. 

Museum Leverianum : containing select specimens from the 
Museum of the late Sir Ashton Lever, with descriptions in 
Latin and English. By George Shaw, M. D., F. R. S. 
4to. 1792. 

On the fossil remains of the soft parts of Foraminifera dis- 
covered in the Chalk and Flint of the South-east of Eng- 
land. By Gideon Algernon Mantell, Esq., &c, (from the 
Philosophical Transactions, part 4, for 1846.) 4to. Lon 
don, 1846. From the author. 



24G [Aug., 184T. 

A letter was read from Dr. Thomas S, Savage, dated Mid- 
dletown, Conn., August 11th, 1847, in reference to the collec- 
tion of objects of Natural History received from him, and 
announced at last meeting ; also informing the Society of his 
intention to communicate some facts relative to the habits of 
some of the animals sent. 

Dr. Leidy read a paper intended for publication in the 
Proceedings, entitled "Description and Anatomy of a new 
and curious subgenus of Planaria," which was referred to a 
Committee consisting of Mr. Haldeman, Dr. Pickering and 
Dr. Griffith. 

Mr. Gambel presented a revised copy of his " Remarks on 
the Birds of California," intended for publication in the Jour- 
nal. Referred to Messrs. Cassin, Townsend and AYoodhouse. 



Steted Meeting, Aug. 24, 1847. 
Dr. Griffith in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Twenty-three mineralogical and geological specimens from 
Lake Superior : and a specimen of a new species of Colu- 
ber from the same. Presented by Mr. Moss. 

Mr. Robert Kilvington presented 1035 specimens, comprised 
in 345 species, of British Lepidoptera, viz : of Diurna 57 
species, Crepuscularia 18 species, Pomeridiana 39 species, 
Nocturna 124 species, Semidiurna 107 species. 

Eggs of forty-eight species of European Birds, and of thirteen 
American species ; an Asterias ; thirty-five species of Ame- 
rican Lepidoptera, and a number of foreign Coleoptera, 
and 4 species of Crustacea. From Dr. T. B. Wilson. 

A prepared specimen of Squatina Dumerili, taken in Dela- 
ware Bay. Presented by Messrs. Wilson, Cassin, and 
Leidy. 



AUG., 1847.] 247 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Description of a new species of Salamander. By Lewis 11. 

Gibbes, of Charleston, S. C. (From the Boston Journal 

of Nat. Hist., Vol. 5. No. 1.) From the author. 
Twelfth, 13th, and 14th Memoirs with reference to the law 

of Storms in India. By Henry Piddington. From the 

author. 
Commentary on the Hindu System of Medicine. By T. A. 

Wise, M. D. 8vo. Calcutta, 1845. From H. Piddington, 

Esq. 
Iconographie Ornithologique : publie par 0. Des Murs. Livs. 

1 8. 4to. Presented by Mr. Edward Wilson, of Wales. 
Manuscript Geological Chart (coloured,) of the Silurian rock 

formations of North America. By Richard C. Taylor, 

F. G. S. From Mr. Tavlor. 



Dr. Leidy read a paper accompanied by drawings, of two 
new species of Planaria, which was referred to the following 
Committee : Dr. Griffith, Mr. Haldeman, and Dr. Pickering. 

Dr. Leidy, stated in reference to the specimen of Squatina 
Dumerili, presented this evening, that it was a rare species. A 
description of it was first given by Mr. Leseuer in Vol. 1 of 
the Journal of this Society. His description is taken from three 
specimens, all males, each of which had six or seven distinct 
rows of teeth, 25 teeth in each row. The specimen on the 
table is a female, is four feet long, and has ten distinct rows of 
teeth, counting from before backwards, and five teeth in each 
row, in the lower jaw ; and nine rows with the same number 
in each row, in the upper jaw. The intestinal canal is very 
simple, and has but one convolution in its course. The oesopha- 
gus is capacious and undefined from the stomach : both are 
strongly muscular. 

34 



248 [Aug., 1847. 

Meeting for Business, Aug. 31, 1847. 

Mr. Cassin in the Chair. 

The Committee on the following papers by Dr. Leidy, read 
17th and 24th inst., reported in favour of publication in the 
Proceedings. 

Description and Anatomy of anew and curious sub-genus of Planaria. 

By Joseph Leidy, M. D. 

In October, 1840, Prof. S. S. Haldeman published a description of 
an animal under the name of Planaria gracilis.* Upon examination 
I detected such a remarkable peculiarity in the digestive apparatus 
as led me to investigate its anatomy in detail, and to form for it a 
separate snb-genus, characterised as follows : 

Phagocala, oblonga, plano-convexa, nuda, contractus, mucosa, 
antica auricularia. Apertura; duoe, ventrales, ad os et generationem 
pertinens. Proboscides multse. 

P. gracilis, nigricans, lateribus parallelis, postero acuto abrupte, 
plerumque antico recto ; oculis duobus. Long. 91in.,lat. llin. Hab- 
itat in fontibus Pennsylvania?. 

Description. Oblong, limaceform, naked, convex superiorly, flat 
inferiorly, very contractile ; sides ordinarily parallel, convex when the 
animal is in a contracted state, convergent anteriorly when elongated ; 
anterior extremity with a lateral triangular auricular appendage, 
straight in front, by contraction becoming convex or concave ; poste- 
rior extremity abruptly pointed ; ocelli two, anterior composed of an 
oblong, semi-transparent (nervous?) mass with an intensely black dot 
of pigmentum at the internal posterior part ; ventral apertures two; 
oral aperture a little less than one-third the length of the body from 
the posterior extremity, and very dilatable ; generative aperture half- 
way between the oral aperture and posterior extremity. Colour black 
or iron gray, and some younger specimens latericeous. 

This animal I have only found in abundance in the neighborhood of 
Prof. Haldeman's residence, near Columbia, Pa. In a spring in front 
of his house, thousands of them may be seen gliding along the bottom; 
some of them occasionally creep up the sides to the surface of the 

* Supplement to number one of "A Monograph of theLimniades, or Fresh- 
water Univalve Shells of North America," containing descriptions of ap- 
parently new animals in different classes, &c. ' t By S. S. Haldeman. Phila 
delphia., 1840. 



Aug., 1847.] 249 

water, turn upon the back, and by making- the ventral surface con- 
cave, float about in the manner of the Ltmniadce. It appears to be 
carnivorous in habit, or at least it attaches itself to animal matter, 
dead or living, in preference to vegetable matter. When irritated, 
it throws out a considerable quantity of very tenacious mucus. 

In structure it appears to be intermediate between the entozoic 
Distomata and the annulose Hirudinoe. I could not detect any trace 
of annulation, but I think that this alone would hardly be sufficient 
to place it lower than the latter animals, because, in a closely allied 
animal, the Gordius aquaticus, although there is no annulation in the 
perfect animal, yet in the embryo state I find it to exist. 

The whole animal is composed of a delicate granular structure : the 
only approach to muscular fibre is in the longitudinal striation of the 
integument rendered more distinct by the pigmentum nigrum, a ra- 
diated appearance around the oral orifice, and a faint transverse and 
longitudinal arrangement of the granules entering into the composi- 
tion of the proboscides, seen more or less distinctly in the continued 
movements of these organs when slightly compressed beneath the 
microscope. 

The digestive cavity presents the same dendritic arrangements as 
in Planarzce generally,* but instead of posessing a single sucker or 
proboscis, the full grown animal has not less than twenty-three ; vary- 
ing, however, in this respect from three upwards, according to the age 
of the animal. One of these proboscides joins the digestive cavity 
at the posterior part of the anterior division, as usual, the others join 
the remaining two divisions at their internal side in their course back- 
wards. They are considerably longer, but narrower than in P. ladea,f 
and when not in use are closely packed together within the animal, 
so that when the latter is placed beneath the microscope and slightly 
compressed, they will be seen pressing upon one another in such a 
manner, that if one changes its position, it will be instantly occupied 
by another. Those which are formed last are smallest, but they soon 
gain their full size. 

When the animal feeds, the whole of them are protruded from the 
oral orifice, the longest extending out full one-third the length of the 
body. As they are all convergent to the same orifice, when fully pro- 
truded the animal becomes puckered up and increased in breadth at 
the expense of the length. In this state the anterior extremity is erected 
and the posterior brought nearly to a right angle with it, so that it 
looks as if sitting upon its prey apparently unconcerned, with itspro- 

*Duges, An. Sc. Nat. f lb. 



250 [Aug., 184T. 

boscides, which writhe and twist about as if they were totally distinct 
organisms. 

If one of these animals be punctured or cut, one or more of the 
proboscides will be immediately protruded as if they existed under 
pressure, and will move about in all directions appearing as if entirely 
without the control of the animal ; or if one of the animals be crushed 
between two slips of glass so that the proboscides will be torn from 
their attachment, they move about involuntarily, always in a line for- 
wards or towards the mouth, which they do by contracting the stom- 
achal extremity towards the oral, the latter remaining fixed. In this 
progressive course they constantly contract and dilate ; the mouth 
opens and any matter in its vicinity rushes in, when it is closed and 
the matter passes onwards, and by the alternate contraction and dila- 
tation of different parts of the same tube, it is thrown backwards and 
forwards several times, and finally violently expelled at the tornax - 
tremity. When they have escaped from the ruptures of the tegument 
produced by crushing, or when snipped off with a pair of scissors 
whilst an animal is feeding, they will present the same curious pheno- 
mena. In fact these curious independent movements caused me at 
first to mistake the organs for viviparous young, and it was not untd 
I had frequently observed the animal feeding, and examined its struc- 
ture beneath the microscope, after having fed them upon coloured 
food, that I was convinced of their true nature. 

Excrementitious matter is expelled from the digestive cavity 
through the same course by which the food enters. 

Circulation. There appears to be nothing peculiar about the 
arrangement of the blood vessels, if such they be ; the term being ap- 
plied to two semitransparent lines passingalong each side of the ven- 
tral surface, and a third along the middle of the dorsal surface, the 
three freely communicating with each other by transverse lines and 
numerous smaller branches, the whole forming an extensive reticula- 
tion upon the surface of the body. At the anterior part of each 
ventral line, I distinctly observed a dilatation to exist. 

Generative apparatus. As in all Planarim the animal is androgy- 
nous. The penis is a bulbiform organ placed between the oral and 
generative orifice with its point directed towards the latter. The 
point is straight, or contorted; the bulbous portion is also changeable, 
sometimes elongated, at others flattened or increased in breadth at 
the expense of the length. The bulb shows through the thin integu- 
ment, and without close examination may be taken for a third orifice. 
The penis is perforate, and has a dilated cavity within the bulb. Im- 
mediately above the penis I indistinctly observed a somewhat lobated 
organ, which appeared to join the penis at its base by a narrow por- 



Aug., 1847.] 251 

lion. This is probably the testicle, for it was the only thing I could 
discover in connection with the genitalia to correspond to it. 

In two individuals only could I see part of the female organs. This 
consisted in two sigmoid tubes or oviducts, which could be traced 
from the generative orifice a short distance forwards, one on each side 
of the penis. 

I could detect no traces of a nervous system. 

The eyes, so called, have been previously described. It is still a 
question with many, whether these, as well as the corresponding deep 
black points existing in very many of the lower animals of the inver- 
tebrate series, subserve the purpose of eyes; and some anatomists 
have even gone so far as to deny the sense of sight to the compara- 
tively perfect eye of many gasteropodous mollusca. The experiments 
which are made to test the existence of this sense in those organs for 
the most part are exceedingly fallacious, generally being performed 
by concentrating the light upon them through a lens. Insects, and 
even serpents and frogs, I find will frequently bear the impression of 
a sudden glare of light produced in this way without any inconveni- 
ence, at other times they will seek to avoid it, but Helix albolabris 
will occasionally retract its tenticle when so disturbed, and Phagocata 
will frequently raise its anterior extremity and move from the too 
great light. From their position, which is always such as to be well 
exposed to the influence of the light, from their structure, imperfect 
as it is in many cases, and their connection with the nervous system 
when this exists, I am led to conclude that in all cases they are or- 
gans of vision. 

The general sensibility of Phagocata is very considerable, that is 
it contracts with great readiness from the slightest disturbance. The 
contraction has much the appearance of being involuntary and is very 
like that of the Medusae. When an individual is irritated at any point, 
contraction commences and thence rapidly extends throughout the 
animal, and the only appearance of volition is in the effort to escape ? 
but if the touch be too rude, apparently involuntary contraction takes 
place suddenly and appears to destroy all power of volition for the 
moment ; the animal however soon revives from this state and glides 
off with its accustomed speed. 

Some experiments which I performed upon Phagocata confirm the 
statements that the Planarice are capable of repairing injuries. 
When an individual is cut into two, both parts after a time become 
distinct and perfect animals. Division carried to a greater extent in 
some instances results in as many perfect animals as there are parts, 
but generally I have found that when cut into more than three or four 



252 [Aug. 1847. 

pieces, the intermediate pieces are apt to die, and sometimes the 
extremities do not survive. 

I exhibit a drawing of Phagocata gracilis, from Prof. S. S. Halde- 
man. 

A drawing of two individuals feeding upon a piece of a Lumbricus. 

Do., representing a ventral surface with the proboscides protruded. 

Do., representing the digestive and generative apparatuses. 

Do., representing five of the proboscides highly magnified. 



Description of two new species of Planaria . 
By Joseph Leidy, M. D. 

Planaria macvUata. Superiorly convex, faintly blackish or brown- 
ish with irregular colorless macula? ; inferiorly flat, colorless ; anteriorly 
trapezoidal; posteriorly spatulate or oval ; eyes two, anterior, proxi- 
mate, composed of a large semi-transparent mass with a reniform mass 
of pigmentum nigrum at the postero-internal part ; oral aperture 
ventral, one-third the length of the body from the posterior extrem- 
ity; proboscis large and cylindrical. Length 2 5 lines; breadth ^ line. 
Found in moderate abundance, in the ditches below the city, creeping 
upon the submerged stems of aquatic plants. 

Subgenus. Prostoma, Duges. Mouth anterior and terminal. 

Prostoma marginatum. Blackish, narrow lanceolate, anteriorly 
truncate ; marginate, margin delicately striate ; mouth large ; pro- 
boscis large and oblong ; eyes two, anterior, distant, each consisting 
of two round masses of pigmentum nigrum in contact with each other, 
and of which one is larger than the other ; generative orifice one- 
fourth the length of the body from the posterior extremity. Length 
1 line. A single specimen found with the preceding ; but probably not 
rare, for from its small size, it escaped my notice while collecting some 
of the former, and it was not until I got home that I detected its 
existence in the vessel of water containing the others. 

The anatomy of P. maculata does not differ from that of Planaria 
lactea as given by Duges in the Annales des Sciences Naturelles. In 
Prostoma marginatum the digestive cavity has not the dendritic ar- 
rangement of Planaria, but merely consists of a large capacious sac 
extending as far back as the posterior third of the body, and having ;i 
ccecum upon each side of the proboscis. The penis has a yellow color 
and consists of a round granular mass, with a moderately long and 
bent spiculum projecting from its posterior part. The arrangement 
of a female apparatus I failed to trace. 



Amendments to Articles 7 and 8, of Chap. vii. of the By- 
laws, proposed by Dr. Bridges, were adopted. 
These Articles now read as follows : 



Aug. 1847.] 253 

" Art. vii. Members may borrow books, the property of 
the Academy, from the Librarian, on signing a promissory 
note for fifty dollars, which shall become void on the book 
being returned." 

" Art. viii. But no works shall be loaned from the Hall, 
on any account whatever, except those marked with an aste- 
risk (thus *) in the Catalogue, unless by an affirmative ballot 
vote of three-fourths of the members present when the applica- 
tion is made ; and in case of deposited books the written 
consent of the depositor having been previously obtained : 
the name of the borrower and the title of the book to be re- 
corded on the minutes, and security given for its safe return 
by note or otherwise for the full value thereof, according to 
the estimate of the Librarian or Library Committee." 



On motion of Dr. Leidy, a committee was appointed to 
examine into the expediency of converting the present lecture 
room into a portion of the Museum, and also to ascertain what 
alterations may be necessary for this purpose, &c, and to 
report thereon as soon as practicable. Committee, Drs. 
Bridges, Wilson and Morton. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 

OF PHILADELPHIA.. 

Vol. III. SEPT. AND OCT., 1847. No. 11. 

Stated Meeting, September 7, 1847. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Dr. Wilson presented sixty-five specimens of recent Corallines , 
comprising forty species of the genera Fungia, Polyphyllia, 
Caryophyllia, Megaphyllia, Meandrina, Agaricia, Tridaco- 
phyllia, Astrea, Asteriopora, Oculina, Gemmipora, Madrepora, 
Palmipora, Alocopora, Porites, Pocillopora, Tubipora, Porites, 
Gorgonia. 

Mr. Sowerby, of London, presented specimens of Gorgonia 
palma, and G. petechizans. 

Mr. T. A. Conrad presented an extensive collection of Fossils, 
consisting of about 2000 specimens, from the Miocene of 
France, and the Eocene, Cretaceous, Oolitic, ;Mountain lime- 
stone, and Silurian formations of England and France. 

A small collection of Minerals from Chester county, Pennsyl- 
vania. Presented by Mr. Percival. 

Fine specimen of ^crystallized Carbonate of Lead, from North 
Carolina. From. Mr. W. S. Vaux. 

Saturnia cecropia, and S. promethea, three fine specimens. From 
Mr. Benjamin H. Kern. 

Dr. C. D. Meigs presented a living specimen of Trionyx ferox, 



from Georgia. 



35 



256 [Sept. 1847. 

donations to library. 

A history of the molluscous animals from the counties of Aber- 
deen, Kincardine, and Banff, to which is appended an account 
of the Cirripedal animals of the same district. By Wm. 
Macgillivray, A. M. 12mo. London: 1843. From Mr. 
Peterson. 

An account of the measurement of two sections of the Meridional 
Arc of India, bounded by the parallels of 18, 3', 15", 24, 
7', 11", and 29, 30', 48". Conducted under the orders 
of the Hon. East India Co., by Lieut. Col. Everest, F. R. S. 
&c. 1 vol. 4to., and an Atlas 4to. London, 1847. From 
the Author, by order of the Court of Directors of the E. I. 
Co. 

The Literary Record and Journal of the Linnean Association of 
Pennsylvania College, Vol. 3. No. 10. From the Associa- 
tion. 

American Journal of Agriculture and Science, conducted by Dr. 
E. Emmons and A. Osborn, Esq. August, 1847. From the 
Editors. 

Monografia del genere Murex ossia enumerazione delle princi- 
pali speciei dei Terreni sopracretacei dell' Italia, per Giovanni 
Michellotti. 4to. Vicenza, 1841. From Mr. Conrad. 

Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York. Vol. 
4. Nos. 10, 11. July, 1847. From the Lyceum. 

Experiments and observations on Animal Heat, and the inflam- 
mation of combustible bodies. By A. Crawford, M. D,F. R. S., 
&c. 1 vol. 8vo. 2d edition. London, 1788. From Mr. L. 
J. Germain. 

Experimental researches on Electricity. By Michael Farraday, 
D. C. L., F. R. S., &c. 2 vols. 8vo. London, 1839-44. 
From the same. 
Dr. Wilson deposited the following : 

The Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera, &c. By Edward Double- 
day, F. L. S., illustrated by Wm. C. Hewitson. Parts 1-9. 
4to. 



Sept. 1847.] 257 

Catalogues of the Specimens of Mammalia, Birds, Reptiles, 
Insects, Crustacea, and Myriapoda, and a list of the Osteo- 
logical specimens, contained in the British Museum. 

Odontography ; or a treatise on the comparative anatomy of the 
teeth, their physiological relations, mode of development, and 
microscopic structure in the vertebrate animals. By Richard 
Owen, F. R. S. 2 vols, large 8vo. London, 1840, '45. 

A geological survey of the "Yorkshire Coast; describing the 
strata and fossils occurring between the Humber and the Tees, 
from the German Ocean to the Plain of York. By the Rev. 
George Young, A. M., and John Bird, Artist. 4to. Whitby, 

1822. 

Travels in Lycia, Milyas, and the Cibyratis, in company with 
the late Rev. E. T. Daniell. By Lieut. T. A. B. Spratt, R. K, 
and Prof. Edward Forbes, F. R. S. 2 vols. 8vo. London, 
1847. 

Illustrations of Indian Zoology, chiefly selected from the collec- 
tion of Major General Hardwicke, F. R. S. By John Edward 
Gray, F. R. S. 2 vols, folio. London, 1830-34. 

A History of British Reptiles. By Thomas Bell, F. R. S. 8vo. 
London, 1837. 

An Analysis of the natural classifications of Mammalia, for the 
use of Students and Travellers. By T. Edward Bowdich, 
F. R. S. 8vo. Paris, 1821. 

An Introduction to the Ornithology of Cuvier. By T. E. Bow- 
dich. 8vo. Paris. 1821. 

Elements of Conchology, including the fossil genera and the 
animals. By T. E. Bowdich. 8vo. Paris, 1822. 

The Canadian Naturalist ; a series of conversations on the natural 
history of Lower Canada. By P. H. Gosse. 8vo. London 
1840. 

A Manual of British vertebrate animals. By the Rev. Leonard 
Jenyns, M. A. 8vo. Cambridge, 1835. 



258 [Sept. 1847. 

Description des Coquilles et des Polypiers fossiles des terrains 
tertaires de la Belgique. Par. P. H. Nyst. 4to. Bruxelles, 
1843. 

Manual d'Ornithologie, on tableau systematique des Oiseaux qui 
se trouvent en Europe, &c. Par J. C. Temniinck. 2nd. edition. 
4me Partie. Paris, 1840. 

Revue critique des Oiseaux d'Europe : Par Mr. H. Shlegal. 8vo. 
Leide, 1844. 

Joannis Raii synopsis inethodica Avium et Piscium, cum ap- 
pendica et iconibus. 12mo. Londoni. 1713. 

Ornithologia, sive synopsis methodica sistens Avium divisionem 
in ordines, sectiones, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates. 
A. D. Brisson. 2 vols. 8 vo. Lugduni Batavorum, 1743. 

Dissertatio Zoologica enumerationem Mammalium Capensium 
continens. Auctore Johanne Smuts. 4to. Leidae, 1832. 

Systema Avium : acutor Dr. Johannes Wagler ; pars prima. 
Stuttgartise, 1827. 

The London Geological Journal, No. 3. May, 1847. 

The Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Nos. 128, 129, 

130. 
Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London : January 12th 

to May 25th, 1847. 

Sowerby's Mineral Conchology, Nos. 106 to 113. 

Report of a Committee appointed by the British Association, 
to consider of the rules by which the nomenclature of Zoology 
may be established on a uniform and permanent basis. 8vo. 
pamphlet. 

Report on the recent progress and present state of Ornithology. 
By H. E. Strickland, M. A., &c. 8vo. pamphlet. London, 
1845. 



Dr. Morton read a paper by Dr. R. W. Gibbes, of Colum- 
bia, S. C, describing new species of Squalides from the Ter- 



Sept. 1847.] 259 

tiary Beds of that State ; which was referred to a Committee con- 
sisting of Drs. Leidy, Morton, and Pickering. 

A letter was read from Col. Everest, dated Claybrook Hall. 
Lutterworth, England, July 17th, 1847, presenting his work 
announced this evening. 



The Committee, to whom was referred the consideration of 
the propriety of altering the Lecture room, and adapting it to 
the purposes of the Museum, reported in favor of the same, and 
submitted a plan, which was approved ; and resolutions were 
adopted, authorizing the Committee to commence the work as 
soon as practicable. 



Stated Meeting, September 10, 1847. 
Dr. McEuen in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Dr. F. Roemer, of Berlin, presented the following fossils from 
the Green Sand of Germany. Thracia 1 species ; Mya 1 ; 
Heteropora 1 ; Tragos 1 ; Exogyra 3 ; Isocardia 1 ; Ser- 
pula 1 ; Nucleolites 1 ; Terebratula 6 ; Ceriopora 2 ; Alo- 
colites 1 ; Scyphias 2 , Ostrea 1 ; Belemnites 1 ; and 1 ear 
bone of a fish. Also, one specimen of Echinolampus, from 
the Middle Tertiary of Germany. 

Dr. T. B. Wilson presented the following mounted specimens 
of Mammalia. Hylobates leuciscus, H. syndactylus, Ateles beel- 
zebub, Sus scropha from Java, Felis leopardus, F. minuta, F. leo 
(young,) Ursus labiatus, Paradoxurus typus, Manis pentadac- 
tylus, Antelope tragulus, A. pygmtea, Viverraindica, V. genetta, 
Cervus muntjac, Moschus javanicus, Didelphis cancrivora, D. 
minuta, Canis vulpes (Europe,) Talpa Europoea, Sciurus stria- 
tum, Lutra barang, Herpestes mungoz, Dicoteles torquatus, 



200 [Sept. 1847. 

Bradypus tridactylus, (2 specimens,) Dasypus novemcinctus, 
(young) Myrmecophaga didactyla, M. bivittata. Also, an 
albino Kangaroo, from the Menagerie of the King of Holland, 
an unique specimen, and supposed to be a new species. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Diagnoses Conchyliorum terrestrium et fluviatilium. Von E. A. 

Rossmassler. Hefts. 1 & 2. From Dr. R. E. Griffith. 
Gelehrte anzeigen herausgegeben mitglieden der f. bayer. Acade- 

mie der Wissenschaften. Vols. 16 23. From the Academy. 
Die ueberbleibsel der altagyptischen menschenra^e. Von Dr. 

Franz Pruner. 4to. Munich, 1846. From the same. 

Abhandlungen der Mathematisch-physikalischen classe der 
Koeniglich bayer, Acad, der Wissenchaften. Vol. 4, p. 3. 
4to. From the same. 

Bulletin der Koeniglich Acad, der Wissenschaften. An. 1846, 
Nos. 1 7, 1847. From the same. 

Almanach der K. bayer. Acad, der Wissensc. fur das jahr 
1847. From the same. 

The organization of Trilobites, deduced from their living affini- 
ties, with a systematic review of the species hitherto described. 
By Heermann Burmeister, M. D. Edited from the German 
by Profs. Bell and Forbes. Folio. London : 1847. Deposited 
by Dr. Wilson. 

The Genera of Birds, by George Robert Gray. Nos. 38 and 
39. 4to. From the same. 

The Birds of Australia. By John Gould. Parts 28 and 29 ; 

Folio. From the same. 
The Zoology of the Voyage of H. B. M. Erebus and Terror. 

No. 10, 4to. From the same. 
Oken's Isis ; 38 vols., from 1817 to 1844, inclusive. 4to. Also 

No. 4, for 1847. From the same. 
Archiv. fur naturgeschichte. Von A. F. A. Wiegmann ; 11 

vols., 1835 to 1846, and No. 1, 1847. From the same. 
Histoire naturelle des Oiseaux d'Afrique ; per Francois Le vail- 

lant. 6 vols, folio. Paris, 1799 1808. From the same. 



Sept. 1847. ] 261 

Histoire naturelle des Oiseaux ; par M. de Buffon, ( planches en- 

luminees, ). 10 vols., folio. Paris, 1771 1786. From the 

same. 
Revue Zoologique, par la Societe Cuvierienne. Nos. 3, 4, 5, 

and 6, for 1847. From the same. 
Petrifactions recueillies en Amerique par Mr. Alex, de Hum- 
boldt, et par Mr. Charles Degenhardt ; decrites par Leopold 

de Buch. Folio. Berlin, 1839. From Mr. T. A. Conrad. 
Sur les spirifers et les Orthis ; explication de deux planches, qui 

representant la structure des ces coquilles. Par Leopold de 

Buch. Folio. From the same. 
Explication de trois planches d'Ammonites ; par Leopold de 

Buch. 4to. texte, planches folio. From the same. 
American Journal of Science and Arts, 2d series, No. 11. Sept., 

1847. From the Editors. 
On the growth of plants in closely glazed cases. By N. E. 

Ward, F. R. S. 8vo. London; 1842. From the author, 

through Dr. Asa Gray. 
Note upon Carex loliacea, Lin. and C. gracilis, Ehrh. By Asa 

Gray, ( from Silliman's Journal, vol. 4. ) From the author. 
Voyage botanique le long des cotes septentrionales de la Norvege 

depuis Drontheirn jusqu' au Cap nord : par Ch. Martins. From 

the author. 
List of Osteological specimens in the collection of the British 

Museum. 12mo. London, 1847. From the Trustees. 
Catalogue general de Hector Bossange. Paris, 1843-47. From 

E. Bossange, Esq., of New York. 



A letter was read from the Royal Academy of Sciences of 
Munich, acknowledging the receipt of certain Nos. of the Pro- 
ceedings. 

Dr. Hallowell read a description of a new species of Coluber, 
( C. venustus, Hal. ) from Copper Harbor, Lake Superior, which 
was referred to a committee, viz : Dr. Pickering, Mr. Phillips and 
Prof. Baird, of Carlisle. 

Dr. Leidy read a paper on the Fossil Horse of America. Re- 
ferred to Drs. Morton, Hallowell and Pickering. 



262 [ Sept. 1847. 

Mr. Townsend exhibited a living specimen of the common 
mouse, ( Mus musculus) which possessed the remarkable pecu- 
liarity of uttering notes resembling those of a singing bird. 
The notes were uttered in very rapid succession, and although 
weak, could be readily [distinguished at the distance of several 
yards. The animal was recently taken in an ordinary trap, by 
a lady residing in the Northern Liberties. 

Dr. Warrington, of England, exhibited and explained the 
modus operandi of an instrument of his own invention, which he 
called Spirometer, the object of which he stated to be, to test the 
capacity of the lungs in health and disease. " The amount of 
cubic inches of air the lungs are capable of expelling, being 
always in proportion to the height of the individual, and a scale 
attached to the instrument indicating with accuracy any dimin- 
ished capacity, a standard of health and disease could be thus 
readily fixed, and the disorganization or contraction of the organ 
early detected. " 



Meeting for Business, Sept. 28, 1847. 

Mr. Phillips in the Chair. 

The Committee to whom was referred the following paper, by 
Dr. Leidy, reported in favor of publication in the Proceedings. 

On the Fossil Horse of America. 

By Joseph Leidy, M. D. 

The fact of the existence of fossil remains of the horse in America has been 
generally received with a good deal of incredulity, arising, perhaps, from the 
mere fact being stated of their having been found, often without even mention- 
ing the associate fossils, and in all cases, previous to Mr. Owen,* without des- 
cribing the specimen. At present their existence beiog fully confirmed, 
it is probably as much a wonder to naturalists as was the first sight of 

* Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle, part 1. By R. Owen, Esq. London, 

1840. 



Sept. 1847.] 263 

the horses of the Spaniards to the aboriginal inhabitants of the country, for it 
is very remarkable that the genus Equus should have so entirely passed away 
from the vast pastures of the western world, in after ages to be replaced by 
a foreign species to which the country has proved so well adapted ; and it is 
impossible, in the present state of our knowledge, to conceive what could 
have been the circumstances which have been so universally destructive to the 
genus upon one continent, and so partial in its influence upon the other. 

The remains are by no means unfrequent, and according to William Cooper, 
the author of a paper entitled " Notices of Big-Bone Lick," in Featherstonhaugh's 
"Journal of Geology,"* the first printed notice of them occurs in Mitchell's 
"Catalogue of Organic Remains, "f upon referring to which, I find mentioned 
pp. 7, 8, that a cervical vertebra and teeth of the horse were found associated 
with the Mastodon, &c, in a tract extending from the base of the Neversink 
Hills to Bordentown, New Jersey. The author of " Notices, &c." also men- 
tions the remains of the horse being found at Big-Bone Lick, but speaks doubt- 
fully as to the authenticity of such remains having been found in a fossil state 
in this country, and says, p. 208, " I saw nothing in support of it myself, nor 
have I met wilh any person who could answer for such a fact from his own 
careful observation." 

Dr. HarlanJ mentions the sparing existence of fossil remains of the horse, 
which, from the heading of his chapter, he has referred to the same species as 
the existing Equus caballus. 

The most satifactory account, however, with which I am acquainted, is given 
by Mr. Owen in the Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle, Part 1, Fossil Mam- 
malia, p. 109, and is derived from two teeth obtained by Mr. Darwin in South 
America. One of them, a superior molar, was far decomposed, and Mr. Owen 
observes, " every point of comparison that could be established, proved it to 
differ from the tooth of the common Equus caballus only in a slight inferiority 
of size." The other a superior left molar, was found with the Mastodon, &c, 
in the province of Entre Rios, and is figured (PI. xxxii. figs. 13 and 14,) in the 
work. One of the figures represents an antero-lateral view of the tooth, and is 
rather smaller in size, and is much more curved than in the corresponding 
tooth of the recent E. caballus. The other figure represents the crown of the 
tooth and indicates the diameters to be somewhat less. From what Mr. Owen 
remarks in the " British Fossil Mammalia, 5 '^ this is a species which he proved 
to be distinct from all European fossil and existing species, and from the 
greater degree of curvature of the upper molars|| he has designated it under 
the name of Equus curvidens. In the cabinet of the Academy there are a num- 
ber of specimens of American fossil horse teeth, which I refer to two distinct 
and well marked species. 

The first of these I consider as identical with the Equus curvidens, of which 

*Philada., 1831, vol. 1, p. 208. fNew York, 1826. 

jMed. and Phys. Researches, Philada., 1835, p. 267. 

^London, 1846, p. 398. 

HOdontography. By R. Owen, Esq., London, 1S40-45, vol. 1, p,. 575. 

36 



264 [Sept. 1847. 

there are ten specimens of permanent molars, one a superior posterior molar of 
the left side, and five inferior molars of the right side, and four of the left side. 
These were all obtained from that celebrated fossil bone deposit, Big-Bone 
Lick, Kentucky, where they were associated with the Mcgalonyx, Mastodon, &c, 
and are a part of a donation to the Academy by Mr. J. P. Wetherill. The ex- 
ternal cementum is almost entirely removed, and the color, which is brown in 
the inferior molars, a bluish black in the superior molars, corresponds with 
that of their fossil associates. They are very little inferior in size, both in 
length and diameter, to the corresponding teeth of the recent E. caballus. The 
lateral diameter of the inferior molars hardly varies at all, the difference exist- 
ing in the transverse diameter, which gives to the teeth a rather more com- 
pressed appearance. The superior posterior molar tooth in all species of Equus 
is much curved, so that but little difference is observable in this respect in the 
fossil specimen. The bodies of the inferior molars are considerably more curved 
laterally than is usual in the corresponding teeth of the recent horse, which 
fact, however, was not to be expected from the greater degree of curvature in 
the superior molars. 

The enamel folds generally are more delicate, but I do not find sufficient pe- 
culiarity in their course to render them characteristic. On comparing the 
crowns of these fossil molar teeth, with the recent species, I find a remarkable 
degree of resemblance to exist, and in fact, greater differences may be found in 
this respect, in different individuals of the existing species. The posterior part 
of the enamel folding of the posterior tooth is rather narrower, and has a deeper 
groove upon the outer side than I have seen in the recent tooth. The supe- 
rior molars lead to more positive results than the inferior, yet it is necessary to 
be very careful, for if we do perceive more differences in these particular teeth 
in different species, than exists in the inferior teeth, so also do we find a 
greater variation among them in different individuals of the same species. This 
variation in the same species is very striking in the case of the posterior tooth 
of the recent horse, as may be seen by comparing any number of specimens. 
In this particular tooth in the recent horse, there is always a disposition to the 
formation of a third isolated enamel fold, always small and posterior to the 
others. Sometimes it appears as if the disposition existed, but for want of 
room in the process of development of the tooth, the ordinary posterior, isola- 
ted enamel fold becomes united by an isthmus to the peripheral fold. In the 
fossil tooth no disposition of the kind has existed, so that it has more the ap- 
pearance of the other molars, and indicates a less amount of room for develop- 
ment, and consequently a smaller jaw. 

From the foregoing description it will be perceived that I have fixed upon no 
absolute characters for determining this species with any degree of accuracy, 
and that this is not possible, I may state upon the authority of Cuvier, who ac- 
knowledged his incompetency to find characters, " assez fixes," to pronounce 
upon any species of horse, examined by him, from an isolated bone,* and it is 
therefore only from their being fossil American teeth coinciding with the E. 

*Cuvier, Ossemens Fossiles, 4 Ed. T. 3, p. 216. 



Sept. 1847.] 265 

curvidens as described by Mr. Owen, more than with any other species, so far 
as I am capable of judging, which ha9 made me refer them to that species. 

The second species is founded upon twelve specimens of teeth which have 
been deposited in the cabinet of the Academy by our enterprising fellow-mem- 
ber, Dr. M. W. Dickeson, and is one only of the many important results of his 
palaeontological researches in the southwestern part of the United States. 
Ten of these interesting relics, consisting of five superior and five inferior mo- 
lars, Dr. Dickeson states * were obtained, together with remains of the 
Negalonyx, Ursus, the os hominis innominatum fossile, &c, in the vicinity of 
Natchez, Mississippi, from a stratum of tenacious blue clay underlying a diluvial 
deposit. The remaining two, both right superior posterior molars, are rolled 
or water-worn, and were found, as Dr. D. informs me. upon one of the Natchez 
Islands, in the Mississippi River. All the specimens have the exterior 
cementum entirely removed, with the exception of one inferior molar of the 
right side, in which it still exists upon the external face, and much of the in- 
ferior cementum, and part even of the dentine, is also destroyed, so that the 
enamel folds everywhere stand out in strong relief. 

These teeth are larger than those of any species heretofore known, recent 
or fossil, and must have belonged to a horse, which, in point of magnitude, 
was a fit cotemporary for the Mastodon, Elvphas, $c. , and worthy of the large 
continent which produced it, and I have therefore named it Equus Ameri- 
canus. 

Two of the inferior molar teeth measure 4.3 inches in length, with a lateral 
diameter of 1.25 of an inch, and a transverse diameter of .7 of an inch. Two 
also, of the superior molars, measure 3.9 inches in length externally with a 
lateral diameter of 1.2 of an inch, and a transverse diameter of 1.1 of an inch. 
The inferior molars are curved from without inwards, instead of laterally, as is 
usual. The superior molars are curved to a degree intermediate to that of the 
Equus caballus and Equus curvidens. 

The enamel folds are one-fourth thicker than in the recent horse and the 
isolated enamel folds of the superior molars are much more plicated, resem- 
bling in this respect the Equus plicidens, Owen. In one of the two superior 
posterior molars, there is an additional or third isolated enamel fold, which 
is oval, and two or three times larger than in the recent horse, and in the 
other there is a fourth, small, round, isolated enamel fold. Both of these 
teeth indicate a greater amount of room for development, and consequently a 
larger jaw. Other and considerable differences will be noticed upon com- 
paring the figures 2 and 3, representing the crowns of these teeth, especially 
at the posterior part, which might lead to the supposition that they belonged 
to distinct species, but from the general characters of the two specimens, 
added to reasons before stated, relative to the amount of variation existing in 
the corresponding tooth of the recent horse, I cannot but think they both be- 
long to Equus Americanus. 



*Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., vol. 3, p. 106. 



266 [Sept. 1847. 

There is in the cabinet but one remaining tooth, to which I shall refer. 
This is an inferior middle molar of the left side, in an excellent state of pre- 
servation, and is a beautiful specimen; the whole of the exterior cementum 
being preserved without a fissure, apparently through the agency of oxide of 
iron and siliceous matter, which have rendered it as hard as the dentine itself. 
It was found with the bones of the Mastodon, Megatherium, Harlanus, &c> 
in making the excavation for the Brunswick Canal, near Darien, Georgia, and 
was kindly presented to the Academy by Mr. J. H. Couper. 

It is straight, and although not longer than the corresponding tooth of the 
recent horse, with a very little increase in the diameters, character enough can- 
not be found in it to consider it distinct from the Equus Americanus. 

References to the Figures. 

Figs. 1 and 6, and 4 and 5, were taken from the same specimens. 

Fig. 1. Crown of a superior middle molar of the left side; antero-posterior 
measurement 1.2 in., transverse 1.1 in. 

Fig. 2. Crown of the superior posterior molar of the right side ; antero-poste- 
rior measurement 1.3 in., transverse 1.9 in. 

Fig. 3. Do. from another specimen. 

Fig. 4. Crown of an inferior middle molar of the right side ; antero-posterior 
measurement 1.25 in., transverse .7 in. 

Fig. 5. Internal view of an inferior middle molar of the left side; greatest 
length 4.15 in.; depth of its curve .15 in. 

Fig. 6. Antero-lateral view of a superior middle molar of the left side; great- 
est length 3.9 in,; depth of curve .3 in. 



The Committee on the following communication, hy Dr. 
Gibbes, of South Carolina, reported in favour of publication 
in the Proceedings. 

Description of new species of Squalides from the Tertiary Beds of South Carolina. 
By Robert W. Gibbes, M. D., Columbia, S. C. 

1. Cab.char.odon Mortoni. I have only two specimens from the Eocene, 
both broken. That, of which a cast is in the collection of the Academy, 
was probably four inches deep, and three inches across the roots; the upper 
third is wanting. It is somewhat inequilateral the anterior edge sloped in- 
wards, and the posterior arched both the outer and inner surfaces are con- 
vex and prominent, the latter trebly so. The enamel is thin but strong 
cracked in striae parallel to the edges, and as in most other species converging 
and disappearing towards the apex: it is sloped on the inner face. The 
cutting edges are finely indented, the dentelures (if I may be allowed to adopt 
an expressive word from the French) are very small, and more minute near 
the base of the enamel. Next the edges on both faces is a longitudinal flat- 
tening, giving the appearance of undulations. The root is immensely thick, 
an inch and a half, and constitutes more than half of the bulk of the tooth. 
The root is concave, but the extremities being broken, the form cannot be 



Sept. 1847.] 267 

given ; the structure of the dentine is not as compact as in C. megalodon. 
A partial description of this fine species was given in a previous paper 
published in the Proceedings of the Academy, when I named it after the 
distinguished pioneer of Tertiary Geology in the United States, Dr. Samuel 
Geo. Morton. 

2. Carcharodon acntidens. This beautiful species resembles C. agus- 
tidens, Agassiz, but is very acutely pointed. Of four specimens which 
are in my cabinet, the largest cone measures three inches, and it is more 
than three times the depth of the root, which is concave, very thick and 
prominent on the inner face. The body of the tooth, or enamelled portion 
is conical, the lower third swollen, widest next the lateral denticles which 
are distinct from it. The inner face is arched, while the outer is nearly flat, 
though undulated by depression next the edges, and having a deep furrow 
longitudinally in the middle near the base of the enamel, which extends to 
the root. This does not extend as low on the inner face, and is sloped, 
leaving an interspace next the root. The cutting edges are sharp and finely 
indented, the serratures very close. Most of the specimens are straight, but 
I have two which are oblique. There are examples of this species in the 
Cabinet of the Academy. 

3. Carcharodon lanciformis. Very flat, acutely pointed, triangular, nearly 
equilateral, the posterior edge slightly sloped, while the anterior is straight. 
The root is not much thicker than the base of the cone, very concave, the 
rami not symmetrical, one being much longer than the other ; in the small 
lateral teeth this, however, is scarcely perceptible. The edges are sharp and 
finely indented ; the inner face elevated ; the outer plane, in some specimens 
concave. Viewed laterally, some are much bowed or arched forward. In 
the middle of the outer face near the base of the enamel, is a longitudinal 
depression, the sides of which are elevated and unite above the horizontal 
middle line, and form a ridge to the apex. It has lateral appendages, which 
are not distinct from the principal cone. The enamel extends lower on the 
outer face than on the inner. 

I have a series of specimens from the Eocene beds of Ashley and Cooper 
rivers, S. C. 

4. Oxyrhina Desorii. Prof. Agassiz described under this name specimens 
which subsequent experience induces him to consider identical with Lamina 
cuspidata, with which he had noticed a resemblance. 

I take pleasure in restoring the name of the distinguished M. Desor, the 
friend and co-laborer of M. Agassiz, in this department of science, to a fine 
species in my cabinet. 

It is very massive thicker than any other of this genus in this respect 
resembling Oxyr. crassa, but not so broad. Viewed en profit, the form is 
similar to Lamna Hopei, much curved inwardly, except near the apex, which 
is flat. The edges are cutting in their whole extent, the base of the enamel 
arched, and nearly equal on both faces, the root very thick, compact and 



268 [Sept. 1847. 

heavy. I have six specimens from the Miocene, and three from the Eocene 
of South Carolina. 

5. Oxyrhina SillimanL Among twelve specimens from the Eocene, there 
is much uniformity in this species. The cone is straight or very slightly 
bowed on the inner surface, equilateral, acutely pointed, both surfaces convex, 
the inner much more so. A peculiarity exists in the great breadth of the 
enamel at the base, which is similar on both aspects. The root is thick, and 
forms one-third of the height of the tooth. 

I attach to it the name of Prof. B. Silliman, the veteran co- laborer in 
American Science. 

(5. Otodus levis. This has very much the form of Lamna cuspida'a, but the 
position, form and size of the lateral winglets mark it as a true Otodus. It is 
more slender than any other of this genus, lanciform, equilateral, straight, 
convex on the inner face, and undulated on the outer from a triangular 
depression near the base extending longitudinally nearly to the apex. The 
lateral cones are broad and thick, and detached from the base of the enamel 
which extends lower on the outer face than on the inner. I have a single 
specimen from the Eocene, S. C. 

7. Glyphis subulata. The cone is shorter and thicker proportionally than 
in G. hastalis, Agassiz, and is more straight, convex on both surfaces, 
more so on the inner ; the upper third of the outer face is fiat, and the point 
has a tendency outward. A sharp lateral edge extends from the apex equally 
on both sides two-thirds of the length of the cone, and is uniformly indented. 
The root is thick, the enamel extends lower on the outer face and to the 
root on both. In one specimen the root is very broad, and the enamelled 
base equally so. 

I have only two specimens from the Eocene, S. C. 

I have in preparation full descriptions of all the genera and species of 
Squalides from the Tertiary of South Carolina, which will be published with 
figures in a future number of the Journal of the Academy. I have in my 
collection eight genera and thirty-nine species. I have had the privilege and 
pleasure of submitting them to the inspection of our distinguished visitor, 
Prof. Agassiz, who has kindly and liberally given me much information as to 
their character and arrangement, the result of his extensive experience. 



A communication was read from Mr. Moss, dated Sept. 28th, 
1847, tendering his resignation as Recording Secretary, in 
consequence of his removal from the city ; which was accepted, 
and the following resolution unanimously adopted : 

Resolved, That the Academy receives with regret the resigna- 
tion of Mr. Theodore F. Moss, as Recording Secretary, and 



Oct. 1847.] 269 

tenders him its thanks for the zeal and fidelity with which he 
has performed the duties of the office during his incumbency. 

On motion, also Resolved, That at the next meeting for 
business, the Society proceed to the election of a Recording 
Secretary. 

ELECTION. 

M. Carey Lea, Moses H. Emery, Benjamin J. Kern, M. D., 
and F. W. Sargent, M. D., of Philadelphia, were elected Mem- 
bers ; and Jacob Sturm, Esq., of Nuremberg, was elected a 
Correspondent. 



Stated Meeting, October 5, 1847. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Ocypoda Urvillii, from the Pacific Coast. From Dr. Joseph 
Wilson, U. S. Navy. 

Transverse section of a fossil tree, 18 inches diameter, from 
Athens, Ohio, and numerous specimens, in spirits, of rep- 
tiles, from the south-western part of the United States. 
From Dr. S. P. Hildreth. 

Fossil coniferous wood and bark. From Professor Johnson. 

A number of American Reptiles. From Dr. George Spack- 
man. 

Platycarcinus ? from Tampa Bay, Florida. From 

Mr. T. A. Conrad. 

Apus longicaudatus ; from the Rocky Mountains. From Dr. 
J. L. Le Conte. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Transactions of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh. Vol. 2, 
parts 1, 2 and 3. Edinburgh, 184546. From Dr. Balfour, 
of Glasgow, through Dr. Watson. 



270 [Oct. 1847. 

Memoir on the fossil genus Basilosaurus, with a notice of speci- 
mens from the Eocene green sand of South Carolina. By 
Robert W. Gibbes, M. D., of Columbia, S. C. (From the 
Journal of the Acad, of Nat. Sci. of Philada., vol. 1, 2d series.) 
4to. Philada. 1847. From the author. 

A synopsis of the Birds of North America. By J. J. Audubon. 
8vo., Edinburgh, 1839. From Dr. Wilson. * 

Annales des Lagides, ou Chronologie des rois Grecs d'Egypte 
successeurs d' Alexandre le grand. Par M. Champollion 
Figeac. 2 vols., 8vo. Paris, 1819. From the author. 

Le Sahara Algerien, etudes geographiques, statistiques, et histo- 
riques sur la region au Sud des etablissements Francais en 
Algerie, &c. Par M. le Lieut. Col. Daumas. 8vo. Paris, 
1845. From Mr. A. Vattemare. 

De l'organisation des Bibliotheques dans Paris. Par le Comte 
de Laborde. 8me., Lettre. Etude sur la construction des 
Bibliotheques. 8vo. Paris, 1845. From the same. 

Movement of the international literary exchanges between France 
and North America, from Jan. 1845 to May 1846 ; with in- 
structions for collecting, preparing, and forwarding objects of 
natural history, written by the Prof, administrators of the 
Museum of Natural History at Paris ; and instructions rela- 
tive to Anthropology and Zoology. By M. Isidore Geoffroy 
St. Hilaire. 8vo. Paris, 1846. From the same. 

Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, pp. 
49 160. From the Academy. 

Die Petrefacten der Trias und des Jura sowie der Tertair-und 
Diluvial Bildungen Wiirttembergs, nach ihren Schichtungs- 
verhiiltnissen zusammengestellt mit geognostischem Durchs- 
chnitt von P. Mohr. 8vo. pamphlet. Stuttgart,; 1847. 
From the author. 

Verzeichniss von Mineralien und Gebirgsarten bei Paul Mohr. 
From the author. 



Oct. 1847.]' 271 

Dr. Wilson deposited the following works : 
History of British Animals. By John Fleming, D. D., F. R. S., 
&c. 2d edition. 8vo. London, 1842. 

The Philosophy of Zoology ; or a general view of the structure, 
functions and classifications of animals. By John Fleming, D. D., 
&c. 2 vols., 8vo. Edinburgh, 1822. 

The Naturalist's Library. Vols. 3, 4, 5, 6 and 13, of Orni- 
thology. 12mo. 

Untersuchungen iiber die Fauna Peruana auf einer Reise in Peru 
Wahrend der Jahre 1838, '39, '40. '41 and '42. Von Dr. J. 
J. von Tschudi. Leiferungen 1 12. 4to. 

A collection of geological facts and practical observations in- 
tended to elucidate the formation of the Ashby coal field, in the 
parish of Ashby-de-la-Zouch, and the neighboring district. 
By Edward Mammat, F. G. S. 1 vol. 4to. Ashby-de-la- 
Zouch, 1836. 

Antediluvian Phytology, illustrated by a collection of the fos- 
sil remains of plants peculiar to the coal formation of Great 
Britain. By Edmund Tyrrell Artis, F. S. A. F. G. S. 4to. 
London, 1838. 

Handbuch der Naturgeschichte aller Vogel Duetschlands. Von. 
Christian Ludwig Brehm. 8vo. Ilmenau, 1831. 

A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca ; with figures 

of all the species. By Joshua Alder & Albany Hancock. 

Parts 1, 2, and 3. 4to. London, 1845, '46. 
The Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America. By Audubon & 

Bachman. No. 24, folio. 
Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pp. 83 to 

98. 
The Annals and Magazine of Natural History. No. 131. Aug., 

1847. 



The following letter was read from Dr. J. W. Dawson, of 
Pictou, N. S., dated Sept. 11, '47, addressed to Prof. Johnson, 
in answer to some inquiries made by the latter, respecting the 
gypsum of that section of county. 

37 



272 [Oct. 184T. 

" The gypsum of Nova Scotia has attracted considerable attention since Mr. 
Lyell published his reasons for supposing it to be older than had been previously 
supposed, and you will find much matter relating to your inquiries, in papers 
by Mr. Lyell, Mr. Brown of Sidney, and myself, published, within the last few 
years, by the Geological Society of London. I do not, therefore, profess, in this 
letter, to state much that is new, but merely to give you a general view of the 
appearances I have observed, and the conclusions deducible from them. 

The great workable deposites of gypsum are all contained in the carboniferous 
system, and most of them in its lower part. The new red sandstone contains 
only small veins and thin layers of gypsum, of no economical importance. For 
proof of this, I may refer you to the papers above mentioned, and to that on 
the new red sandstone, which I hope will be published in the course of this year. 

The great masses of gypsum quarried in this Province, are the outcropping 
edges of true beds, apparently as continuous as those of the limestone associated 
with them, though perhaps not so much so as the accompanying sandstone and 
shale. These beds are, however, often of great thickness, and this, together 
with the tendency of their surfaces to be worn into " pits," their association 
with soft marls and sandstones easily removed by denudation, and the disturb- 
ances to which our carboniferous strata have been subjected, often prevent their 
arrangement from being distinctly seen. In the following places, however, it 
is very evident : 

At Ogden's Point, near Antigonish, the descending order, seen in the coast 
section, is as follows : 

1. White gypsum, fine grained and rather hard, in thick ) Aggregate 
laminae, and with minute crystals of carbonate of lime. > thickness 

2. Reddish gypsum, large grained foliated. ) over 100 feet. 

3. Alternations of thin beds of gypsum and of grey earthy limestone. 

4. Grey limestone, laminated and brecciated, a thick bed. 

5. Reddish sandstones and shales. 

The dip of these beds is S. S. E. 25, and the lamination or subordinate bed- 
ding of the upper bed of gypsum, coincides with this dip. The beds can be 
traced inland for several miles ; the outcrop of the gypsum running parallel 
to that of the other beds. 

A section somewhat similar to the above, occurs at De Bert river, but there 
the limestone, which is fossiliferous, does not alternate with the gypsum at 
their junction ; the gypsum is, however, evidently a bed superimposed on 
the limestone. 

Two of the smaller beds near the mouth of the Shubenacadie river, afford 
good illustrations of the bedding of the gypsum. The first is a bed of black 
gypsum, on the west side of the river. It is 12 feet thick, and is included in 
beds of reddish sandstone, a layer of which separates the gypsum into two 
portions. In this case the contrast between the color of the red sandstone and 
that of the gypsum, apparently colored by coaly or bituminous matter, is very 
striking. The other instance occurs on the east side of the river, at the south- 
ern extremity of the bay, named the " Bend." It is a bed of whitish anhy- 
drite, with some common gypsum in its upper part, regularly interstratified 
with reddish sandstones. Near this bed the red sandstones are traversed by 
a network of very narrow veins of fibrous gypsum. 



Oct. 1847.] 273 

Near the entrance of Wallace Harbor is a bed of gypsum, whose relations 
are as follow, in descending order : 

1. Reddish clay or shale, not well seen. 

2. Grey limestone with fossil shells. Its fissures and the cavities of the 

shells filled with selenitic gypsum. 

3. White granular gypsum ; thickness about 12 feet. 

4. Reddish clay and shales. 

5. Grey sandstone, with calamites and trunks of coniferous trees. 
The dip of these beds is S. S. W. 20. 

The above are the best illustrations which, on looking over my notes, I can 
find of the stratification of gypsum. There is, however, one circumstance 
worthy of notice, in addition, as it aids in generalizing from such facts. It is 
the rude lamination or layering observed in many masses of gypsum. This 
always coincides with the plans of stratification, where the latter can be ob- 
served, and is often produced by the presence of thin layers of clay, marl, or 
limestone. In beds whose associated rocks cannot be seen, this lamination is 
often observable, and affords an evidence of stratification, which may some- 
times be farther confirmed by a comparison with the nearest visible beds of 
other rocks. In some cases also, this layering affords proofs of disturbances. 
An instance of this is the enormous bed of gypsum, called White's or the Big 
Plaster Rock, on the banks of the Shubenacadie. The indications of the 
singularly contorted laminae of this bed are confirmed by the vertical position 
of some associated thin beds of marl and limestone. 

Anhydrite very frequently accompanies the common gypsum. In some 
cases, as at White's quarry, and the bend of the Shubenacadie, it forms the 
lower parts of beds, which above consist of hydrous gypsum. In other instances, 
as at the estuary of the Avon and the St. Croix river, it constitutes the mass of 
greafbeds, which are, however, in the immediate vicinity of the beds of the com- 
mon variety. At the East river of Pictou, it occurs in large balls, included in 
a thick bed of hydrous gypsum. The anhydrite is sometimes also dissemi- 
nated in grains, through some parts of the beds of gypsum, which are quarried ; 
and this mixed rock, as well as the purer anhydrite, is called hard plaster or 
shark-stone, by the quarrymen. Anhydrite has not been observed to be con- 
nected with any igneous or metamorphosed rocks. In the only instance which 
I have observed of the occurrence of gypsum in rocks altered by heat, the 
gypsum is hydrous. 

The gypsum of this province is nearly always crystalline. In the great beds, 
whether of common gypsum or anhydrite, the structure is always foliated or 
granular ; sometimes large grained, in other cases so fine as to appear compact 
or chalky. The finer grained varieties often contain groups of larger crystals. 
In the true veins, occupying fissures in the sandstones, limestones, and gypsum 
beds themselves, the structure is invariably fibrous. Little rounded kernels of 
gypsum, sometimes occurring in sandstones, &c, are foliated. 

The crystalline structure, and great comparative purity of gypsum, show that 
it is a chemical, not a mechanical deposit. Its constant association with the 
limestones of the carboniferous system, containing marine fossils, (Terebratula 
Productus, Orthoceras, Corals, &c.) prove that it was deposited in the sea; and 



274 [Oct. 1847. 

from the present relations of the carboniferous rocks to older systems, in this 
province, it is probable that the sea basins in which gypsum was deposited, 
were not very extensive. In these sea basins the deposition of gypsum alter- 
nated with mechanical deposits of sand and marl, and with the growth of shells 
and corals; but the conditions which produced beds of gypsum, were unfavora- 
ble both to the transport of sediment and the existence of animals or plants. 

From a consideration of these facts, I am disposed to refer the formation of 
gypsum to springs and rivers, containing free sulphuric acid, and poured into 
seas in which carbonate of lime had been deposited. The sulphuric acid may 
have been derived from the volcanic regions of the neighboring ranges of older 
rocks, and may have been a product of the oxidation of iron pyrites, which still 
abound in some parts of these older strata, either directly by the action of air 
and water, or, perhaps, indirectly by the formation of sulphuretted hydrogen, 
and its oxidation in passing through fissures in contact with water and air. To 
realize the operation of these causes, you need only imagine streams like the 
South American Rio Vinaigre flowing into a sheltered bay containing beds of 
shells and corals, or into the space between a coast and its coral reef. I do not, 
however, pretend to explain the mode of former action of anhydrite in this 
way, though it, like the common gypsum, has evidently been deposited in beds 
by water." 



A letter was read from Dr. S. P. Hildreth, of Marietta, 
Ohio, dated Aug. 19, 1847, relative to his donation of this 
evening. 

On motion of Mr. Haldeman, a committee was appointed to 
confer with Mr. A. Vattemare, on the subject of international 
exchanges. Committee, Prof. Johnson, Dr. Leidy and Mr. 
Cassin. 



Stated Meeting, October 12, 1847. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Forty specimens, in skin, of European birds. From Prof. 

Bronn, of Heidelberg, in exchange. 
Meandrina cerebriformis, attached to Area Noae, M. crispa 

with Serpula and Pyrgonia ; Agaricia ampliata with Pyrgonia, 

Pocilipora damicornis ; Megaphyllum with Nobia. From Dr. 

Wilson. 
A mineral, supposed to be new. From Mr. L. J. Germain. 



Oct. 1847.] 275 



DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Elementary Chemistry, theoretical and practical. By Geo. 
Fownes, Ph. D., edited, with additions, by Robert Bridges, 
M. D., 2d edition, 8vo. Philadelphia, 1847. From Dr. 
Bridges. 

Bridgewater Treatises. Treatise 1. On the adaptation of 
external nature to the moral and intellectual constitution 
of Man. By the Rev. T. Chalmers, D. D. Treatise 8th. 
Chemistry, Meteorology, and the function of digestion. By 
Wm. Prout, M. D., F. R. S. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1836. 
From the same. 

Elements of Physics : or natural philosophy, general and medical, 
&c. By Neil Arnott, M. D. Edited by Isaac Hays, M. D. 
8vo. Philadelphia, 1845. From the same. 

Lexicon Scientarium ; a dictionary of terms used in the various 
branches of Anatomy, Botany, Zoology, &c. By Henry 
McMurtrie, M. D. 12mo. Philadelphia, 1847. From the 
Author. 

Histoire des Polypiers coralligenes flexibles, vulgairement 
nommes Zoophytes. Par J. F. V. Lamouroux. 8vo. A. 
Caen, 1846. From Mr. Wm. Gambel. 

Henrico Joan. Nepom. Cranz Classis Cruciformium emendata 
cum fig. aen. in necessarium Instit. Rei Herbariae Supplemen- 
tum. 8vo. Lipsise, 1769. From Dr. Griffith. 

On the influence of atmosphere and locality, &c. on human 
health, constituting elements of Hygiene. By Robley Dung- 
lison, M. D. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1835. From the same. 

Hector Bossange : Catalogue des livres anciens. 8vo. Paris, 

1846. From the same. 
The American Mineralogical Journal ; conducted by Archibald 

Bruce, M. D. Vol. 1. 8yo. New York, 1814. From the 

same. 



276 [Oct. 1847. 

Seven tracts in the Burmese, Chinese, and Hindustan lan- 
guages, chiefly on religious subjects. From Dr. Dawson of 
Philadelphia. 



A letter was read from Mr. M. W. Rowe, dated New Har- 
mony, Indiana, Oct. 2, 1847, containing some observations on 
the generation of the Opossum. 

Mr. Conrad read a paper, entitled " Observations on the 
Eocene formation, and descriptions of 105 new Fossils from the 
vicinity of Vicksburg, Miss.; with an Appendix." Referred to 
a Committee consisting of Drs. Wilson and Leidy, and Mr. 
Phillips. 



Stated Meeting, Oct. 19, 1847. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Two vertebrae of a Cetacean and three Chelonian bones ; from 
the green sand of New Jersey. Presented by Dr. J. Thomas. 

Sulphuret of Antimony and Talc, from Buraiah ; also several 
species of Cyprsea from the same. From Dr. Dawson. 

Sulphate of Baryta, from Antrim, Ireland. Presented by Mr. 

Win. L. Mactier. 
Dr. Morton deposited the crania of a Swede, Chenouk Indian, 

Bengalee, Lepan Indian and ancient Phoenician. Also, a 

cranium of Phoca vitulina, and casts of crania of a Mexican, 

Burat, Abyssinian and Patagonian. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Genera Plantarum secundum ordines naturales disposita : Auctor 
Henrico Endlicher. Fascic. 8-16. 8vo. From Dr. Wm .Dar- 
lington. 

Versuch iiber die perspiration einiger mit lungen athmender 



Oct. 1847.] 277 

wirbelthiere ; von C. L. von Erlach. 4to. Bern, 1846. 
From Dr. Morton. 

Dissertatio medica inauguralis continens observationes quasdam 
anatomicas comparatas de Squatina lsevi. Auctore Henrico 
Boursse Wils. Lugduni Batavorum, 1844. From the same. 

Esquisse des principaux points de vue sous lesquels ou peut con- 
siderer 1'anatomie de l'Homme et des animaux dans sons etat 
actuel. Par M. Duvernoy. Paris, 1840. From the same. 

Quelques observationes sur l'animal de la Spirule, et sur l'usage 
du siphon des coquilles polythalames. Par M. H. Blainville. 
Paris, 1838. From the same. 

Fragment d'anatomie comparee sur les organes de la generation 
de rOrnithorynque et de l'Echidne; par G. L. Duvernoy. 
4to. From the same. 

(ifversigt of slagtet Erinaceus af Carl J. Sundevall. From the 
same. 

Faculte de Medecine de Paris. These pour le Doctorat en Med- 
ecine, presentee et soutenue le 22 Aout, 1845. Par Louis- 
Pierre Gratiolet. 4to. Paris, 1845. From the same. 

Uber den bau und die Lebensercheinungen des Branchiostoma 
lubricum, Costa, Amphioxus lanceolatus, Yarrell. Von J. 
Muller. Folio. Berlin, 1844. From the same. 

Natural History of New York. Agriculture of New York. By 
Ebenezer Emmons M. D. Vol. 1. 4to. Albany, 1846. Pur- 
chased by order of the Academy. 

Literary Record and Journal of the Linnean Association of 
Pennsylvania College. Vol. 3, No. 12. From the Associ- 
ation. 

An Address delivered before the Chester county Horticultural 
Society at West Chester, Pa., September 10, 1847 : by Wm. 
H. Dillingham; with the Transactions of the Society for 1846, 
'47. Philadelphia, 1847. From the Author. 



278 [Oct. 1847. 

A letter was read from Prof. Haldeman, dated Columbia, Oct. 
16, 1847, calling the attention to a collection of Birds and Rep- 
tilia for sale at Tampico, Referred to the Curators. 

Mr. Gambel exhibited an albino specimen of the Wood Pewit, 
(Muscicapa virens) which was obtained in Liberty county, Georgia, 
by Mr. Win. L. Jones, of that State, and also a specimen of a 
Woodpecker resembling Picus pubescens, but probably a new 
species. This last is remarkable in having only three toes, and 
would therefore more probably belong to the genus Picoides Lacep. 
{Apternus, Swains.) The feet are slender and delicate, without 
even a rudiment of a fourth toe ; in other respects it more closely 
resembles the P. meridionalis, Swains. (P. G-airdnerii, Aud. ) 
which is also an inhabitant of Georgia. It differs in having the 
bill more compressed at the base, the tips of the tertiaries -with- 
out emarginations, the primaries narrower and more pointed, and 
in the toes being only three in number. 



Meeting for Business, Oct. 26, 1847. 
Mr. Pearsall in the Chair. 

The committee to whom was referred Dr. Hallowell's paper, 

scribing a ] 
Proceedings. 



describing a new Coluber, reported in favor of publication in the 



Description of a New S >ecies of Coluber inhabiting the United States, 

By Edward Hallowell, M. D. 

Coluber venustus. 

Characters. Head sm rk slender, color reddish-brown, with a dorsal 

ash-colored band extend "in the occiput to near the extremity of the tail ; 

four narrow bands of red in own color from the neck to the commencement 

of the tail, with two in: iate bands of the same color, but less distinct ; 

an ash-colored, band r< si ag that upon the dorsum, along each side of 

the abdomen ; abdomen * ick-red or copper color; tail short. 

Description. Head sm longated, flattened above, covered with nine 



Oct. 1847.] 279 

plates ; of these the vertical is pentagonal ; the occipital are also pentagonal, 
their anterior margins heing in contact with the vertical, supra-orbitar, and 
superior post-occular plates ; the supra-orbitar are pentangular, and in contact 
posteriori/ with the occipital and posterior superior post-oculars, internally with 
the vertical, and anteriorly with the posterior frontal ; their external margin 
forms the upper part of the orbit, and is in contact in front with the superior 
ante-ocular ; they do not project beyond the eye ; the posterior frontal are 
quadrilateral ; the anterior frontal are smaller than those last described ; their 
external and posterior angle is somewhat prolonged, passing in between the 
frenal and the posterior frontal plate ; their anterior margin is rounded ; then- 
are two ante-ocular, and two post-oculars, of the posterior the superior is the 
larger ; the frenal plate is quadrilateral ; the nasal is single ; the nostril, which 
is small, is placed near the posterior margin ; the rostral plate is hexagonal, 
incurvated below ; it is in contact with the anterior frontal, the nasal and the an- 
terior labials ; in the specimen examined there are six superior labials on one 
side and seven upon the opposite side of the head, exclusive of the rostral ; 
of these the fifth is the largest ; it is oblong quadrilateral ; eyes of moderate 
size, placed upon the side of the head ; neck slender, body rounded, contracted 
near the anus, thickest near the middle, covered with carinated scales ; of these 
there are fifteen rows ; these scales are bi-punctate posteriorly ; the interven- 
ing epidermis is black ; tail short and tapering to a point. 

Colour. Head brown above; irides . An ash-coloured band extends along 

the dorsum, beginning at the occiput ; it is narrow upon the neck, and broadest 
near the middle of the animal, where it measures one line and a quarter in 
breadth ; it becomes narrow upon the tail, and is finally lost towards its ex- 
tremity ; two longitudinal bands of a reddish-brown colour extend along each 
side from the neck to the tail, the superior along the external margin of the 
ash-coloured dorsal band, the inferior along the lateral margin of the abdominal 
scuta ; there is an intermediate band of the same colour, but less distinct ; the 
spaces intervening between the bands are light brown ; the chin is white, pre- 
senting numerous small conglomerate spots of a black colour upon its surface ; 
the throat is also white, with blackish points, most numerous upon its sides ; 
the neck, abdomen and under part of tail are of a brick-red colour ; lighter 
upon the neck ; an ash-coloured band, resembling that upon the back, extends 
along each side of the neck, and of the abdomen as far as the tail. 

Dimensions. Length of head 4 lines ; greatest breadth 2 lines ; length of 
body 9 inches, (Fr.) of tail, 2 inches 5 lines. 

Abdomen. Scuta 122. Subcaud. 41. 

Habitat. Michigan, near Copper Harbour, Lake Superior. This species 
was fojind by Mr. Theodore F. Moss, between stones upon the border of the 
lake, and presented by him to the Acadamy of Natural Sciences. The speci- 
men had been preserved in alcohol two weeks. 

No animal resembling the one I have described is figured in Prof. Holbrook's 
work on the "Reptiles inhabiting the United States," and I have therefore 
ventured to consider it as new. 

Since the figure of this animal was printed, I have received, through the 

38 



280 [Oct. 1847. 

kindness of Dr. Storer, the original of the occipito-maculatus* which corres- 
ponds with the animal described in many particulars. The form of the head 
and neck is the same, as are also the plates immediately in front of the eye, 
which are two in number, the Tripidonatus Dekayi, with which it has been 
considered identical, presenting but one. The scales are likewise carinated and 
bi-punctate posteriorly, and the number of caudal and abdominal plates is 
nearly the same in both. The specimen of Dr. Storer, however, is much more 
slender, and the coloration is almost totally different, which, however, may 
be the effect of long immersion in spirits. We are inclined to the opinion, 
therefore, that notwithstanding the great difference in their size and coloration, 
the two animals are the same. 

My friend Prof. Baird, to whom I exhibited the specimen brought by Mr. 
Moss, states that it is very abundant in the north, being, in fact, the most 
common snake along Lake Champlain. In Troy, he observes, " I have found 
one, and have a specimen from Georgia, at least given me as from that local- 
ity." It is certainly remarkable, that an animal having so wide a geograph- 
ical distribution, and presenting the beautiful appearance which it does, should 
be so little known to naturalists. 



The Committee on Mr. Conrad's paper, read 12th inst., re- 
ported in favour of publication in the Proceedings. 

Observations on the Eocene formation, and descriptions of one hundred and five 
new fossils of that period, from the vicinity of Vicksburg, Mississippi, with an 
Appendix. 

By T. A. Conrad. 

In the Spring of 1844, I collected about 109 species of Eocene fossils, most 
of which appear to be new species. There are 60 univalves, 42 bivalves, and 
1 multivalve shell, and 6 or 7 polyps. 

Of these fossils, I can identify two only with species of the Claiborne sands, 
Infundibulum trochiformis aud Conus saurodens. Very few others are related to 
species of the Alabama sand strata ; Lucina Mississippiensis, Sigaretus Missis- 
sippiensis and Dentalium Mississippiensis, are the only shells which might be 
confounded with species of those deposits. 

The Vicksburg group contains three species of bivalves which have much 
resemblance to Miocene fossils of this country. Lima staminea approaches L. 
papyria; Corbula engonata is allied to C. inequalis, Say; and Nucula Vicks- 
burgensis, to N. obliqua, Say. 

I have not observed a recent species in this group, and yet it is decidedly 
more modern than that of the Claiborne sands ; and as both deposits hae but 
two species in common, I thought it advisable to designate the former, Upper 
or Newer Eocene, and the latter Lower or Older Eocene, as the two divisions 
are more distinct than the Older and Newer Pliocenes. 

In the American Journal of Science and Arts, I have given a sketch of the 

* Reports on the Icthyology and Herpetology of Massachusetts, by D. Hum- 
phreys Storer, M. D., p. 230. 



Oct. 1847.] 



281 



Mississippi Eocene, and observed that not* more than 10 species would be found, 
on comparison, identical with Claiborne shells. I had reference to the sand at 
Claiborne, and not including the limestone above it. A careful comparison has 
reduced the number to two species, for the Dentalium, which when at Vicks- 
burg (without a Claiborne specimen for comparison) I had supposed to be D. 
tkalloides, is a distinct, though closely allied species. 

This newer portion of the Eocene in Mississippi is represented in Alabama 
by the white limestone at St. Stephens on the Tombeckbe river, and the simi- 
lar rock which constitutes the uppermost stratum at Claiborne, on the Alabama 
river ; all being admirably connected by the abundance of Nummulites Mantelli. 
There is a similar limestone in Charleston County, South Carolina, in which I 
found Scutella Lyelli and Peclen calvatus, fossils, of the Claiborne limestone, 
and both rocks are probably of the same geological age. The limestone of 
Tampa Bay, Florida, is included in the Upper Eocene series, but as yet no 
fossil has been obtained from it identical with a species of the Carolinas, Mis- 
sissippi or Alabama, unless it is a specimen of C'archarias megalodon, which 
Capt. Powell, of the Navy, found on the bay shore. 

The only species of Crassaiella which occurs at Vicksburg, is more nearly re- 
lated to C. lumida of the Paris basin than to C. alia of Claiborne. 

Ostrea sellceformis characterises the lower division of the Eocene formation. 
It occurs abundantly beneath the fossiliferous sands of Claiborne ; at Vance's 
Ferry, South Carolina: and on the right bank of James river, below City 
Point, "Virginia. I also refer to this section, the localities at Fort Washington, 
Piscataway, and Upper Marlborough, Maryland. Other characteristic fossils 
are Cardila planicosta and Turritella Mortoni, the former occurring at Piscata- 
way ; at Claiborne, Alabama ; and also at Marlbourne, on Pamunkey river, 
Virginia, the residence of Edmund Ruffin, Esq. 

The following table illustrates the two editions of the Eocene : 

CHARACTERISTIC FOSSILS. 



DIVISIONS. 



LOCALITIES. 



Upper 

or 

Newer Eocene. 



Vicksburg, Miss., white limestone 
of St. Stephens, and of Claiborne, 
Alabama, and part of that in Charles- 
ton Co., South Carolina. 



Scutella Lyelli. 

S Rogersi. 

Pecten Poulsoni. 
Nummulites Mantelli. 



limestone in the vicinity of Tampa 
Bay, Florida. 



Nummulites Floridana. 
Cristellaria rotella. 
Ostrea Georgiana. 



Lower 



or 



Older Eocene. 



Fossilliferous sands of Claiborne, 
and St. Stephens, Al. of the Washita 
river, near Monroe, La.; Pamunkey 
river at Marlbourne, and Eocene 
green sand, on James river, below 
City Point, Va.; Fort Washington, 
Piscataway, and Upper Marlborough, 
Md. 



Cardita planicosta. 
Blandinga. 



Crassatella alta. 
Ostrea sellaeformis. 
Turritella Mortoni, &c. 



*In the paragraph alluded to, this word was accidentally omitted. I did not, 
when it was written suppose that 10 fossils would be found to correspond with 
the species of the Claiborne sands. 



282 [Oct. 1847. 

The upper limestone of Shell Bluff on the Savannah river in Georgia, which 
contains Ostrea Georgiana and Scutella quinquefaria, overlies the strata which 
contain species of organic remains identical with those of the Lower Eocene of 
Alabama and Virginia, none of which has yet been found associated with the 
two characteristic fossils above named. On the other hand, the Ostrea Georgi- 
ana occurs at Jackson, Mississippi, where its position is said to be below the 
Vicksburg group. It is therefore the line of demarcation between the Upper 
and Lower Eocene. 

FOSSILS OF THE NEWER EOCENE OF MISSISSIPPI. 

Dentalium Mississippiensis. 

Curved, attenuated above, longitudinally striated, the lines alternated in size, 
Length 2 1-10. Abundant. It differs from D. thalloides, nob., in having more 
numerous and much less prominent lines. It is very abundant. 

There is another species which occurs in fragments. It is small, rare, and is 
smooth, polished and curved. 

Fissurella Mississippiensis. 

Suboval, rather elevated, with numerous unequal radiating lines, and fine 
transverse lines, giving a minutely granulated appearance to the shell ; foramen 
oval, submedial. Length , very rare. 

An echinated species occurs apparently identical with I. trochiformis of Paris, 
and of Claiborne, Alabama. 

Solarium triliratum. 

Discoidal, with three thick approximate ridges on the periphery; suture 
channelled ; volutions with oblique impressed lines, and 2 fine revolving lines 
on each whorl; base convex with three revolving impressed lines that near 
the umbilicus profound, and with coarse rugose transverse lines. Diameter 
"7-10. Not common. 

Bulla crassiplica. 

Cylindrical, narrowing towards the base, smooth and entire ; fold at base 
thick and prominent. Length 2-10. 

Abundant on Dr. Smith's plantation, 6 miles N. E. of Vicksburg. 

1 . Cyprcea spheeroides. 

Short ovate, subglobose ; posterior end narrow; base rounded; aperture nar- 
row, the margins with numerous teeth. Length l\. 

Very rare. Mr. J. D. Anderson, of Vicksburg, found one, and I obtained only 
one during the two weeks employed in collecting the fossils around Vicksburg. 

2. Cyprcea lintea. 

Ovate, elevated, ventricose, with four approximate equal impressed lines ; 
base ventricose, profoundly striated ; labrum margin much thickened, profound 
ly striated ; summit of the labrum prominent ; base slightly produced. Length 
6-10. Rare. 

Narica Mississippiensis. 
Subglobose, revolving lines fine, regular, equal ; longitudinal wrinkles very 



Oct. 1847.] 288 

minute, spire very short ; suture somewhat channelled ; umbilicus rather largt . 
Length 4-10. 

Sigaretus Mississippiensis. 

Obliquely oval, with fine very closely arranged wrinkled revolving lines ; 
whorls convex ; no umbilicus. Length 8-10. 

This species is usually much smaller than the specimen described. 
scarcely differs from a species of Claiborne, Alabama. Not very common. 

1. Natica $Iississippiensis. 

Subglobose, body whorl flattened above ; suture channelled ; spire little pro- 
minent; base profoundly callous; aperture moderate. Length 8-10. 
This rare species I found about 7 or 8 miles N. W. of Vicksburg. 

2. Natica Vicksburgensis. 

Subglobose, whorls 4 or 5, convex; umbilicus large; columella straight; la- 
bium callous. Length 6-10. 
This species is common. 

Scalaria trigintanaria. 

Turreted, whorls convex, cancellated with numerous prominent lines, the 
longitudinal one lamellaeform and elevated towards the suture, about 32 in 
number on the body whorl, which is obtusely carinated ; revolving lines equally 
prominent with the longitudinal, but thicker; base below the carina with 
minute revolving lines. Length 9-10. Very rare. 

Turritella Mississippiensis. 

Subulate, volutions flattened, with seven revolving lines on the larger ones 
the penultimate line large and prominent ; longitudinal wrinkles fine, approxi- 
mate, much curved, crenulating the revolving lines ; the whorls near the apex 
generally with two prominent distant revolving lines, and a less prominent one 
margins the suture. Length 3 inches. Not abundant. 

1. Terebra divisurum. 

Subulate, with nineteen flattened volutions, obscurely turreted ; polished and 
with longitudinal curved ribs, dislocated by an impressed line above the middle 
of each whorl ; ribs obsolete on the body whorl below the impressed line. 
Length 2 inches. Common. 

The ribs are sometimes obsolete on the larger whorls, or replaced by co 
wrinkles, which are generally distinct on the body whorl. 

2. Terebra tantula. 

Subulate, with longitudinal ribs dislocated by an impressed line ; whorls with 
minute revolving lines. 

Very similar to the preceding, but narrower, far less in size, and distinguished 
by the revolving lines and by the ribs on the body whorl, which extend to the 
beak. Length . Rare. 

1. Pleurotoma poreellana. 
Fusiform, smooth and polished ; whorls 11, convex, with two revolving lines 
near the upper margin ; the interstices transversely striated ; body whorl with 



284 [Oct. 1847. 

revolving impressed lines, commencing near the upper angle of the aperture ; 
volution contiguous to the apex, papillated ; labium striated ; aperture rather 
more than half the length of the shell ; beak perfectly straight. Length \\. 
Rare. 

This shell may perhaps appertain to Brachytoma, Swainson. 

2. Pleurotoma Mississippiensis, 
Turreted ; volutions eight, concave above and plain below, with longitudinal 
distant rounded ribs ; body whorl with revolving lines, commencing in a line 
with the summit of the aperture ; beak short, a little curved. Length f . 

3. Pleurotoma servata. 

Fusiform ; whorls ten, with rounded longitudinal ribs and prominent strong 
revolving lines, a fine intermediate line on the body whorl ; volutions concave 
above, with a carinated revolving line below the suture ; beak narrow, elongated, 
slightly bent, acuminate ; aperture and canal rather more than half the length 
of the shell. Length 9-10. 

4. Pleurotoma congesta. 

Short-fusiform, volutions nine or ten, with revolving raised lines and longi- 
tudinal wrinkles; spire conical-acute; whorls slightly contracted in the middle, 
with longitudinal curved irregular stria?, interrupted in the middle of each 
whorl; aperture half as long as the shell ; beaks slightly twisted. Length 1-1 0th. 
Very abundant. 

It approaches the genus Brachytoma, Swainson. 

5. Pleurotoma cristata. 

Fusiform, whorls ten, angulated in the middle, except the two from the 
apex, and with a reflected finely dentate carina ; revolving lines distinct, finely 
crenulated ; spire scalariform; from the upper end of the aperture runs a promi- 
nent revolving line, much larger than the others : lines on the body whorl 
below the angle minutely granulated; beak narrow, produced. Length f. Rare. 

6. Pleurotoma tantula. 

Slender ; volutions nine, convex, with longitudinal rounded, slightly curved 
ribs ; spire elevated and acute ; suture margined by an indistinct raised line ; 
beak short, narrow. Length 4-10. Rare. 

A member of subgenus Clavatula, Lam. 

7. Pleurotoma tenella. 

Fusiform ; volutions nine, whorls slightly contracted above, with longitudinal 
prominent curved lines, and a prominent revolving line near and below the su- 
ture ; between this and the suture an impressed line ; body whorl with strong 
prominent revolving lines, commencing in a line with the upper end of the 
aperture, and sometimes alternated in size ; ribs frequently obsolete on the 
body whorl, and terminating at the striated space; beak narrow, somewhat 
produced. Length 8-10. 

It probably belongs to Swainson's genus Clavicantha. 

8. Pleurotoma cochlearis. 

Subfusiform, with elevated revolving lines, alternated with fine lines, the in- 



Oct. 1847.] 285 

terstices with fine longitudinal wrinkled lines; spire elevated, acute; beak 
narrow, straight. Length If. Very rare. 

The specimen figured is more than twice the size of any other specimen 
found, though it is an abundant species. 

9. Pleurotoma eborides. 
Turreted ; whorls nine, smooth, flattened above, obscurely nodulous or sub- 
costate below ; beak short. Length 6-10. 

10. Pleurotoma abundans. 

Turreted: whorls ten, concave above, with a crenulated prominent revolving- 
line just below the suture ; convex portion of the whorls with prominent, acute, 
nearly straight ribs and regular revolving lines ; concave portion with minute 
revolving lines ; beak narrow, slightly produced. Length f. 

It belongs to subgenus Clavatula, Lam. 

11. Pleurotoma rotcedens. 
Narrow-subfusiform, small, with a profound deeply crenulated carina on the 

body whorl and in the middle of each whorl of the spire ; suture margined 
with a prominent line below and a minute one above ; large volution with dis- 
tinct revolving lines and minute longitudinal wrinkles ; beak slightly produced, 
narrow, straight. Length \. Rare. 

12. Pleurotoma decliva. 

Fusiform, with subangular volutions, with strong prominent revolving lines 
on the body whorl, alternated in size ; the whorl flattened and oblique above 
the angle, with four unequal revolving lines ; lower whorls of the spire with 
three prominent revolving lines on the lower half, and a fine intermediate line ; 
upper half with three minute revolving lines, and a larger prominent one below 
and near the suture ; aperture and canal half the length of the shell. Length 1. 

Allied to P. servata, but wants the longitudinal ribs of that species. Rare. 

Phorus humilis. 

Depressed ; volutions five, with comparatively large shells and fragments 
adhering : body whorl very wide, much depressed ; base flat ; near the peri- 
phery concave. Width 8-10. Height \. 

I found but one specimen of its shell, which seems to be less elevated than 
the other species. 

Buccinum Mississippiensis. 

Turreted ; whorls eight, three from the apex smooth and entire ; the others 
with longitudinal regular distant ribs and intermediate wrinkles ; revolving 
lines raised, alternated in size : labrum with eleven raised lines within, not 
extending to the margin ; columella striated. Length 5-10. Common. 

Typhis curvirostratus. 
Subfusiform ; volutions 8, scalariform, varices or ribs profound ; tubes long ; 
that near the margin of aperture thick, elongated, beak elongated, spiniform, 
much curved. Length 1-10. Not uncommon. 



28G [Oct. 1847. 

Murex Mississippiensis. 

Subfusiform, with three elevated varices, and an intermediate prominent 
obtuse longitudinal ridge ; between two of the varices on the body whorl is a 
smaller ridge ; revolving lines prominent, alternated in size, profound on the 
varices ; longitudinal wrinkles distinct ; labium with six prominent lines 
within, the margin regularly foliated ; canal long. Length, 1 7-10. 

Xorth American, uncommon. It belongs to the subgenus Phyllonota of 
3wainson. 

3felongena crassi-cornuta. 

.Fusiform : whorls concave above, and having a series of thick prominent 
nodes on the angle of the whorls ; on the body whorl they are very large and 
thick, becoming spines towards the mouth, that nearest the margin a very 
thick, long, recurved spine ; towards the base is a series of thick short spines, 
revolving lines coarse, unequal, not very prominent, waved ; longitudinal 
wrinkles coarse and distinct. Length of fragment 3. 

I found but one specimen of this fine shell, and cut off the base in digging 
it out of the clay. 

The genus Melokgena has no affinity with the type of Pyrula of Lamarck 
FtrwiURof Montford.) Its true position will probably be among the Porpp- 
ris je. I have referred to this genus the Fusus corona of Lamarck. The species , 
have a remarkable sinus at the upper end of the labrum. 

1. Fusus spiniger. 

Fusiform, with revolving lines, and a series of elevated acute spines on the 
angle of the large whorl ; the series continued on the whorls of the spire near; 
the suture ; two upper whorls entire ; sides above the tubercles flattened, with 
the revolving lines fine and indistinct ; volutions seven ; beak produced ; 
labrum striated within. Length If. Very rare. 

It belongs to the genus Hemifusus of Swainson. 

2. Fusus Mississippiensis. 

TV arrow-fusiform ; volutions eight or nine, convex, with distant profound, 
rounded ribs, and fine regular ornamental wrinkles ; canal much longer than 
the aperture ; labrum striated within : beak narrow, produced, slightly bent. 
Length If. 

3. Fusus Vicksburgensis. 
Fusiform ; whorls convex, with revolving raised lines alternated in size, 
and fine longitudinal wrinkled lines ; large whorl ventricose ; beak somewhat 
bent. Length 1',. 

Ficus Mississippiensis. 
Pyriform, thin and fragile, latticed, with acute prominent lines, the revolv- 
ing one largest and distant, the interstices with minute revolving lines ; lon- 
gitudinal lines closely arranged, equal; spire very short, whorls convex, the 
two nearest the apex entire ; large volution flattened at top. Length 1. 



Oct. 1847.] 287 

Chenopus liratus. 

Ovate, with a thick dilated labrum ; whorls nine, convex, ribbed longitudinal- 
ly, and with revolving lines; ribs curved, undulated on the body whorl and 
subnodose above; body whorl gibbous ; aperture narrow ; callus of the labium 
profound. Length |. Very rare. 

I have adopted the above generic name because, as Phillipi observes, the 
Pterocera lambis was made the type of the genus Apoorhais. 

Ringicula Mhsissippiensis. 

Ovate acute, whorls five or six, convex, with minute revolving lines ; su- 
ture profound, margin carinated by a submarginal impressed line ; columel- 
la two-plaited. Length 1-10. Abundant on Dr. Smith's plantation near Vicks- 
burg. 

Actceon Andersoni. 

Oblong subovate ; whorls six, with regular impressed revolving lines, inter- 
stices minutely striato-punctate ; spire acutely conical, whorls convex ; lines 
on the shoulder indistinct ; aperture about equal to half the length of the shell. 
Length 4-10. 

An elegantly formed and very rare species, dedicated to James D. Anderson! 
Esq., of Vicksburg, who first collected the fosssils of that locality and stud- 
ied the species. 

1. Cancellaria Mississippiensis. 
Subovate ; whorls five or six, turreted ; ribs prominent, ten or eleven on the 
large volution, one or two considerably larger than the others; revolving lines 
raised, distinct, alternated in size on the lower half of the body whorl; labrum 
striated within ; columella concave, three-plaited. Length . 

2. Cancellaria funcrata. 

Oblong ovate with large longitudinal ribs and prominent revolving lines ; 
spire rather elevated, turreted, whorls six, convex ; two from the apex entire ; 
ribs on the body whorl profound, unequal ; labrum with nine prominent lines 
within, not extending to the margin ; columella three-plaited. Length J. Very 
rare. 

1. Triton crassidens. 

Subfusiform, a little distorted ; spire acuminated ; whorls latticed, the 
lougitudinal ridges rather distant, prominent; body whorl with the longitu- 
dinal ribs distant, and on the angle some of them very prominent or snbtu- 
berculous ; labrum with one large thick prominent tubercle, and with trans- 
verse plaits and grains : columella profoundly excavated ; canal short. Length 
1 6-10. 

I have given the name of crassidens to this species to distinguish it from T. 
cancellinus, the large tooth on the labrum being very thick and prominent- 
The large plait on the upper part of the labium in much smaller than the cor- 
responding one in cancellinus. It differs in other particulars though the two 
species are nearly allied. 

39 



288 [Oct. 1847. 

2. Triton abbreviatus. 

Short-subovate : whorls six, longitudinally ribbed, and with strong alternated 
revolving lines ; whorls of the spire slightly convex, the two nearest the apex 
entire, rounded body whorl inflated, anJ having one large varix ; the ribs 
about fifteen in number ; submargin of labrum denticulate ; canal short, oblique, 
straight, aperture and canal about half the length of the shell. Length 4-10. 

3. Triton Mississippiensis. 

Acutely subovate ; volutions six or seven, latticed, the longitudinal and re- 
volving lines subequal ; one varix on the large volution opposite to that on the 
submargin of the labrum, both elevated and narrow or subcompressed : two 
varices narrow and prominent on three whorls of the spire ; submargin of labrum 
with six teeth ; columella with five transverse plaits, and two or three near the 
upper angle of aperture. Length J nearly. 

Of this species I obtained one specimen only. 

Cassidaria lintea. 
Elliptical, with fine closely-arranged revolving lines, crossed by finer longi- 
tudinal lines, most distinct towards the margin of the labrum ; spire prominent, 
acute, cancellated ; penultimate whorl slightly tuberculated at base ; angle of 
large whorl with unequal small tubercles, wanting towards the labium mar- 
gin ; labium striated above, and with rugose plaits below ; submargin of labi- 
um striated within, margin entire. Length \\. 

1. Cassis ccelatura. 

Short-elliptical, with revolving lines and serious of nodes and granules ; 
tubercles profound on the angle of the body whorl ; spire prominent, whorls 
cancellated ; the upper half with a profound revolving line ; labium granulated 
and striated throughout, the upper grains indistinct ; labrum with transverse 
prominent lines. Length 1^. 

2. Cassis Mississippiensis. 

Subovate ; whorls sightly concave above, the angle nodular; body whorl 
indistinctly ribbed or waved ; revolving lines distinct but fine ; body whorl 
with one sharp compressed varix or carina ; apex papillated ; pillar with trans- 
verse rugose plaits throughout ; submargin of labrum regularly and profoundly 
dentate. Length 9-10. Very rare. 

Oniscia harpula. 
Obovate, latticed ; longitudinal ribs angular, distant, about ten on the large 
whorl, with a slightly foliated and waved margin ; revolving lines large, dis- 
tant, about twelve on the body whorl ; spire scalariform, the ribs divided by an 
impressed line ; submargin of labrum obtusely dentate. Length 1 2-10. Very 
rare. 

Fulgoraria Mississippiensis. 

Elliptical, volutions nine, fluted, the ridges distant, acute, and generally one 
or two of them large, thick and very remote from each other, on the body whorl; 
spire conical, acute ; aperture auriform ; columella with nearly equal plaits, 
not oblique ; labium thick, with a sharp margin. Length 1J. Common, 



Oct. 1847.] 28i* 

Oliva Mississippiensis. 
Subelliptical ; volutions six and a half; on the middle of the body whorl is a 
slightly impressed revolving line. Length 1 1-10. Usual size f . Abundant. 

1. Mitra conquisita. 

Fusiform, slender, smooth and polished ; whorls eleven, slightly convex ; 
penultimate whorl entire, except at the summit, where there are two impressed 
lines forming a raised line between them ; the other whorls of the spire with 
revolving lines, and towards the apex the intervening spaces transversely 
wrinkled ; apex acute ; body whorl above the aperture, except the lines near 
the suture, without striae ; inferiorly striated ; aperture narrow ; labium 
3-plaited. Length 1 4-10. Very rare. 

2. M'tra Mississippiensis. 

Narrow-fusiform, with eight whorls, flattened at the sides and slightly sca- 
lariform; whole surface with revolving unequal lines and longitudinal fine 
wrinkles, obsolete on the lines but distinct on the intervening spaces ; aperture 
more than half the length of the shell ; columella 3-plaited. Length If. Rare. 

In the young shell the strise are prominent over the whole surface, but in 
adult specimens they become slightly impressed lines on the ventricose portion 
of the body. 

3. Mitra cellulifera. 

Elevated-subfusiform ; slender ; whorls slightly turreted ; longitudinally 
ribbed ; interstices with transverse impressed lines, resembling punctae or 
cells ; beak produced ; labium 4-plaited, the second one from the top divided 
by a slightly impressed line. Length |. Rare. 

4. Mitra staminea. 

Elliptical, whorls eight, slightly turreted, longitudinally ribbed ; ribs small, 
numerous ; whorls with distinct impressed revolving lines ; body whorl ventri- 
cose ; aperture about half the length of the shell ; pillar 4-plaited, the three 
upper ones nearly equal. Length 4-10. 

5. Mitra Vicksburgensis. 

Elliptical, small; whorls slightly convex, with fine longitudinal ribs, obsolete 
towards the suture inferiorly and wanting on the lower half of the body ; 
suture profound ; aperture more than half the length of the shell ; pillar 
4-plaited, the three upper ones nearly or quite equal in size. 

Distinguished from the preceding by wanting the revolving lines, and in 
being wider in proportion to its length. 3-10. 

Caricella demissa. 
Subfusiform ; whorls six, convex, one or two whorls near the apex distinctly 
striated longitudinally, and with minute revolving lines ; upper part of the 
whorls slightly concave ; apex papillated, first and second volutions smooth, 
entire ; beak striated ; aperture about two-thirds the length of the shell ; colu- 
mella 4-plaited. Length If* 

Scobinella. 

Shell subfusiform, with a deep angular sinus in the labrum as in Pleuro- 



290 [Oct. 1847. 

toma ; spire long, turreted ; pillar lip wanting ; columella with plaits decreas- 
ing in size downwards, as in Mitra ; canal short. 

Scobinella cozlata. 

Subfusiforrn ; volutions eleven, slightly scalariform, with longitudinal ir- 
regular ribs and revolving impressed lines ; ribs interrupted on the spire by a 
tuberculated convex space ; suture margined by a row of fine tubercles or 
grains ; labium with four, rarely five plates. Length 1 3-10. 

This singular shell is perhaps more nearly related to Pleurotoma than to 
Mitra. The plates in most specimens resemble those of the latter genus, but 
in one instance where there are five plaits, the middle is the largest and 
thickest, the lowest one being minute. 

1. Turbinella Wilsoni. 

Fusiform ; spire elevated, acute, volutions ten, angular, nodose, the larger 
volutions somewhat concave above ; the upper volutions with revolving lines, 
obsolete or wanting on the lower ones ; beak with coarse, slightly raised revol- 
ving lines ; aperture narrow ; columella with three rather distant compressed 
plaits, the middle one largest ; canal long. Length 5 inches. 

The young of this species has distinct lines on every part of the shell, ex- 
cept on the large portion of the body whorl, where they are indistinct and re- 
mote. This species is named to commemorate the scientific zeal of Dr. Thomas 
B. "Wilson. It is rare, and generally very imperfect. 

2. Turbinella protracta. 

Fusiform, with about nine volutions, with thick, prominent, longitudinal 
ridges, and revolving, thick, prominent lines, with a fine intervening line ; 
longitudinal wrinkles distinct ; whorls concave above ; spire elevated, acute ; 
columella with four plaits, the lower one dentiform ; canal long ; labrum striated 
within. Length 1 5-10. 

3. Turbinella perexilis. 

Narrow-fusiform, with convex volutions, having large, rounded, longitudi- 
nal ribs, about six on the large whorl ; revolving lines strong, prominent, dis- 
tant, with a fine intermediate line ; longitudinal wrinkles minute and orna- 
mental ; aperture narrow ; labrum striated within: columella with two larg^ 
plaits; beak long and narrow. Length 1. 

Distinguished from the preceding by its narrower outline, fewer and larger 
plaits on the pillar, &c. It is probably a much smaller species, but as I have 
one specimen only, its greatest size cannot be determined. 

Panopcea oblongata. 

Elongated, very inequilateral, ventricose ; extremities rounded : umbo promi- 
nent, undulated ; valves slightly contracted at base in a line with the urn- 
bones : valves gaping at both ends. Length 3J. 

Occurs in its original vertical position generally with connected valves, but 
it is extremely friable and difficult to obtain. 

1. Mactra 3fississippiensis. 

Subtriangular, equilateral, very thin and fragile, plano-convex, dorsal margin 



Oct. 1847.] 291 

very oblique, nearly straight, extremity acutely rounded, much above the line 
of the base, which is regularly curved; summit prominent; lunule elongated, 
defined by an impressed line; umbonial slope nearly terminal, angulated and 
carinated by a thin line. Length 1 8-10. Height 1 4-10. 

Proportionally more elevated than M. prcstenuis, of Claiborne, Alabama, and 
a much larger species. Rare. 

2. Mactra fimcrata.. 

Triangular, small, convex; much longer than high, equilateral; posterior 
end angular. Length 3-10. Rare. 

A mphidesma Mississippiensis. 

Oblong-oval, somewhat compressed, inequilateral, smooth, with a few distant 
concentric impressed lines; posterior side with a slight fold, end obtusely 
rounded ; anterior end rounded ; cartilage pit very narrow, elliptical ; lateral 
teeth in the right valve distinct, in the left wanting? Length 1 1-10, 
Height 7-10. 

1, Psammobia papyria. 

Oblong-oval, or somewhat rhomboidal ; very thin, compressed ; posterior side 
rather wider than anterior; and posterior to the umbonial slope, which is unde- 
fined, there are concentric lamellaeform lines; anterior margin obliquely 
rounded ; dorsal margin parallel with the base. Length U. Rare. 

2. Psammobia lintea. 
Oblong, compressed, with rather fine, very regular concentric lines closely 
arranged ; anterior margin acutely rounded, the extremity in a line above the 
middle of the valve; posterior side shortest; hinge line rectilinear, oblique ; 
posterior side with acute lines larger and more prominent than those of, the 
middle and anterior side; umbonial slope subangular. Length 1J. Rare. 

Crassatella Mississippiensis. 

Ovate-trigonal, inequilateral, thick and ponderous ; surface coarsely striated ; 
summits flattened, sulcated; umbo plano-convex, with numerous sulci, obsolete 
behind the umbonial slope, which is angulated and subcarinated above; pos- 
terior extremity truncated, direct; basal margin slightly contracted anterior to 
the umbonial slope; inner margin crenulated. Length 3. Common. 

This species is variable in outline, and allied to C. tumida of the Paris 
basin. 

1. Car Hum eversum. 

Ovate, elevated, subequilateral; ventricose, thin, with numerous approximate, 
slender, rounded ribs distinctly crenulated anteriorly towards the margins; um- 
bonial slope subangulated; posterior extremity subtruncated, direct; summit 
very prominent; ribs crenulated on the sides, in the middle of the valves, or 
finely aculeated. Height 1 2-10. Length not quite as much. Rare. 

2. Cardium glebosum. 

Ovate, ventricose, with numerous flat ribs, slightly carinated on the margins 
and numerous approximate, prominent arched scales. Height l\. 

Rare, and obtained only in fragments. 



292 [Oct. 1847. 

3, Cardium diver mm. 

Trigonal, ventricose, subequilateral, thiii, with concentric lines and more 
approximate, fine, but obtuse radiating lines ; umbonial slope rounded, and the 
posterior space from the umbonial slope with profound radiating striae ; posterior 
side slightly waved or contracted; summits very prominent; basal margin 
rounded in the middle, contracted posteriorly: posterior extremity subtrunca- 
ted ; inner margin densely crenate. Height 12-10. Length 13-10. Abundant. 

Allied to C. Nicolleti, nob. When viewed through a magnifier, the inter- 
stices of the concentric lines have a singular imbricated appearance. 

4. Cardium Vicksburgense. 
Cordate, ventricose, with about twenty-four ribs; angular and profound; 
towards the anterior margin obsolete ; summit prominent ; nearest the anterior 
end; anterior margin nearly straight and direct; posterior end subtruncated. 
Height 3-10. Length 4-10 nearly. Rare. 

1. Tellina pectorosa. 
Subtriangular, elevated, smooth and polished ; ventricose ; beaks medial ; an- 
terior end obtuse, rounded ; posterior side somewhat cuneiform, with a slight 
wave or fold; basal margin profoundly rounded. Length 6-10. Height 
5-10. 

2. Tellina serica. 

Elliptical, inequivalved ; beaks nearest the posterior end ; concentric lines 
very minute anl closely arranged; anterior side slightly bent or reflected. 
Length 7-10. 

3. Tellina Vicksburgensis. 

Triangular, small, with regular minute concentric lines ; anterior end rounded; 
posterior submargin angular or obscurely carinated, the end obliquely trunca- 
ted ; posterior side shortest, and slightly bent or waved; lateral teeth in the 
right valve only. Length 3-10. Height \. 

Donax funerata. 

Triangular, small, convex, with obsolete radiating lines ; anterior side short, 
end truncated, direct; margin within finely crenulated ; lateral teeth none. 
Length 3-10. 

Very rare. I found it about 8 miles N. E. of Vicksburg. 

1. Cytherea Astartiformis. 

Trigonal, elevated, ventricose, subequilateral, with numerous regular concen- 
tric grooves and obtuse ridges ; lunule not defined ; summits prominent ; umbo 
flattened. Length 6-10. Height . 

This shell has a remarkable resemblance on the exterior to some species of 
Aslarle. Rare. 

2. Cytherea imitabilis. 

Cordate, inequilateral, plano-convex, with numerous concentric prominent 
acute ribs; extremities rounded ; basal margin regularly curved ; lunule ovate, 
defined by an impressed line. Length 1 7-10. Height 1 3-10. Common. 



Oct. 1847.] 298 

3. Cytherea Mississippiensis. 
Subtriangular, ventrieose, elevated, with prominent eonsentric acute ribs, 
rather distant, and with irregular intervals and fine intermediate lines : poste- 
rior margin somewhat curved ; basal margin profoundly rounded ; summit* 
prominent; inner margin entire. Length iy. Height the same nearly. Rart-. 

4. Cytherea sobrina. 
Subovate, ventrieose, polished ; with rather obtuse irregular distant, concen- 
tric, impressed lines ; umbo entire ; extremities rounded ; base regularly 
curved. Length 1 1-10. Height 9-10. 

Very abundant. Almost always with disunited valves. It is quite thick on 
the anterior side towards the summit. 

5. Cytherea perbrevis. 
Ovate-triangular, elevated, ventrieose : the posterior and anterior margins 
equally declining and very oblique, the anterior one straight, the posterior 
slightly curved; beaks medial; surface with numerous regular impressed lines ; 
basal margin rounded. Length and height 6-10. 

It is of the size, and has somewhat the form of V. Astartiformis, but the 
greater elevation, convex umbo, numerous impressed lines, and more rounded 
base, distinguish it from that species. Rare. 

Corbis slaminea. ' 
Suboval, convex, thin, with lamellseform concentric stride, about thirty-seven 
in number ; posterior side with a slight fold ; beaks medial. Length 1. Rare. 

1. Lucina Mississippi ensis. 
Orbicular, thin and fragile, with minute obsolete radiating lines ; anterior 
side shortest, the margin obliquely truncated, angular above and elevated ; 
inferior margins rounded ; posterior end obtusely rounded ; lunnle profound ; 
cardinal and lateral teeth wanting. Length 9-10. Height . 

This species very much resembles L. subvexa of Claiborne, but wants the 
impressed line on the posterior side. Rare. 

2. Lucina perlcvis. 
Orbicular, with lamellseform concentric lines, and very minute obsolete radi- 
ating lines, closely arranged ; beaks medial ; posterior end direct ; cardinal 
teeth small. Length 4-10. Height rather less. Very rare. 

The shells of this subgenus are orbicular, generally punctate within, often 
very thin and ventrieose ; cardinal teeth small and compressed, sometimes 
obsolete or wanting ; lateral teeth none. Lucina radula, and L. edentula, among 
recent species, belong to this group. 

1. Loripes? turgida. 

Suborbicular, very thin and fragile, with minute concentric lines ; beaks 
medial; umbo and summit prominent ; margins regularly rounded. Height 
6-10. Length rather more than 5-10. 

2. Loripes eburnea. 
Suborbicular, slightly oblique, convex, with minute closely arranged concen- 



294 [Oct. 1847. 

trie lines, and a few larger impressed lines ; posterior margin truncated, direct ; 
anterior end and anterior basil margins regularly rounded ; posterior basal 
margin obliquely truncated ; beaks nearest the posterior end. Length 6-10. 
Height 6-10 nearly. 

Corbula intastriata. 

Subtriangular, inflated, rostrated posteriorly ; within with fine radiating lines ; 
Length . Very rare. 

1. Corbula alta. 

Subtriangular, profoundly elevated, slightly oblique ; larger valve ventri- 
cose ; summit very prominent ; umbo broad ; hinge plate thick, with large 
teeth ; smaller valve somewhat flattened, angular over the umbonial slope. 
Length 6-10 nearly. Height 6-10. 

Occurs abundantly about 8 miles N. E. of Vicksburg, and always water- 
worn. 

2. Corbula engonata. 

Triangular, inequilateral, small; valves nearly or quite equally convex, and 
with angular concentric ridges ; posterior slope concave ; umbonial slope cari- 
nated. Length 3-10. 

Chama Mississippiensis. 

Suboval, irregular, adhering; larger valve ventricose, with numerous irregu- 
lar radiating lines, squamose inferiorly ; upper valve with numerous concen- 
tric lines, with numerous small scales. Length f. Height 6-10. 

Rare, and occurs on Dr. Smith's plantation, 6 miles N. E. of Vicksburg. 

Pectunculus arctatus. 

Short-ovate, convex depressed, with little prominent flattened radii, divided 
by a longitudinal impressed line towards the base ; anterior margin truncated : 
posterior margin nearly rectilinear. Length . Height 6-10. 

Rare, and occurs on the bank of Yazoo river, about 14 miles from Vicksburg. 

There is in the collection a valve of another species of Pectunculus, which 
is small, and resembles the young of P. pulvinatus. 

1. Nucula serica. 

Subelliptical, with minute regular concentric closely-arranged lines ; ante- 
rior end acutely angular ; posterior end acutely rounded ; posterior side 
shortest. Length . Common. 

2. Nucula Vicksburgensis. 

Obliquely subtriangular, convex, with minute obsolete radiating lines about 
the base ; lunule elliptical, very large and impressed. Length ^. Rare. 

Area Mississippiensis. 

A species of Area occurs in great abundance at Vicksburg, which Lesueur 
obtained many years since and named it, but I have forgotten the name, and 
know not whether he published it in Europe or not. It is rhomboidal, ventri- 
cose, with rather distant ribs in the right valve, slightly grooved in the middle ; 
in the left valve ribs double and granulated ; inner margin profoundly toothed. 
Length 8-10. 



Oct. 1847.] 295 

1. Byssoarca lima. 

Trapezoidal, cancellated and granulated ; radii largest on anterior aud pos- 
terior slopes, but becoming obsolete towards the posterior extremity ; end angu- 
lar, margin above obliquely truncated ; anterior end widely truncated, nearly 
direct; basal margin undulated, irregular and very variable in outline ; hinge 
line crenulated under the beaks, profoundly toothed towards the extremities : 
cardinal area with lines strongly denned and angulated under the apex. Length 
2 9-10. Rare. 

2. Byssoarca Misshsippiensis. 

Trapezoidal, with numerous closely-arranged radiating lines, crenulated by 
fine concentric lines, the crenulation most distinct anteriorly, when the radii 
are largest; anterior end truncated or a little convex, direct : posterior margin 
obliquely truncated above ; basal margin widely and profoundly arched ; hinge 
line long, linear, minutely crenulated, expanded towards the extremities, and 
with prominent teeth ; cardinal area withfine very closely-arranged lines, angu- 
lated under the apex. Length 1 6-10. 

Differs from the preceding in having a longer hinge, finer radii, &c, and is a 
much smaller species and more abundant. 

3. Byssoarca protracta. 

Trapezoidal, elongated, with numerous radiating lines, some of which are 
double, and' others alternated in size and finely crenulated; dorsal margin, 
parallel with the base ; anterior margin truncated, posterior a little concave, 
oblique, end very acutely rounded or subangular ; basal margin slightly con- 
tracted ; hinge line long, rectlinear, very regular and gradually increasing in 
width towards the extremities from the apex ; cardinal area wide, depressed 
concave, with a few fine impressed angular lines. Length 1^. Height i 
nearly. 

A pretty species of which I found one valve only. 

Avicula argentea. 

Ovate-subquadrangular, thin and fragile, ventricose above, smooth and entire? 
anterior wing sharply angular ; posterior wing not produced, rectangular at the 
extremity ; posterior end angular, extending beyond the hinge line and much 
above the line of the base ; anterior margin and base form a regular rounded 
outline. Height l. Length 1 4-10. Not common. 

Modiola Mississippiensis. 

Slightly arched, elongated, ventricose, with rather fine clo3ely-arranged radi- 
ating lines wanting on the anterior side ; region of umbonial slope inflated pos- 
terior end acutely rounded; beak angulated posteriorly; substance of shell 
silvery and perlaceous. 2-10th from beak to base. Rare, except in one spot, 
where I obtained several specimens and fragments. 

Pinna argentea. 

Trianugular, with straight margins and acute summit ; compressed ; substance 
highly polished and silvery ; valves with longitudinal radii on more than half 



296 [Oct. 1847. 

the disc, about thirteen in number ; anterior side with rugose, obtuse, oblique, 
finer and more approximate lines. Length 2J. Rare. 

Lima staminea. 

Subovate, oblique, inflated, with fine radiating lines ; ears very small. 
scarcely defined ; posterior margin rectilinear. Height 4-10. 

Very similar in outline to the Miocene species, L. papyria, but it is much 
smaller, and has more numerous lines anteriorly. Rare. 

Pecten. 

A valve of a small species was obtained. It is orbicular and entire, and re- 
sembles P. calvatus, (Morton.) 

Ostrea Vickshurgensis. 

Plicated; very irregular and adhering, the upper valve not flat, but swelling 
in an irregular manner. Height 1|. 

There is nothing peculiar about this shell, yet it is clearly distinct from any 
other species of the American Tertiary hitherto described. Common. 

Pholas triquetra. 

Subtriangular, depressed and angulated posterior to the middle, and with an 
impressed line from beak to base ; surface with oblique lines anteriorly, and a 
few radiating towards the margin ; posterior side reflected and with oblique lines 
meeting the anterior ones at an angle ; a few obsolete radiating lines, one more 
conspicuous than the others, near the margin. Length 6-10. Height . 

I found one valve only, which occurred on Dr. Smith's plantation. 

Madrepora M ississippiensis. 
Rounded; cells numerous, very unequal in size, prominent, some of them 
very large, the sides with strong longitudinal lines, and the interstices with 
minute closely-arranged longitudinal lines; rays about fourteen, minutely 
crenulated on the edge, alternated with a short plate ; centre with irregular 
grains. Diameter 6-10. 

Madrepora Vickshurgensis. 

Irregular, ramose, somewhat flattened ; cells unequal in size, with a slightly 
prominent margin; submargin depressed, striated : rays alternated with a short 
plate ; centre granulated. 

A larger species than the preceding, the branches being sometimes an inch 
in diameter. Abundant. 

Turbinolia caulifera. 
Somewhat turbinate, rather long, with fine equal granulated longitudinal 
lines; base stem-like; rays ramose ; larger end oval. Length 8-10. Rare. 

Lunulites. 
Two or three species of Lunulites occur in the Eocene of Vicksburg. 

Lunulites Vickshurgensis. 
Cup-shaped or somewhat conical, with very small cells, generally equal in 
size, subaDgular, and between each series is a minute impressed radiating line : 
interior striae ramose and very minutely crenulated. Height \. 



Oct. 1847.] 297 

Descriptions of New Eocene Fossils in the Cabinet o/Lardner VaNUXkm. 

The following organic remains were obtained from Eocene rocks in St. Mat- 
thew's Parish, Orangeburg District, S. C, by Lardner Vanuxem. 

1. Nucula mucronala. 

Elliptical, convex in the middle, with equal, laminated, not closely-arranged 
lines, about seventeen in number ; anterior side longest, the end acutely pointed ; 
a submarginal furrow emarginates the base; posterior side slightly contracted, 
end obtusely rounded or subtruncated. Length 9-10. Height 5. 

2. Nucula carolinensis. 

Somewhat elliptical, convex, with rather closely-arranged prominent concen- 
trie lines, wanting on the posterior side, which is rather shorter that the an- 
terior and regularly rounded at the end ; anterior submargin with a narrow 
groove, bounded^by a subcarinated line ; anterior side narrowed and rather ob- 
tuse at the end. Length \. Height \. 

3. Nucula subtrigona. 

Subtriangular, ventricose, nearly equilateral, with numerous prominent con- 
centric lines ; anterior side pointed, flexuous ; submargin angulated : anterior 
margin sinuous, end angular; ligament margin straight; basal margin pro- 
foundly rounded. Length f. Height i nearly. 

4. Nucula calcarensis.. 

Subovate, ventricose, with minute closely-arranged concentric lines ; ante- 
rior side longest, pointed, slightly recurved, without a submarginal groove or 
fold; base profoundly rounded. Length 7-16. Height . 

1. Cardita vigintinaria. 

Suborbicular, inequilateral, ventricose, with about thirty square radii, about 
as wide as the interstices ; umbonial slope rounded ; anterior margin subtrun- 
cated. Length 7-8. Height 7-8. 

2. Cardita carolinensis. 

Suborbicular ? profoundly ventricose, with about thirty very prominent 
square radii, on the anterior side sharp, recurved and crenulated ; lunule very 
broad and cordate, deeply impressed ; hinge thick ; pit anterior to the cardi- 
nal tooth small and profound. 

This is a fragment of the right valve, about 5-8ths of an inch long. 

3. Cardita bilineata. 

Subrhomboidal, very inequilateral, with about twenty-four wide, flattened 
radii, with very narrow interstices, a carina in the middle of each rib, with 
an impressed line on each side of it ; ribs crenulated anteriorly ; carina some- 
what tuberculated on the posterior side of the shell. Length f . Height 9-16. 



298 [Oct. 1847. 

4. Cardita subquadrata. 

Trapezoidal, compressed ; valves flattened in the middle ; radii about twenty- 
five, broad on the disk, with very narrow interstices, and each rib with a crenu- 
lated carina in the middle ; posterior to umbonial slope the ribs are smooth, not 
carinated ; anterior side short, rounded at the end ; posterior margin obliquely 
truncated. Length 6-10. Height 7-20. 

5. Cardita subrotunda. 

Orbicular, inequilateral, ventricose, with about twenty-eight rounded promi- 
nent narrow radii ; ligament margin very oblique, short ; ends obtusely rounded 
inner margin slightly crenulated. Length J. Height J. 

Turbo biliratus. 

Turbinate ; volutions four, flattened above ; body whorl with two distant 
revolving carinated lines, and intermediate fine revolving lines ; volutions of 
the spire with a carinated line below the middle. Length f . Width f . 

1. Cerithium bicostellatum. 

Turreted ; volutions eight or nine, angular and carinated below the middle > 
body whorl bicarinated. Length f. 

2. Cerithium siliceum. 

Turreted ; whorls rounded below, contracted or concave above, and with re- 
volving lines ; suture profound. A fragment. Width . 

Infundibulum carinatum. 

Depressed, with a suddently elevated acutely conical spire, and a carinated 
line revolving at the suture. -Length of fragment f . 

All the preceding fossils are from the Eocene rocks of St. Matthew's Parish, 
Orangeburg District, S. C. Not one species of this locality is known in the 
lower Eocene of Claiborne or elsewhere, nor in the upper Eocene of Vicksburg, 
and therefore the relative age of the deposit is uncertain, but it unquestionably 
belongs to the Eocene period. .Near this rock Mr. Vanuxem found quite a dif- 
ferent class of shells, consisting of casts in indurated clay. The relative posi- 
tion is undetermined. Two of the shells are described and named Tellina sub- 
equalis and Lutraria petrosa. 

Tellina subequalis. 

Somewhat elliptical, nearly equilateral ; posterior end acutely rounded ; an- 
terior slightly bent, end rounded. (A cast.) Length \\. Width f. 

Madrepora punctulata. 

Cylindrical, ramose with prominent cells ; whole surface ornamented with 
fine, equal, punctate, impressed lines. Diameter J. 

Locality. St. Mathew's Parish, Orangeburg, S. C. Vanuxem. 

A species highly ornamented by the punctate vermicular lines. It occurs 
much larger than the speeimen described. 

In Vanuxem's collection there is a cast, from the Eocene near Long Branch, 



Oct. 1847.] 299 

N. J., resembling Nautilus zigzag, (Sow.) It is more compressed than that 
species, and the angles of the septa appear to be in contact near the periphery. 
It is more like a Goniatite than a Nautilus, and may properly constitute a 
genus, which I propose to name Nautilopsis. 

Nautilopsis Vanuxemi. 

Length 2%. Diameter 1 5-16. 

N. zig-zag may be referred to the same genus. 



The Society, in accordance with the resolution adopted at last 
meeting for business, proceeded to the election of a Recording 
Secretary in the place of Mr. Moss, resigned when Mr. John 
Lambert was unanimously elected. 

A letter was read from Mr. Wm. C. Redfield, dated New York, 
Oct. 19, 1847, requesting the loan of the Westfield specimens of 
fossil fish, in the collection of the Academy, for the purpose of 
description by Mr. Agassiz, in his Memoir on the American 
Fossil Fishes from the New Red Sandstone, now in course of 
preparation. 

On motion, the By-law relating to the loan of specimens from 
the Museum, was temporarily suspended, and the request of Mr. 
Redfield complied with by the Society, under proper restrictions. 

ELECTION. 

Messrs. Charles Lennig, J. Dickinson Sergeant, Edward M. 
Kern, Charles Klemm, and Prof. James B. Rogers, all of Phila- 
delphia, were elected Members ; and 

Dr. P. W. Korthals, of Leyden, was elected a Correspondent. 



PROCEEDINGS 

or THE 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 

OF PHILADELPHIA.. 

Vol. III. NOV. AND DEC, 1S47. No. 12. 

Stated Meeting Nov. 2, 1847. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

A living "specimen of Ursus Americanns, from Chicago, 

Michigan, and a specimen in spirits of Salamandra vene- 

nosa, from Michigan. Presented by Mr. Lewis J. 

Germain. 
Numerous specimens, in spirits, of Coleopterous insects ; also 

Achatina perdrix, and a serpent of large size, probably 

new, from Africa. Presented by Rev. T. S. Savage. 
Fine specimen of Squilla , from the West India coast. 

From Captain H. S. Baker. 
Stigmaria , from Lycoming county, Pennsylvania. 

From Mr. J. R. Pollock, of Philadelphia. 
Several varieties of Copper Ore, from the Flemington Copper 

Mine, N. J. From Peter A. Browne, Esq. 
Dr. Morton deposited six elongated heads of old Peruvians, 

from the Tombs at Areca, another similar one through Dr. 

Dickeson, and the head of a Mexican officer slain in one of 

the recent engagements. 

41 



304 [Nov. 1847. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Fauna der Vorvelt mit steter Berucksichtigung der lebenden 
Thiere-Monographisch dargestellt von Dr. C. G. Giebel. 
Svo. Leipzig, 1S47. From Mr. John Lambert. 
Resultate gcologischer, anatomischer, undzoologischer unter- 
suchungen iiber das unter dem namen Hydrarchos, von 
Dr. A. C. Koch, zuerstnach Europa gebrachte und in Dres- 
den ausgestellte grosse fossile skelett. Von Dr. C. G. 
Cams, &c. Folio. Dresden und Leipzig, 1S47. From the 
same. 
Results of Astronomical observations, made during the years 
1834-5-6-7 and 8, at the Cape of Good Hope. By Sir 
John F. W. Herschel. 4to. London, 1S47. From the 
Duke of Northumberland, through the Author. 
Oken's Isis. Nos. 5 and 6, for 1847. Deposited by Dr. 

Wilson. 
An attempt to discover some of the laws which govern 
animal torpidity and hybernation. By Peter A. Browne, 
LL. D. 8vo. pamphlet. Philadelphia, 1847. From the 
Author. 
D. R. E. Griffith deposited the following large collection of 

works : 
The elements of experimental Chemistry. By Wm. Henry, 

M. D. Fourth American edition. Svo. Philadelphia. 
1847. 

Tabula affinitatum animalium, &c. Auctore Johanne Her- 
mann, M. D. 4to. 17S3. 

A Dictionary of Chemistry. By William Nicholson. 2 vols. 
4to. London, 1795. 

The Cabinet of Natural History, and American rural sports, 
with illustrations. 2 vols. 4to. Philadelphia, 1S30, '32. 

The Universal Gardener and Botanist, or a general dictionary 
of Gardening and Botany. By Thomas Mawe and John 
Abercronibie. 2nd edition. 4to. London, 1797. 

The Theory of the Earth : containing an account of the origin 



Nov, 1847.] 305 

of the Earth, and of all the general changes which it hath 

undergone, or is to undergo 'till ihe consummation of all 

things. Folio. London, 16S4. 
Melanges interessans et curieux, ou abrege d'historie naturelle, 

morale, civile, et politique de l'Asie, I'Afrique, l'Amerique. 

et des terres polaires: par M. R. D. S * *. 5 vols. 12mo. 

Paris, 1763. 
Melanges d'historie naturelle: par M. A. D. 2 vols. 12mo. 

A. Lyon. 1763. 
Physionomies nationales des Peuples, ou les traites de leur 

visage comparee a leur mceurs et caracteres. l2mo. Paris. 
Historie naturelle des animaux par Pline. Traduction 

nouvelle evec le text en regard, par P. C. B. Gueroult. 

3 vols. Svo. Paris, 1S02. 
An historical disquisition on the Mammoth, and other tracts 

on Natural History, in one vol. Svo. 
Fossils arranged according to their obvious characters, with 

their history and descriptions, &c. By J. Hill, M. D. Svo. 

London, 17S1. 
Familiar letters to Henry Clay, of Kentucky, describing a 

winter in the West Indies. By Joseph John Gurney. Svo. 

New York, 1S40. 
The Philosophy of Natural History. By William Smellie. 

8vo. Philadelphia, 1791. 
Chemical manipulation, being instructions to Students in 

Chemistry, &c. By Michael Faraday, F. R. S., &c. First 

American from last London edition. Edited by J. K. 

Mitchell, M. D. Svo. Philadelphia, 1831. 
The Economy of Nature, explained and illustrated on the 

principles of modern Philosophy. By G. Gregory, D. D. 

3 vols. Svo. London, 1796. 
A System of Chemistry of inorganic bodies. By Thomas 

Thomson, M. D. 7th edition. 2 vols. Svo. London and 

Edinburgh, 1S31. 
A system of Vegetables, according to their classes, genera, 

&c, in 2 vols. Svo. Translated from Murray's Edition of 



306 [Nov. 1847. 

Linnseus' Systema Vegetabilium. By a Botanical Society 

at Litchfield. Litchfield, 1793. 
Animal Chemistry, with reference to the Physiology and 

Pathology of Man. By J. Franz Simon. Translated and 

edited by George E. Day, M. A. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1845. 
Memoirs of the Life of Dr. Darwin. By Anna Seward. 8vo. 

Philadelphia, 1804. 
Zoonomia, or the laws of organic life. By Erasmus Darwin, 

M. D. 2 vols. 8vo. New York, 1796. 
Principes de Physiologie, oil introduction a la science expe- 

rimentale, philosophique, et medicale de l'homme vivant. 

Par Charles Louis Dumas. 2d edition. 4 vols. 8vo. Paris, 

1S06. 
Concours sur l'acetification de l'Alcool ; question proposee 

par la Societe de Pharmacie de Paris. 8vo. Paris, 1S3S. 
Observations on the Climate in different parts of America, 

compared with the climate in corresponding parts of the 

other continent, &c. By Hugh Williamson, M. D. Svo. 

New York. 1811. 
Manuel du fabricant de produits chimiques, &c: par M. L. S. 

Thillaye. 2 vols. 12mo. Paris, 1829. 
Georg. Casp. Kirchmaieri de Paradiso, &c. 12mo. 16G2. 
Arcana of Science and An, or an annual register of useful 

inventions and improvements, &c. 2 vols. 12mo. London, 
1837-8. 
The Year Book of Facts in Science and Art, &c. By the 

editor of the Arcana of Science. 12mo. London, 1839. 
A practical Essay on the analysis of Minerals. By Frederick 

Accum. 1st American edition. 12mo. Philada., 1809. 
The Young Chemist's Pocket Companion. By James Wood- 
house, M. D. 12mo. Philada., 1797. 
The Chemical Pocket Book. By James Parkinson. With 

an Appendix, by James Woodhouse, M. D. 12mo. Phi- 
lada., 1802. 
Outlines of Medical Botany. By Hugo Reid. 2d edition 

12 mo. Edinburgh, 1S29. 



Nov. 1847.] 307 

A popular treatise on Vegetable Physiology. 8vo. Philada. 
1842. 

Organic Chemistry in its applications to Agriculture and Phy- 
siology. By Justus Liebig, M. D. ; edited by Lyons Play- 
fair, M< D. 1st American edition, by John W. Webster, 
M. D. Svo. Cambridge, 1841. 

Experiences pour servir a l'histoire de la generation des 
animaux et des plantes. Par M. l'Abbe Spallanzani. 
3 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1787. 

The Bridgewater Treatises. Treatise IV. The Hand, its 
mechanism and vital endowments. By Sir Charles Bell, 
F. R. S. &c. 12mo. Philada. 1833. 

The Contemplation of Nature, translated from the French of 
C. Bonnet. 2 vols. 12mo. London: 1766. 

A Classical Tour through Italy, in 1803. By the Rev. John 
Chetwood Eustace. 4th edition. 4 vols., Svo. Leghorn; 
1818. 

An introduction to the Science of Botany, chiefly extracted 
from the works of Linnaeus. By the late James Lee. 4th 
edition. 8vo. London : 1S10. 

A manual of Analytical Chemistry. By Henry Rose. Trans- 
lated from the German, by John Griffin. Svo. London : 
1831. 

An epitome of Chymical Philosophy. By James Freeman 
Dana. Svo. Concord, N. H., 1825. 

Nouveau systeme de Chimie organique, fonde sur des 
methodesnouvelles d'observation. Par F. V. Raspail. Svo. 
Paris: 1S33. 

Museum Calonnianum. Specification of the various articles 
which compose the magnificent Museum of Natural His- 
tory, collected by M. de Calonne, in France. Svo. London : 
1797. 

Rambles in Europe in 1839, &c. By William Gibson, M. D., 

12mo. Philada. : 1841. 
An expedition of discovery into the interior of Africa, through 
the hitherto undescribed countries of the great Namaquas, 



30S [Nov. 1847. 

Boschmans and Hill Damaras ; conducted by Jas. Edward 
Alexander, K. S. S. 2vols. 12mo. Philada. 1S3S. 



Dr. Morton read an extract from a letter from Dr. Fal- 
coner, of the East India Company, in relation to some casts 
of valuable Sivalik Fossils, which he stated could be obtained 
by the Academy from the East India House upon applying 
to the latter through the American Minister at London. The 
application was accordingly ordered to be made through the 
Corresponding Secretary. 

Dr. Dickeson made some observations on the mode of 
compression of the cranium in use among the Choctaw 
Indians, and the supposed object of the same. 



Stated Meeting, Nov. 9, 1S47. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Dr. Wilson presented the following mounted Mammalia: 
Semnopithecus comatus, (2 specimens,) Ateles pentadac- 
tylus? (2 specimens,) Cercopithecus pithecia, C. cynomal- 

gus, Inuus nemistrinus, Cebus apella, Lemur -, 

Harpale rufimanus, Heazus tardigradus, Viverra mellivora, 

V. , (5 specimens,) Mustela zorilla, M Hernani, 

M. erminea,.Gnlo orientalis,Tapirus , Dasypus tricinc- 

tus, Sciurus palmarum, S. plantani, S. melanotus, S. Ber- 

gianus, S. omnicolor, (2 specimens,) S. , Pteromys 

sagitta, P. , Hylagale Javanica, (2 specimens,) Ptero- 

pus minimus, P. edulis, Galeopithecus vnriegatus, Vesper- 

tilio serotinus, V. pipistrellus, V. aurilus, V. pictus, V. 

(2 specimens,) Sorex araneus,and four Marsupial^. Also 
the following Sauriaus : Polychrus marmoratus, Tejus 



Nov. 1847.] 309 

ameiva, T. monitor, Platydactylus vittatus, P. guttatus, 
Iguana deli'catissima, Tupinambis elegans, (2 specimens,) 

T. bivittatus, T. ornatus, Crocodilns , (young,) Chelo- 

nia viridis, C. , Emys serratus, E. , Testudo , 

and two exuviae of Coluber constrictor. Also several frag- 
ments of wood bored by a large Teredo, nests and eggs of 
an Edila, from the East Indies, nest of Parus caudatus, 
from France, and a species of Spongia,from the E. Indies. 

Mr. J. R. Pollock, of Philadelphia, presented a beautiful 
and remarkably pure specimen of the newly made comb 
of the honey bee. 

Dr. Morton deposited crania of Ursus arctos, of Sweden, and 
of the Antilope Americana, of New Mexico. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Foraminiferes fossiles du Bassin tertiaire de Vienne, decou- 
verts par son Excellence le Chevalier Joseph de Hauer, 
et decrits par Alcide D'Orbigny. 4to. Paris, 1S46. From 
the Author. 

American Journal of Agriculture and Science. No. 18, Oct. 
1S47. The Editors. 

Statistics of South Carolina, including a view of its natural, 
civil, and military history, general and particular. By 
Robert Mills. 8vo. Charleston, S. C, 1826. In exchange. 
The following works were deposited by Dr. Wilson : 

Reports on Zoology for 1S43, '44, (Ray Society.) 8vo. 
London, 1S47. 

Narrative of the Surveying voyage of H. M. S. Fly, com- 
manded by Capt. F. P. Blackwood, R. N., in Torres 
Strait, Ne v Guinea, and other islands of the Eastern 
Archipelago, during the years 1842, '46, together with an 
excursion into the interior of the eastern part of Java. 
By J. Beete Jukes, M. A., &c. 2 vols. Svo. London, 

1847. 
Figures of Molluscous animals, selected from various authors; 



310 [Nov. 1847. 

etched for the use of students, by Maria Emma Gray. 
Vol. 1. 8vo. London, 1S47. 
Molluscous Animals, including shell-fish, &c. By John 

Fleming, D. D., &c. 8vo. Edinburg, 1837. 
Elements of Physiophilosophy. By Lorenz Oken, M. D., 
From the German, by Alfred Tulk, (Ray Society,) Svo. 
London, 1S47. 
The Naturalist's Library. Vols. 7, 8 and 10, of Ornithology. 

12 mo. 
Geology for Beginners; comprising a familiar explanation of 
Geology and its associate sciences, &c. By G. F. Richard- 
son, F. R. S. 8vo. London, 1843. 
The Cabinet Cyclopedia ; conducted by the Rev. Dionysius 
Lardner, and others. Birds, by William Swainson. Vols. 
1 and 2. Geology, by John Phillips. Vols. 1 and 2. l2mo. 
Report of the Geology of the county of Londonderry, and of 
parts of Tyrone and Fermanagh. By J. E. Portlock, 
F. R. S., &c. 8vo. Dublin, 1S43. 
Proceedings of the Geological Society of London. Vols. 1 

2, 3 and 4. Svo. 
Fossilia Hantoniensia collecta et in Museeo Britannico depo- 

sita a Gustavo Brander. 4to. London, 1766. 
The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, No. 132, 

Sept. 1S47. 
Observations on some peculiarities observable in the structure 
of the Gannet (Pelecanus bassanus;) and an account of a 
new and curious insect, discovered to inhabit the cellular 
membrane of that bird. By George Montagu, Esq., F. R.S. 
Svo. pamphlet. 
Dalman's Trilobites. 1 vol. 4to. 

Nomenclator Zoologicus, continens nomina systematica gene- 
rum animalium turn viventium quam fossilium, &c. 
Auctore L. Agassiz. 4to. Soloduri, 1S47. 
The Genera of Birds. By George Robert Gray. Part 40. 4to. 
The Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera. By Edward Double- 
day, F. L. S. Part 11. 4to. 



Nov. 1847.] 311 

A natural History of Fossils. By Emanuel Mendes da Costa. 

Vol 1. Part 1. 4to. London, 1757. 
An Introduction to Geology. By Robert Bakewell. Svo. 
2d American edition, from 4th London. New Haven, 
1833. 
Bartlett's Index Geologicus (chart.) 

A history of the fossils insects in the secondary rocks of Eng- 
land. By the Rev. Peter Bellinger Brodie, M. A., &c. 
Svo. London, 1S45. 

The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London. 
No. 11. August, 1S47. 

Fossils of the Tertiary formations of the United States. By 
T. A. Conrad. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

Geological Survey of Pennsylvania. 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th and 5th 
Annual Reports. By Henry D. Rogers, State Geologist. 

Report of the Geological Reconnoisance'of the State of Virgi- 
nia. By Wm. B. Rogers. Philada., 1S36. 

Coloured illustrations of the eggs of British Birds, accom- 
panied with descriptions of the eggs, nests, &c. By Wm. 
C. Hewitson. 34 Nos. Svo. London. 

Histoire naturelle des Crustaces fossiles, fyc. ; les Trilobites, 
par Alex. Brongniart ; les Crustaces proprement dits, par 
Anselme Gae'ton Desmarest. 4to. Paris, 1S22. 

Description des animaux fossiles qui se trouvent dans le 
Terrain Carbonifere de Belgique. 2 vols. 4to. Liege, 
1S42, '44. 

Fauna Boreali-Americana ; or the Zoology of the northern 
parts of British America. By John Richardson, M. D., 
F. R. S., assisted by Wm. Swainson, Esq., and the Rev. 
Wm. Kirby. 4 vols. 4to. 

Transactions of the Geological Society of London. 1st series, 
complete in 5 vols. 4to. 2d series. Vols. 1, (part 2,) 2, 
3, 4, 5 and 6, and parts 1, 2 and 3 of vol. 7. 4to. 

Icones fossilium sectiles. 4lo. pamphlet. 

Beitrage zur Flora der Vorwelt. Von August Joseph Corda. 
Folio. Prag, 1S45. 



312 [Nov. 1S47- 

An account of the English colony in New South Wales, from 
its first settlement in January, 1788, to August, 1801, &c. 
By Lieut. Col. Collins. 4to. London, 1804. 

Narrative of an expedition to explore the river Zaire, 
usually called the Congo, in South Africa, in 1816, under 
the direction of Capt. J. K. Tuckey. R. N. &c. 4to. 
London, 1818. 

Journal of a voyage for the discovery of a north-west pas- 
sage from the Atlantic to the Pacific ; performed in the 
years 1S1 9-20, in H. M. ships Hecla and Griper, under 
the orders of Wm. Edward Parry, R. N., F. R. S. 4to. 
London, 1821 ; and supplement, 4to. London, 1824. 

Journal of a second voyage, &c, in the years 1821, '22, '23> 
in H. M. ships Fury and Hecla, under the command of 
Capt. Parry. 4to. London, 1S24 ; and appendix, 4to. Lon- 
don, 1S25. 

Journal of a third voyage, &c, performed in 1824, '25, in H. 
M. ships Hecla and Fury, under the command of Capt. 
Parry. 4to. London, 1S26. 

The North Georgia Gazette and Winter Chronicle. 4to. Lon- 
don, 1S21. 

An account of experiments to determine the figure of the 
earth, by means of the pendulum vibrating seconds in 
different latitudes, as well as on other subjects of philoso- 
phical inquiry. By Edward Sabine. 4to. London, 1825. 



Letters were read from the Chevalier de Bauer, dated 
Vienna, Sept. 22, 1S46, presenting the work, "Foraraine- 
feres fossiles du Bassin Tertiaire de Vienne." 

And from Mr. John Fehlands, dated Hamburg, Oct. 14th, 
1S47, acknowledging the receipt by Dr. Tschudi of Vienna, 
of the Vols, of the Proceedings, sent to him by resolution of 
the Academy. 

A paper containing a description of a new Unio, by Mr. 



Nov. 1S47.] 313 

Haldeman, was read and referred to a committee consisting 
of Dr. Griffith, Dr. Wilson, and Mr. Phillips. 

Dr. Leidy made the following remarks upon the very slow 
destrnctibility of animal tissues in certain states. 

The great length of time that animal matter may be preserved 
in a recent form, in ice, is so well known as hardly to need refe- 
rence to the instance of the Siberian mammoth. 

Bones and teeth, under ordinary circumstances, resist the in- 
fluence of exterior agencies better than any of the other tissues, 
and then follow epidermic tissue, 6brous tissue, &c. Bones of the 
mastodon have long since been determined to contain almost as 
much gelatin as those of recent animals, and I have lately detect- 
ed, by chemical analysis, the existence of animal matter in a por- 
tion of a vertebra of the Basilosaurus, a fossil of the Eocene tertia- 
ry period. A portion of this animal matter, preserved in alcohol, 
I exhibit to the Academy. It has a flocculent appearance, con- 
tains no gelatin, but readily carbonizes and takes fire, giving out 
an odour characteristic of burning animal substances; the ash it 
leaves behind contains a large proportion of oxide of iron. 

If not exposed to the influence of air and moisture, bones will 
retain their animal matter for an indefinite period of time. We 
have, in the collection of the Academy, bones of the extinct 
Megalonyx, from White Cave, Tennessee, which look as fresh as 
though prepared but yesterday. But when they are exposed to 
air, and to alternations of dryness and moisture, or a constant but 
slightly moistened state, without the presence of carbonate of 
lime, silex, or oxide of iron, which tend rather to the preserva- 
tion than destruction of the animal matter contained in them, the 
auimal matter is gradually and almost wholly removed, leaving 
nothing but the earthy constituents, which, if they do retain the 
original form, readily crumble to pieces from the slightest vio- 
lence. Of the softer animal tissues, the preservation of insects 
in amber, a resin belonging to a very ancient flora, is well 
known. But one of the most remarkable instances occurring 
under ordinary circumstances, which has been presented to my 
notice, is the existence of portions of fibrous membrane and 
articular cartilage, attached to some of the bones of the Megalonyx 
before spoken of, as exhibited in these specimens. By ex- 
amining this piece of fibrous membrane, taken from one of the 
bones, it will be found to have retained all the characteristics of 
perfectly recent membrane ; it imbibes moisture and becomes as 
flexible as if fresh. The articular cartilage has become hard and 
brittle and yellow in colour, and looks like resinous matter. A 
fragment beneath the microscope presented all the characters of 



3J4 [Nov. 1S47. 

that form of cartilage, as represented in this drawing, which I 
took from it. The cartilage corpuscles are well preserved and 
very distinct. By soaking it in water it does not become tough 
and flexible, as in recent cartilage, but swells up and forms a 
thick jelly, which, after a few hours, dissolves in the water, and 
colours it yellow. A change has taken place in it, correspond- 
ing to that which occurs in most organic tissues when constantly 
kept in the dry state. The atoms or molecules undergo a change 
of relation in regard to each other, or new chemical combinations 
take place without destroying the form of the dried object, but 
destroying the power of its resuming its original form. The 
change is an exceedingly slow one; in many instances, after 
centuries have elapsed, no perceptible change has taken place. 
An instance in point was lately presented to us by Dr. Morton, 
who put a dried ear of an Egyptian mummy of the time of the 
Pharaohs, into water, in the hope that it would resume its former 
proportions, but instead of so doing, for a few days it appeared to 
undergo no change, except colouring the water yellow, as in the 
case of the articular cartilage of the Megalonyx. It then sudden- 
ly underwent rapid decomposition, and in the course of a day 
entirely disappeared ; the solution for two days exhaled a putrid 
odour, which then disappeared, leaving the fluid coloured yellow 
and without further change. 



A report was presented from the committee appointed on 
the subject of exchanges with M. Vattemare, proposing 
to forward to him for works lately received two copies of 
Vols. 1 and 2 of the Proceedings; and also to place in his 
hands for further exchanges, additional copies of the same, 
which was accordingly ordered. 



Stated Meeting, November 16, 1847. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Cytherea, from California, presented by Dr. Joseph Wilson, 
U. S. N. 

Boa constrictor, 12 feet long. Presented by Messrs. Ray- 
mond & Waring, through Dr. Watson. 



Nov. 1847.] 315 

Several living Opossums, for Dr. C. D. Meigs, Dr. Wat- 
son, and Dr. Wilson. 

Heads of echinal spines from the Sivalik Hills. Presented by 
Dr. Morton. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Iconographie Ornithologique ; par 0. Des Murs. Liv. 9. 4to. 

Presented by Mr. Edward Wilson. 
Revue Zoologique. Nos. 7 and 8, 1847. Deposited by Dr. 

Wilson. 
The National Magazine and Industrial Record. Edited by 

Redwood Fisher. 18 Nos. complete. New York, 1845-46. 

From the Author, through Mr. Thomas Fisher. 



The following extract from a letter from Prof. Haldeman, 
dated 11th November, 1847, was read. 

" Herpetologists now suppose that Salamandra erythronota, 
Green, and S. cinerea, Green, are opposite sexe3 of the same 
species. The two are frequently found under the same stone 
or log, but I have never seen one with intermediate characters. 
I recently found six individuals and submitted them to dissection. 
Four of cinerea, opened successively, proved to have gravid 
ovaries, and two of erythronota to be males ; but to be certain, I 
submitted the seminal matter to microscopic examination, and 
found spermatozoa, although not fully developed. Subsequently 
I found two erytlironota with gravid ovaries, so that not being 
sexual, and no intermediate forms having been observed, I am 
induced to believe that Green was right in proposing two species." 



Stated Meeting Nov. 23, 1847. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Fossil Saurian bones in a matrix of conglomerate, compris- 
ing several vertebrae, parts of paddle, &c, probably an un- 
described extinct animal. Found near Hossack Creek, 



316 [Nov. 1847. 

Berks Co , Pa., five or six feet below the surface. Depo- 
sited by Dr. Joel Y. Shelley, of Berks county. 

Specimens in spirits, of Leptophis oestivus, and Coluber exi- 
mius. Presented by Dr. Pennock. 

Fossil bones of a new genus of extinct Ruminants, consist- 
ing of the cranium and parts of a humerus, ulna, and 
radius. Deposited by Mr. Joseph Culbertson, of Cham- 
bersburg, Penn. 

Cranium of Vulpes fulvus. Deposited by Dr. Morton. 

Native silver from Guanaxato, Mexico. Presented by Dr. 
Griffith. 

Specimen of Loxia cardinalis. From Mr. Phillips. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

American Journal of Science and Arts. New Series. Vol. 4. 

No. 12. From the Editors. 
On the inhalation of the vapour of ether in surgical operations. 

By John Snow, M. D. 8vo. London, 1847. From Mr. 

Lambert. 
A Medico-botanical catalogue of the plants and ferns of St. 

Johns, Berkley, S. C. An inaugural thesis for the degree 

of M. D. By Francis Peyre Porcher. 8vo. pamphlet. 

Charleston, S. C.1847. From the author. 
Literary Record and Journal of the Linnean Association of 

Pennsylvania College. Vol.4. No. 1. From the Asso- 
ciation. 
The Geognosy of the Island of St. Helena, in a series of views, 

plans, and sections, with remarks and observations. By 

Robert F. Seale. Folio. London, 1S34. From Mr. Saml. 

Ashmead. 

Dr. Wilson deposited the following : 
An analysis of the British Ferns and their allies. By G. W. 

Francis, F. L. S. 2d edition. 8vo. London, 1S42. 
A history of British Ferns and allied plants. By Edward 

Newman, F. L. S. 8vo. London, 1S44. 



Nov. 1847.] 317 

The Natural history of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama 

Islands, &c. By Mark Catesby, F. R. S. 2 vols. Folio. 

London, 1731. 
The Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera. By Edward Doubleday, 

F. R. S. Part 12. 4to. 
The Genera of Birds. By Geo. Robert Gray, F. R. S. Part 

41. 4to. 
The Annals and Magazine of Natural History. No. 133. 
An outline of the Geology of Norfolk. By Samuel Wood- 
ward. 8vo. Norwich, 1733. 
The Zoologist's Text Book, &c. By Capt. Thomas Brown. 

2 vols. 12mo. Glasgow, 1832. 
Memoires presentes a l'Academie Imperiale des Science de 

St. Petersburg. Vols. 1 5, and vol. 6, No. 2. 4to. 

Dr. Griffith deposited the following : 
Symbolae ad historiam Heliceorum. Auctore Dr. Lud. PfeifTer. 

8vo. Casselis, 1841. 
Philosophic Anatomiqne ; Des Organs Respiratoires sous le 

rapport de la determination et de 1'identite de leurs pieces 

osseuses ; par M. le Ch. GeofTroy St. Hilaire. 1 vol. Svo. 

and Atlas. 4to. Paris, ISIS. 
The Naturalist's Library : conducted by Sir. Wm. Jardine ; 

Mammalia 6 vols., Ornithology, 8 vols.; Icthyology, 1 vol. 

Entomology, 4 vols. l2mo. 
Species general et Iconographie des Coqnilles vivantes, &c. 

Par L. C. Kiener. 8vo. 



A letter was read from Mr. RkinCrd Brown, of Nova Scotia, 
addressed to Prof. Johnson, dated Sydney Mines, 27th Oct. 
1S47, containing the following in relation to some Fossil 
fruits from the coal steam of that district: 

These Fossils were found in one part of the mine only, scat- 
tered over an area of three or four acres, in some places so thick 
that five or six might be found in one square yard. They lie in 
the Shaie Roof immediately in contact with the Coal Seam. 



318 [Nov. 1847. 

Upright stems of Lepidodendra and Sigillarise, with Stigmaria- 
like roots, are frequent in the same area, the fruits being some- 
times found under their roots. I have broken up several of these 
Fossils, and found decisive marks of internal structure exhibiting 
their membranes of carbonaceous matter, and small pipes of Iron 
Pyrites terminating in scars on the external surface, supposed to 
be seed cells. I cannot find any decribed fossils resembling 
them more nearly than the Fruit of Podocarya from the oolite, 
in Buckland's Bridgewater Treatise. 



"e v 



A letter was read from Mr. Wm. Thompson, addressed to 
Dr. Griffith, dated Tunbridge Wells, Oct., 1857, announcing 
his intention to present certain Mollusca nudibranchiata, in 
spirits, and British Echinodermata and marine Algse, and 
also some fossils, to the Academy. 

Dr. Leidy read a paper "On a new genus and species of 
Fossil Ruminantia, Poebrotherium Wilsonii ;" which was 
referred to a committee composed of Drs. Pickering, Bridges, 
and Morton. 

Dr. Hallowell communicated a paper on the "Horned. 
Viper of Western Africa," with a figure. Referred to Prof 
Haldeman, Dr. Pickering and Dr. Leidy. 

Professor Johnson exhibited a specimen of a boiler sediment 
derived from a steam boiler used at Burlington, New Jersey, 
which uses clear spring water. It is dark brown, has a specific 
gravity of 1.235, contains 34.88 per cent, of earthy residue, and 
65.12 per cent., of combustible material, melting only at 900 
1000 degrees, though it softens at 260, and exhales an empy- 
reumatic odour at 430 ; and at 450 p becomes reddish-brown and 
brittle. The sediment pulverized and boiled in alcohol gave, by 
slow evaporation, an oily substance, which separates in a white 
hydrated condition but the water is lost below the boiling point 
of alcohol, leaving the oil a reddish-brown, capable of softening 
at 150, and becoming fluid at 180. The earthy matter contains 
carbonate of lime and magnesia, as well as silicate of alumina 
and oxide of iron. 

Prof. Johnson also offered some observations on the fossil 
bones from Dr. Joel Y. Shelly, deposited this evening, which, 
from the appearance of the rock adhering to the specimens, 
he judged to belong to the formation which overlies the edges 



Nov. 1847.] 319 

of the Silurian rocks of the south mountains, and which is 
believed to be of the same age as the so-called Potomac marble. 



r Meeting for Business, Nov. 20, 1847. 

Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

The Committee on Dr. Hallowell's paper, on the Horned 
Viper of Western Africa, reported in favor of publication : 

On the Horned Viper of Western Africa. 

By Edward Hallowell, M. D. 

Cerastes, Wagler. 

Cerastes* nasicornis. 

Syn. Coluber nasicornis. Shaw, General Zoology, p. 198. 

Characters. Head short and thick, two horns upon the snout, mouth 
large ; a series of oblong quadrilateral bands upon the back, margined with 
triangular spots of black ; a row of dark colored blotches upon each side of 
the animal in contact with the abdomen ; between these and the triangular 
lateral blotches, other triangular dark colored spots with their bases toward 
each other ; tail short. 

Descriptions. Physiognomy very repulsive ; head short and thick, de- 
pressed, presenting two horns, each four lines in length upon the 
snout ; opening of the mouth large, extending to within five lines of the 
posterior margin of the occiput ; two large and powerful fangs on each side 
of the upper jaw ; head covered with rhomboidal, hexagonal, and polygonal 
scales which are carinated ; the scales are largest upon the occiput and 
sides of the head posteriorly; nostrils large, two lines in diameter, present- 
ing upward and slightly backward ; eyes rather small, latero-superior, on 
a line with the nostrils, and three lines posterior to them, slightly project- 
ing, looking outward and a little upward ; palatine and infra maxillary 
teeth recurved, sharp, pointed and strongly developed ; tongue long, bifid 

* Misprinted Arastes in the Proceedings, vol. ii. p. 250. 

42 



320 [Nov. 1847. 

enclosed in a sheath; thirteen plates margin the upper jaw on the right, and 
fourteen on the left side of the head, exclusive of the rostral ; the tenth on 
the right, and the eleventh on the left side are the largest ; the shape of both 
is pentangular ; the rostral plate is also pentangular,and incurvated inferiorly ; 
there are sixteen plates along the margin of the lower jaw, exclusive of the 
mental, which is broad and triangular ; the anterior geneials are oblong 
quadrilateral, the posterior, large and rhomboidal. Neck contracted, quite 
slender compared with the body, which is somewhat cylindrical and very 
thick in the middle, becoming slender towards the tail ; tail quite short ; 
upper part aDd sides of neck, body and tail covered with very strongly 
carinated scales ; many of these scales are truncated posteriorly. 

Color. Upper part of head light brown ash color ; a dark colored 
triangular blotch exists upon the side of the head, its apex touching the 
posterior margin of the orbit ; another dark colored blotch, an inch in 
length, extends along the margin of the lower jaw ; chin and throat light 
straw color, with numerous small black spots. A series of oblong quad- 
rangular bands extends along the dorsum, commencing at the neck, and iB 
lost upon the tail ; in the young subject they are bordered with white ; at 
each extremity is a dark triangular blotch, the apices of which touch each 
other : a row of dark colored triangular blotches is also observed along the 
margins of the quadrangular bars, contiguous with which are other triangu- 
lar spots, having their bases toward each other; these are not represented 
in the figure ; there is also a row of triangular spots upon each side of the 
body, in contact with the abdomen : abdomen and under surface of tail 
etraw color, presenting numerous spots of black. 

Dimensions. Length of head 2 inches, 3 lines (Fr.) ; breadth posteriorly, 
2 inches ; length of tail, 5 inches 3 lines ; length of body, 2 feet 8 J inches 
(Fr.) ; greatest circumference of body, 8 inches 3 lines. 

Abdominal scuta 128 ; Subcaudal 27, two of which are single, (the second 
and third from the anus,) the rest bifid. 

Habitat. Liberia, Western Africa. Specimen in the Museum of the 
Academy. 

General Observations. The animal from which the above description 
is taken, was presented to the Academy of Natural Sciences by Dr. 
Thomas S. Savage, Colonial Physician, and one of our Correspondents. 
The drawing was taken from a young animal, eighteen inches in length ; 
the coloration, however, does not vary materially from that of the 
older specimen, except that the general tints are lighter, and in the points 
indicated. It has no resemblance to the Vipera cornuta, Auct., a beauti- 
ful figure of which is given in Dr. Andrew Smith's Illustrations of the Zoo- 
logy of Southern Africa, plate 32.* 

There can be no doubt, we think, that this is the animal figured by Shaw, 

* See Schlegel, Physiognomies des Serpens, torn. ii. p. 583, note. 



Nov. 1847.] 321 

and described under the name of Coluber nasicornis. The figure of Shaw- 
does not represent the triangular spots at the extremities and sides of the 
quadrangular bars upon the back, and the form of the head is altogether differ- 
ent ; he states, however, that " along the whole length of the back, is placed 
a series of yellowish brown oblong spots or marks, each of which is imbedded 
in a patch of black," which, although a somewhat loose description, evidently 
refers to the species under consideration. Many of the drawings in his Zoo- 
logy, it is well known, are exceedingly incorrect. It is remarkable that an 
animal so hideous, and provided with weapons so destructive, should possess 
the beautiful robe which it presents to the eye. Why this animal, and others 
among the reptilia, should be thus endowed, is a mystery ; for, judging 
from its formidable head, and powerful fangs, no reptile, not even the 
Orotalus, or Trigonocephalus, is so deadly. It is also remarkable that ani- 
mals of this kind should exist in tropical countries associated with the most 
beautiful of Flora's productions. 

" Malheur au voyageur, (observes Mons. Spix,) qui ravi de toutes les riches- 
ses, qu'une nature enchanteresse deploie autour de lui, sepromene dans ces 
forets delicieuses, peuplees d'une variete immense d'arbres gigantesques, 
foule a. ses pieds des tapis de verdure, enrichis de mille fleurs odoriferantes, 
qui parfument l'air et enivrent ses sens ; qui elevant sa vue vers la voiite 
celeste, la porte sur des oiseaux d'un plumage magnifique dont il admire le 
singulier ramage ; qui ailleurs remarque des essaims d'insectes cent fois 
varies, se confondant dans leur vol folatre, et offrent a ses yeux d6ja frappes 
d'etonnement, un spectacle nouveau ; les rayons du soleil, en les faisant 
resembler a autant de pierres precieuses, relevent encore Peclat de leurs 
couleurs deja si multiplees; malheur, dis-je, a. l'impatient et zele natural- 
iste, qui traverse des mers pour enrichir les sciences de ses observations, 
lorsqu'assis a l'ombre d'un arbre, aussi ancien que les siecles, couronne de 
fleurs magnifiques, telles que Paullinies, Orchides, Gouets, Bromelies et 
maintes autres, sert de tuteur a des lianes communes a divers arbres, qu'elles 
semblent reunir par leur formation de berceaux, servent d'echelles pour 
monter a leur sommet eleve, et qui nourrissent en meme temps sur leurs 
troncs un nombre infini de vegetaux, il etend sa main pour cueillir une fleur 
qui se trouve pres d'elle, se sent tout a coup atteint de la morsure d'un 
Trigonocephale qu'il ix derange dans sa quietude ; un poison mortel coule 
dans ses veines, decompose son sang et son etre, et le fait perir d'ane mort 
prematuree, qu'il trouve a trois mille lieues de sa patrie en recompense de 
son zele.*" 

An account of the habits of this, as well as those of other animals recently 
presented by him to the Academy, has been promised by Dr. Savage. 

* Animalia nova, sive Serpentium Brasiliensium species novae ; par Jean 
de Spix, p. 51. 



322 [Nov. 1847. 

The Committee on Dr. Leidy's description of a new genus 
and species of Fossil Ruminants, reported in favor of publi- 
cation : 

On a new genus and species of fossil Ruminantia: Poebrotherium Wilsoni. 

By Joseph Leidy, M. D. 

Indirectly, through Mr. J. S. Philips and the influence of Dr. S. G. Morton, 
the Academy has become the depository of a valuable and unique fossil, 
received through Dr. S. D. Culbertson, of Chambersburg, Pa., from Mr. 
Joseph Culbertson. 

As first received, it consisted of a mass of argillaceous limestone, having 
one side of a cranium of an animal exposed to view, which, by the patience 
of Dr. T. B. Wilson, was relieved of its matrix, and the lower extremity 
of the humerus, and the upper extremity of the ulna and the radius of the 
right leg were also disclosed. 

The top or vault above the orbits and posterior part of the cranium are 
wanting, as are also the ossa nasi, 03sa intermaxillaria, the part of the os 
maxillare inferius just anterior to the commencement of the symphysis, and 
the zygoma of the left side, but sufficient is left to charcterize it as a remark- 
able genus of Ruminantia, very different from any that has been heretofore 
described. 

The cranium belonged to a full grown or adult animal, but not an old 
one, as is indicated by the teeth. 

In the upper jaw are seven molars, differing in this respect from any 
ruminant known, living or fossil. The posterior three molar3, usually called 
true, present nothing very peculiar in their conformation. They are not so 
square as in Cervus, but are more like those of Ovis, being much broader 
than wide, so that they have a compressed appearance. The four crescents 
upon the crowns are quite simple. Externally these teeth present two and 
nearly plane surfaces, separated by an abrupt, salient, longitudinal ridge on 
a line with the notch separating the anterior and posterior pair of columns. 
Each of these surfaces has a longitudinal rounded ridge, more prominent 
upon the anterior than the posterior one, but neither so salient as the first. 
The antero-external border is also elevated or prominent, so that each of 
these teeth presents externally four longitudinal ridges. As is usual, these 
teeth are obliquely situated in the jaw, and the anterior part of one folds 
over externally or overlaps the posterior part of the one preceding it. 

The anterior four molars or premolars are not more than half the length 
of the true molars, and differ among themselves so as to render it necessary 
to examine them separately. The posterior or fourth premolar has more the 
characteristics of a true molar, and it would probably not be wrong to con- 
sider it as an additional true molar. The crown presents four crescents, 
which are thicker than in the true molars, and the anterior and posterior 
pair are separated by a comparatively deeper notch. Externally the tooth 



Nov\ 1847,] 323 

lias four ridges corresponding to those of the true molars. The third pre- 
molar, or the one immediately preceding the last, has upon its crown a 
posterior pair of thick crescents, and an anterior cusp which has the appear- 
ance of being formed by the blending together of a pair of crescents. Ex - 
ternally it is trilobed, the lobes being separated by two concave depressions. 
It is shorter but broader than the last. The second premolar is com- 
pressed, faintly trilobed, and presents an elongated trenchant crown. The 
first premolar is the most remarkable characteristic of this cranium. It 
is separated from the others by a concave notch of .333 of an inch, and is 
on a line with the anterior mental foramen. It is implanted in the jaw by 
two fangs, which are divergent and placed one anterior to the other. The 
body is nearly as broad as the second premolar and is of a compressed pyra- 
midal form, and the crown has a trenchant edge, the posterior and anterior 
part of which form an angle about its centre. 

In the lower jaw, in the specimen, are six inferior molars iu a closed 
row commencing .25 of an inch anterior to the corresponding six molars 
above, and continuing as far back as the latter. Besides these, and separated 
from them by a concave descending notch of .45 of an inch, just anterior 
to the anterior mental foramen, or .15 of an inch anterior to the commence- 
ment of the sympyhsis posteriorly, is one half of an alveolus for an addi- 
tional or seventh molar, which, when the specimen was first received, con- 
tained a portion of a fang, since mislaid. This additional molar in the 
lower jaw is possessed by only one other known genus of Ruminantia ; the 
Dor cat her ium, of Kaup. 

The crowns of the inferior molars are enveloped in the matrix in such a 
manner that they cannot be exposed without endangering the specimen. 
Externally the three true molars present their columns as sharply triangu- 
lar prisms, as in Ovis, &c, and have no intervening points or cones, as in 
Cervus, Dorcatherium, c. 

The fourth premolar is tri-lobed externally, each lobe presenting a cusp 
towards the crown. The third and second are compressed, and the latter, 
I can perceive, has a trenchant crown. 

The position of the molars, though resembling that of Dorcatherium, con- 
siderably more than that of any other genus of Ruminantia, differs materially 
from it, for while the teeth reach to the symphysis in the latter, in the for- 
mer they even extend anteriorly to its commencement. 

From the foregoing description of the teeth, it will be perceived, that in 
the possession of a seventh molar in the upper jaw, in the position of the 
molars, and in several other minor peculiarities, this genus differs from all 
others heretofore known, and is well characterized, and I therefore propose 
for it the name of ," Poe'brotheridm."* 

The base of the maxilla inferius presents a double curve, and has its an- 
terior, central, and posterior parts very nearly on the same line, so as to 
give the lower part of the face an unusual degree of squareness. The angle 
is prolonged upwards and backwards into a well marked and hook-like pro- 

* no* herba, (Ipom pasco, d-mpfera. 



324 Nov. 1847. 

cess similar to that of many Rodentia and Camivora, and exists in no other 
Ruminantia excepting the Camelidce. Just above the base, where it curves 
downwards and backwards, is a short crescentic depression made by the 
attachment of the masseter muscle. The processus coronoideus has been 
proportionately about as long as that of the Ovis aries. The depression be- 
tween the processus coronoideus and condyloideus upon the outer face of 
the ramus is comparatively deep, resembling more that of a carniverous 
than a ruminating animal. The anterior mental foramen is placed im- 
mediately posterior to the commencement of the symphisis. About one inch 
and a half to posterior to the latter foramen, on a line with the separation 
of the first true and last premolar, is another and smaller foramen, which 
is common to most Ruminants. 

The ossa maxillaria superiora, below the situation of the ossa nasi, are 
very much depressed, so as to make this part of the face extremely narrow. 
Just anterior to this depression is a prominence resembling that produced 
by the root of the canine tooth of the 3Ioschus, although I doubt very much 
whether this animal had such large canine teeth, if it had any at all, because 
of the very great narrowness of this part of the face, and the very advanced 
position of the first premolar. 

The infra orbitar foramen is further back or more approached to the orbit 
than usual, being situated on a line above the fourth premolar. 

The anterior part of the orbit is elevated so that the latter looks directly 
outwards. 

The body of the os mala is narrowed and elongated backwards. The 
zygoma proper, or that which is posterior to the frontal process of the 
os malae, is short. 

The meatus auditorius externus borders immediately upon the glenoid 
cavity. The tympanic bone is inflated and comparatively larger than in 
Bos bovis, Ccrvus rufescens, or any other Ruminant with which I am ac- 
quainted. Externally it projects beyond the face of the lower jaw and the 
meatus externus. Viewed posteriorly, it presents two parallel ampullae, 
united anteriorly, and separated posteriorly by a notch, which terminates 
in a deep depression below for accommodating the processus styloideus. 

The portion of os humeri, consisting of the articular surface for the elbow 
and posterior sigmoid cavity, presents nothing peculiar. 

The ulna, where it is broken off about three-fourths of an inch below the 
articulation, has nearly the same thickness as the radius, and probably has 
been proportionately larger than usual. 

These bones belonged to an animal rather less in size than the Dorca- 
Iherium. 

The species I have designated Wilsoni, in honor of Dr. Thomas IB- 
Wilson, the munificent patron of the Natural Sciences. 

Probable habit of the animal. From the evidences of considerable mus- 
cular strength in the posterior part of the inferior maxilla and the trenchant 
crowns of the anterior premolars, it might be supposed that the animal was 
adapted to eating flesh as part of its food, as was thought by Cuvier to have 
been probably the case with the Anoplotherium gracile, a pachydermous ani- 



Nov. 1847.] 



325 



mal having very similar characters, but I should think its general structure 
would entirely preclude the idea of its having been able to catch liviDg 
animal prey, and doubt very much whether its food could have been other 
than vegetable. The anterior trenchant molars were more probably in- 
tended for cutting branches and twigs of bushes, or tough grasses, which 
afterward underwent a finer trituration with the true molars. 

The position which the genus should occupy. Poebrotherium in its denti- 
tion approaches the Ruminantia to the Pachydermata, for in the number of the 
molar teeth and the trenchant nature of the anterior premolars it is closely 
allied to the Xiphodent Anoplotherium, while in the true molars it is charac- 
teristically Ruminant, and its position would, therefore, probably stand thus : 
Dorcatherium, Poebrotherium, Anoplotherium. 

Measurements* of the head. 

In. 
Meatus auditorius externus to infra orbitar foramen ... 3.1 

From point of hook-like process of inferior maxilla to anterior mental 

foramen 4.35 

Greatest width of orbit 1.15 

Narrowest part of face, below ossa nasi ..... .2 

Width at the corono-condyloid depressions of inferior maxilla . 1.6 

Width at the coronoid processes 2. 

Greatest width at the ossa tympani 2.1 

Distance between ossa tympani .375 

Width of os tympanum . .85 

Length of row formed by the posterior six superior molars . 2.5 

Notch between the first and second superior premolars . . .333 

Length of row formed by the posterior six inferior molars . . 7. 

Notch between the first and second inferior premolar . . .45 

Measurements of superior molar teeth. 



7th molar 


6 th 


a 


5th 


<( 


4th 


<( 


3rd 


it 


2nd 


(i 


1st 


K 



Length. 
.375 

.4 

.333 

.2 

.15 

.1 

.15 



Breadth. 
.6 

.55 

.45 

.375 

.4 

.35 

.3 



Thickness. 
.2 

.25 

.275 

.25 

.1 

.1 

.075 



Measurements of inferior molar teeth. 

Length. Breadth. 

7th molar . . .3 .35 



6th 
5th 
4th 
3rd 

2nd 



.3 

.25 

.15 

.1 

.1 



.5 

.4 

.45 

.35 

.35 



* The measurements are taken in English inches and parts of do. 



326 [Dec 1847. 

Measurements from bones of fore-leg. 

Transverse diameter of lower articular surface of os humeri . . .75 
Antero-posterior diameter in depressed portion of same . . . .45 
uength of olecranon above the lowest part of the articular surface of 

the elbow . 95 



Explanation of the figures. 
No. 1. Cranium of Poebrotherium Wilsoni. 

2. View of the crowns of the superior molar teeth of the right side. 

3. Posterior view of the tympanic bone. 

4. Fragments of os humeri, ulna, and radius. 

No. 5. Section of articular cartilage, frcm the articular surface of the head 
of the tibia of Megalonyx laqueatus, highly magnified, as described 
on page 313. 
6. Portion of the crown taken from a fragment of a fossil horse tooth ; 
see page 328. 



The Monthly Report of the Corresponding Secretary was 
read and adopted. 

ELECTION. 

The Hon. George M. Dallas, Vice President of the United 
States, John H. B. McClellan, M. D., and John L. Ludlow, 
M. D., of Philadelphia, were elected Members. 



Stated Meeting, December 7, 1847. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Pecten encyclicus, Rav., from South Carolina. Presented by 
Dr. Ravenel, of South Carolina, through Dr. Morton. 

Two Trilobites, and a cast of a third, from the vicinity of Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. Presented by Dr. Dickeson. 

Several specimens of Diallage, fromMarple, Del. Co., Penn. 
From Dr. George Smith, through Mr. Cassin. 



Dec. 1847.J 327 



DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Handbuch der Entomologie von Hermann Burmeister. Vol. 

5. 8vo. Berlin, 1847. From the Author, in exchange. 
Disquisitio anatomica, nervum trigeminum partemque cepha- 

licum nervi sympathetic! Gadi lotse Linn, cum nervis 

iisdem apud hominem et Mammalia comparans,&c. Auc- 

tor Eberhardus Julius Bonsdorff. From Dr. Morton. 
Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

New series. Vol. 1. Part 1. 4to. Philada., 1S47. From 

the Publication Committee. 

Dr. Wilson deposited the following: 
A list of the Genera of Birds, with their synonyma, and an 

indication of the typical species of each genus. By Geo. 

Robt. Gray. 2d edition. 8vo. London, 1841. 
Voyage de la Corvette l'Astrolabe pandant les annees 1826 

-'29, sous le commandment de M. D'Urville. Text. 1 vol. 

4to., and 11 vols. 8vo. Plates, 8 vols, folio. 
Voyage en Islande et an Groenland execute pendant les 

annees 1835 and '36, sur la Corvette La Recherche; publie 

par ordre du roi sous la direction de M. Paul Gaimard. 

Text, 9 vols. 8vo. Plates, 3 vol. folio, et 1 vol. 8vo. 
The Zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus and Terror, 

under the command of Capt. Sir James Clark Ross, R. N., 

during the years 1839 to '43; edited by John Richardson? 

M. D., and J. Ed. Gray, Esq. Nos. 616. 4to. 
Saggio orittografico sulla classe dei Gasterpodi fossili dei 

Terreni Terziarii del Piemote di Luigi Bellardi e Gio- 
vanni Michellotti. 4to. Torino, 1840. 
Description des Cancellaires fossiles der Terrains Tertiaires 

du Piemont, par Louis Bellardi. 4to. Turin, 1841. 

Dr. Griffith deposited the following: 
Tableaux des corps organises fsssiles precede de remarques 

sur leur petrification : par M. Defrance, 8vo. Paris, 1824. 



328 [Dec. 1847. 

A treatise on the management of Bees. By Thomas Wild- 

mann. 8vo. London, 1778. 
Harper's Family Library. No. LXI. The History of Nubia 

and Abyssinia, by the Rev. Michael Russel. 12mo. New 

York, 1836. 



Dr. Dickeson exhibited an Indian axe, of large size, which 
had been found in New Jersey. 

The Publication Committee announced that the first num- 
ber of the New Series of the Journal of the Academy was 
published, and ready for distribution to subscribers. 



Stated Meeting, Dec, 14, 1847. 

Mr. Vaux in the Chair. 

Mr. Cassin read a paper, describing " Two species of Buce- 
ros, probably new, with a notice of the Buceros elatus, 
Temm. ;" which was referred to a committee composed of 
Dr. Wilson, Mr. Harris, and Mr. Gambel. 

Dr. Leidy made some observations upon fossil remains of the 
horse in America, in connection with a memoir on the subject, 
read by him some time previously, and published in the last num- 
ber of the Proceedings. He stated that in the 35th vol. of Silli- 
man's Journal, p. 201, is an extract from a letter from W. M. 
Carpenter to Benj. Silliman, describing a fossil horse tooth found 
in Louisiana, associated with Mastodon, &c, which, from the 
figures and measurements accompanying the description, he re- 
ferred to his species Equus Americanus. He further remarked 
that Mr. T. A. Conrad had informed him that Mr. T. Nuttall had 
found teeth of this same species on the Neuse river, N. C. Dr. 
L. also exhibited a fragment of a superior molar of the left side, 
from the collection of Dr. Dickeson, which, from the greater deli- 
cacy and degree of folding of the enamel upon the crown, (see 
fig. 6 in the plate,) he thinks probably belonged to a third 
American species. The depth of the central enamel folds is pre- 
served in the fragment, and is 2 inches, 3 lines. 

Dr. McEuen exhibited specimens of clarified ginseng 
root, (Panax quinquefolium,) which had been perforated by 
an insect ; and desired information on the subject. 



Dec. 1847.] 329 

Stated Meeting, December 21, 1847. 
Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

DONATIONS TO MUSEUM. 

Three hundred and forty-two crania of Birds, comprising 222 
species ; also three crania of Mammalia. Presented by Dr. 
Wilson. 

Mounted skeleton of Boa constrictor. Presented by Messrs. 
Watson, Vaux, Ashmead, Lambert, Percival and Leidy. 

Skeletons of Didelphis virginiana, aud Mus musculus. Pre- 
sented by Mr. Wm. G. Wistar. 

Two species of Trilobites. Presented by Mr. Samuel Ash- 
mead. 

DONATIONS TO LIBRARY. 

Archiv. fiir Naturgcschichte geriindet von A. F. A. Wieg- 
mann, herausgegeben von Dr. W. F. Erichson. No. 6, 
1846. No. 2, 1S47. Deposited by Dr. Wilson. 

Oken's Isis, No. 7, for 1847. From the same. 

Verzeichniss der doubletten des Zoologischen Museum dei 
Konigl. Universitat zu Berlin nebst Beschreibung veiler 
bischer unbekanntner arten von Saugethieren, Vogeln, 
Amphibien und Fischen herausgegeben von Dr. H. Lich- 
tenstein. 4to. Berlin, 1823. From the same. 

The Literary Record and Journal of the Linnean Association 
of Pennsylvania College. Vol.4. No. 2. From the Asso- 
ciation. 

American Journal of Agriculture and Science; conducted by 
Dr. Emmons and A. Osburn, Esq., Nov. 1847. From the 
Editors. 



Mr. Cassin read a paper entitled, "Descriptions of three 
species of the genus Icterus, presumed to be new ; speci- 
mens of which are in the collection of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia." Referred to Messrs. 
Wilson, Harris, and Gambel. 



330 [Dec. 1847. 

Dr. Morton made some remarks on an Indian cranium of 
singular form found near Richmond, on the Delaware; and 
also on a Chenook infant mummy. The cranium is interest- 
ing on account of its locality, and from its having the atlas 
vertebra continuous with the occipital bone. No trace of 
suture is visible ; although the skull has pertained to an indi- 
vidual not exceeding 25 years of age. 

The Chenook mummy is from the Straits of Fuca ; the 
head is artificially compressed in a very remarkable manner, 
according to the custom of these people. 



Annual Meeting, Dec. 28, 1847. 

Vice President Morton in the Chair. 

The Committee on Mr. Casein's papers, describing new 
species of Buceros and Icterus, reported in favour of publica- 
tion : 

Description of a new Buceros, and a notice of the Buceros elatus, Temm., 
both of which are in the collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia. 

By John Cassin. 

Buokros albo-cristatus, (nobis.) Capitehabentecristam,erectam,albamque; 
plumis totis subtiliter nigro terminatis ; multis etiam ad basem nigris hoc 
colore sursum per scapum extendente. 

Rostro nigro; macula magna, flavido-alba, ab basi ad mandibulae superioris 
medium extendente. 

Corpore toto, alis, caudaque nigris, nitore nonnullo virescente. 

Remigibus, primariis et secundariis, maculis apicalibus, parvis et albis ; 
primariorum nonnullis maculis parvis et albis pogonio externo. 

Cauda longissima, gradata ; duabus rectricibus intermediis caeteris longi- 
oribus pollicibus nonnullis ; totis margine apicali large albo terminatis. 

Long. tot. (exuviae) ab rostri apice usque ad caudae finem, 30 poll.; caudae 
17 poll. 

Hab. In Africa occidental!. 

Head with an erect crest, which is white, every feather minutely tipped 
with black; many feathers of the crest are also black at their bases, with 
colour extending upwards along their shafts. 



Dec. 1847.] 331 

Bill black, with a large yellowish white spot extending from the base to 
the middle of the upper mandible. 

Whole of the body, wings, and tail black, with a green lustre. 
Primary and secondary quills with small white spots at their tips ; several 
of the primaries have also small white spots on their outer webs. 

Tail very long, graduated, the two middle feathers exceeding all the others 
by several inches ; all the tail feathers largely tipped with white. 

Total length (of skin) from tip of bill to end of tail, 2 feet 6 inches, of which 
the tail alone measures 17 inches. 
Hab. Western Africa. 

The specimen above described, I received several years since from Robert 
MacDowell, M. D., surgeon, attached to the colonial government of Sierra 
Leone, and an enthusiastic naturalist, who obtained it on the banks of the St. 
Paul's river. 

This species resembles no other which I have seen, or of which I can find a 
description, and may at once be recognized by its white erect crest and long 
tail. 

For the same gentleman I have received several other specimens of this 
genus, also from Western Africa, one of which is the Buceros elatus, Temm., 
of which a figure of the head and bill is given in PI. Col., 521, and another 
may be the female of the same species ; as such, however, I do not feel war- 
ranted in describing it at present, the bills of the two specimens differing more 
materially than I have been accustomed to seeing in the same species. 

Two crania of the Buceros elatus are in the collection of Dr. Morton, one 
of which is undoubtedly from Western Africa. As this species appears to be 
known only from the figure of the cranium and beak above alluded to, I take 
the liberty of giving a description of the specimen which I suppose to be the 
male. 

Buceros elatus, Temm. (PI. Col., 521, accuratissima figura cranii et rostri) 
( 5 juv. ?) Corpore et alis totis nigris, subtus pallidioribus, parvo aut nullo 
virore metallico. 

Occipite subcristato, plumis latis, laxis et nigris. 
Rectricibus duabus intermediis nigris ; omnibus caeteris toto albis. 
Long. tot. exuviae, ab rostri apice usque ad caudae finem 36 pollices. 
Hab. In Africa occidentals 

Body and wings entirely black, paler beneath, with little or no metallic 
lustre. 

Occiput with a sub-crest of broad lax feathers, which are black. 
Two middle tail feathers black, all the others entirely white. 
Total length (of skin) from tip of bill to end of tail 3 feet. 
Hab. Western Africa. 

The supposed female is very similar in the general colouring of the bodj, 
wings and tail, with the whole head and neck rufous chestnut, which colour 
extends to the upper part of the breast. 



332 [Dec. 1847. 



Descriptions of three new species of the genus Icterus {Briss. ;) specimens of which 
are in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

By John Cassin. 

Icterus maculi-alatus, nobis. Capite toto, dorso, alis et cauda, nigris ; 
hoc colore ad pectus, ut in caeteris hujus generis speciebus, extendente. 

Scapularibus, alarum tectricibus minoribus, et corpore totosubtus a pec- 
tore ad caudam, flavis ; hoc colore in pectore et scapularibus intensiore. 

Alarum tectricibus majoribus maculis apicalibus, albis, subrotundis, fas- 
ciam in alam conspicuam facientibus. 

Remigibus primariis, pogonio externo, prope apicem, attenuatis, et ubi 
coarctantur, extus albo-marginatis. 

Long. tot. exuviae, ab rostri apice usque ad finem caudae 7 poll., alae 
3.8-10, caudae 3.4-10 poll. 

Hab. Mexico ; prope Vera Cruz. 

Whole head, back, wings and tail black ; this color extending to the 
breast, as in other species of this genus. 

Shoulders, lesser wing coverts, and entire under parts of the body, from 
the breast to the tail, yellow, darkest on the breast and shoulders. 

Greater wing coverts with rounded white spots at their tips, forming a 
conspicuous bar on the wing. 

External webs of primaries attenuated near their tips, and at the point of 
attenuation edged (externally) with white. 

Total length of skin from tip of bill to end of tail 7J inches, wing 8.8-10, 
tail 3.4-10 inches. 

Hab. Mexico, near Vera Cruz. 

This species resembles no other which I have met with, and may readily 
be recognized by its conspicuous and peculiar white bar on the wing, formed 
by large white spots at the tips of the greater coverts. Upon examination 
it will be found that these spots are on the outer webs only. 

I have seen one specimen only of this species, which belonged to the 
Rivoli collection. 

Icterus auricapillus, nobis. Capite supra nitide aureo flavo. 

Persona vittam frontis formante, oculos in totum complectente, ad pectus 
excurrente, nigra. Dorso, alis et cauda eodem colore. 

Scapularibus, uropygio, caudae tectricibus superioribus, et corpore toto 
subtus (a pectore) flavis. 

Alis et corporis partibus caeteris prorsus sine albo. 

Long. tot. exuviae, ab rostri apice usque ad finem cauda 7 poll., alae 3.6-10, 
caudae 3J poll. 

Hab. Mexico et America meridionali. 

Head above bright golden yellow. 



Dec. 1847.] 333 

Mask forming a frontal band, fully including the eyes and extending to 
the breast, black, which is also the color of the back, wings and tail. 

Shoulders, rump, upper tail coverts, and entire under surface of the body, 
(from the breast,) yellow. 

No white on the wings or on any other part of the body. 
In a specimen which is probably that of a young bird, the black of the 
chin is mixed with yellow ; no white whatever on any part of the plumage. 
Total length from tip of bill to end of tail, about 7 inches, wing 3.6-10, 
tail 3| inches. 
Hab. Mexico and South America. 

Resembles Icterus cucullatus, Swainson, more than any other species 
known to me, but I. cucullatus is very conspicuously marked with white on 
the wings, which is not the case in the species now described. 

The T. cucullatus has black shoulders, its bill also is longer and more 
slender, and in other respects it is entirely different. 

After a careful examination, with the advantage of the Academy's large 
collection of Icteri, I am rather surprised that I can find no description 
which will apply to this species, although I have seen it occasionally in col- 
lections for the last ten years. 

Of the four specimens now in the collection of the Academy, two from the 
Rivoli collection are labelled Mexico, one also from that collection is with- 
out label of any kind, and the fourth was received by me from Brazil. I 
have also seen specimens said to be from the island of Trinidad. 

Icterus Giraudii, nobis. Adultus. Persona lata, vittam frontis formante, 
oculos in totum complectente, ad pectus excurrente, laete nigra. 
Alis et cauda nigris, sine maculis albis. 

Corpore toto supra, subtus a pectore, capite supra, et scapularibus nitide 
citriuo-flavis. 

Plumis totis sine albo. 

Long. tot. exuviae, ab rostri apice usque ad finem cauda 8 poll., alse 4.1-10, 
caudae 4 poll. 

Juvenis, plumarum flavo saturate, tincto cum aurantio sordide aut cam- 
bogio. 
Alis virescenti-marginatis. 

Juvenissimus, plumarum flavo pallido, nigro in gulam inconspicuo. 
Sab. Prope Bogota, in Nova Grenada. 

Adult. Mask broad, forming a frontal band, fully including the eyes, and 
extending to the breast, fine black. 

Wings and tail black, with no white marks whatever. 
Head above, entire body above and below from the breast, and shoulders 
bright lemon yellow, no white on any part of the plumage. 

Young. Yellow, the whole plumage tinged with dull orange or gamboge 
color. Wings edged with greenish. 

Very young. Yellow parts of plumage paler, in some parts nearly white, 
black on the throat scarcely apparent. 



334 [Dec. 1847 

Total length, skin of adult, from tip of bill to end of tail about 8 inches, 
wing 4.1-10, tail 4 inches. 

Hab. Bogota in New Grenada. 

Resembles Icterus xanthornus, (Linn.,) more than any other species with 
which I am acquainted or have found described, but is larger, and has the 
mask much broader. 

In I. xanthornus, the gular black scarcely exceeds the width of the under 
mandible, but in the species now described, it fully includes the eyes and 
the whole base of the bill.'' I. xanthornus has also white markings on the 
wings, which is not the case in any stage of plumage represented by the five 
specimens now described. 

I have named this beautiful species in honor of Jacob P. Girard, Jr., Esq.. 
of the city of New York, author of "The Birds of Long Island," and other 
important contributions to American Ornithology. 



The following Reports were then read, and ordered to be 
published : 

REPORT 

OF THE RECORDING SECRETARY 

For the years 1846 and 1847. 

It has now been two years since the last annual Report of the Record- 
ing Secretary was laid before the Academy. This paper will therefore 
include a brief statement of the Transactions of the Society for the two years 
past. 

During the year 1846, twenty-six Correspondents and five Members were 
elected. Twenty communications, written by the following named gentle- 
men, have been published in the Proceedings, viz. : One paper by Mr. T. A. 
Conrad, entitled, " Descriptions of new species of Fossil and recent Shells 
and Corals ;" one by Mr. Locke, " On an Asterias from the Blue Limestone 
of Cincinnati;" one by Mr. Edward Harris, " On the difference of level be- 
tween the waters of the Gulf of Mexico and those of the Atlantic Ocean,' 
one by Robert W. Gibbes, M. D., of Columbia, S. C, " On the Fossil 
Squalidse of the United States ;" one by Mr. William Gambel, being " Re- 
marks on the Birds observed in Upper California ;" two by Samuel Geo. 
Morton, M. D., viz. a " Description of two new species of Fossil Echino- 
dermata, from the Eocene of the United States," and " A description of two 
living Hybrid Fowls, between Gallus and Numida;" two by Edward Hal- 
lowell, M. D., viz., "Description of a new species of Bat, from Western 
Africa," and "On the Anatomy of Harpyia destructor, Cuv., or Harpy Eagle 
of South America;" one by F. E. Melsheimer, M. D., being " Descriptions 
of new species of Coleoptera of the United States;" one by Mr. John S. 



Dec 1847.] 335 

Phillips, being " Descriptions of a new freshwater shell, and observations on 
Glandina obtusa, Pfeif ;" five by Joseph Leidy, M. D., viz ;, " Remarks 
upon the Anatomy of the Abdominal Viscera of the Sloth, Bradypus tridac- 
tylus, Linn. ;" " On the Anatomy of Spectrum femoratum, Say," " De- 
scription of a new genus and species of Entozoa," " On the mechanism 
which closes the wings of the genus Locusta," and " On the situation of the 
olfactory sense in the terrestrial tribe of the Gasteropodous Mollusca ;" 
two by Prof. S. S. Haldeman, viz., " Description ^f Unio Abacoides, a new 
species,'' and " On several new genera and species of Insects ;" one by 
Richard Owen, F. R. S., &c, being " Observations on certain Fossils from 
the Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia; and one by Mr. John 
Cassin, viz., "Note on an instinct probably possessed by the Herons, 
(Ardea, Linn.)" 

The following amendments to the By-Laws have been made during the 
same year, (1846) viz : 

Chap. V. Art. VI. to commence thus : " The duty of the Librarian shall 
be to attend daily at the Hall, from 11 o'clock, A. M. to 2\ P. M., &c. ;"' 
and to add to the same chapter, 

" Art. VIII. The chairman of the Curators shall attend daily at the Hall, 
from 1\ o'clock, P. M., until sunset, to perform the duties of his office." 

From the commencement of the present year (1847) to the present time, 
there have been elected thirteen Correspondents and nineteen Members. 

In the first five numbers of this year's " Proceedings" have been published 
thirteen valuable original written communications, as follows : one by Prof. 
S. S. Haldeman, being " Descriptions of several new species and one new 
genus of Insects ;" one by Mr. M. Tuomey, State Geologist of South Caro- 
lina, being a " Notice of the discovery of a cranium of the Zeuglodon ;" 
one by Mr. John Cassin, being a " Description of a new rapacious bird in 
the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia ;" three 
by Joseph Leidy, M. D., viz., "Description and Anatomy of a new and 
curious subgenus of Planaria," " Description of new species of Planaria," 
" On the fossil Horse of America ;" one by Lieut. Abert, U. S. A., 
being a " Description of Ortyx Squamata ;" one by Major George A. 
M'Call, being a " Description of a supposed new species of Columba 
inhabiting Mexico, with some account of the habits of the Geococcyx 
viaticus, Wagler ;" one by Robert W. Gibbes, M. D., of Columbia, S. C, 
being a " Description of a new species of Squalides from the Tertiary Beds 
of South Carolina ;" one by Dr. J. W. Dawson, of Pictou, Nova Scotia. 
"On the Gypsum of Nova Scotia;" one by Edward Hallowell, M. D., being 
a " Description of a new species of Coluber inhabiting the United States ;" 
one by Mr. T. A. Conrad, being " Observations on the Eocene Formations 
and descriptions of one hundred and five new fossils of that period, from the 
vicinity of Vicksburg, Mississippi, with an appendix." In addition to these 
communications, there are several papers in progress of publication for 
the November and December number of this year. A number of very 

44 



336 [Dec. 1S47. 

valuable and interesting verbal communications by different members of the 
Academy, have also been published in the Proceedings. 

The following alterations in the By-Laws have been made, viz. 

Art. VII. of Chap. VII. to read as follows : " Members may borrow books, 
the property of the Academy, from the Librarian, on signing a promissory 
note for fifty dollars, which shall become void on the book being returned." 

Art. VIII. of same Chapter : " But no works shall be loaned from the 
Hall on any account whatever, except those marked with an asterisk (thus*) 
in the catalogue, unless by an affirmative ballot vote of three fourths of the 
members present when the application is made ; and in case of deposited 
books, the written consent of the depositor having been previously obtained, 
the name of the borrower and the title of the book to be recorded on the 
Minutes, and security given for its safe return, by note or otherwise, for the 
full value thereof, according to the estimate of the Librarian or Library 
Committee." 

Since the last Annual Report, the affairs of the Academy have been in an 
exceedingly flourishing condition. An addition of thirty feet has been made 
to the building, and the sessions of the Academy are held in the Library, a 
comfortable apartment in the basement of this addition a great improve- 
ment over the immense room in which its meetings were formerly held. 
During the past year, the lecture room has been altered and adapted to the 
purposes of the Museum an alteration greatly needed in consequence of 
the immense increase in the different departments through the munificent 
donations and deposits lately received by this Institution. A report on 
the state of these departments belongs more properly to other officers of the 
Society ; it will therefore be sufficient here simply to state, that during the 
period embraced by this report, a greater impetus has been given to the 
Academy than it has received at any previous period of its existence. Du- 
ring the last two years, thanks to the noble liberality of a generous member, 
and to the exertions of others, it has made such rapid strides that, in the 
language of one of our Vice Presidents, " an hundred years of ordinary 
prosperity could not have realized so much." It has completely thrown all 
lethargy aside ; and, fully aroused and energetic, is now performing its full 
quota towards the cause of scientific discovery and research. 
All of which is respectfully submitted by 

JOHN LAMBERT, 

Recording Secretary. 
December 28, 1847. 



Dec. 1847.] 337 

REPORT 

OP THE HBPvAEIAN 

For 1847. 

The Librarian is enabled on the present occasion to exhibit to the Society 
a highly flattering statement of the existing condition of the Library, and to 
congratulate the members on its rapid increase and the great additional value 
which it has acquired during the year, and the peculiarly auspicious circum- 
stances under which it has been placed since the last Annual Meeting. 

At that time, the Library occupied ranges of cases on either side of the large 
Saloon or Hall in common with the collections of the Society. These accom- 
modations were imperfectly adapted, either for a proper display of the Books, 
or for sueh an arrangement of them as would afford easy and convenient re- 
ference. Many of the cases were likewise greatly crowded, their contents in 
consequence abused and injured, and in several instances it was necessary to 
distribute works belonging to a particular department into cases at a consider- 
able distance from each other. In addition, the want of proper daily ventila- 
tion of the Hall in the summer season, and of regular warmth during the win- 
ter, and the unavoidable exclusion of the members from the Library on those 
days when the Hall was open to the public, were all serious obstacles to the 
prosecution of study, on the very spot where, on the contrary, every facility 
and advantage should be afforded. For the latter reasons especially, the 
necessity of a separation of the Library from the Museum had been long felt 
and acknowledged. Happily, through the spontaneous liberality of an indi- 
vidual member, too favorably known among us to require to be named, the 
Society has been enabled to remove all these objections and disadvantages, 
and I have the pleasure this evening to present this report in a new apart- 
ment, expressly designed for the purpose of a Library and Meeting room, and 
possessing every convenience that could be desired. 

The removal of the books from the Hall to this room was commenced in 
the latter part of April, and their arrangement in the cases was completed 
about the close of the following month. In the arrangement, the principal 
object has been to facilitate access to those works likely to be in most re- 
quest, and accordingly the different departments of Natural History occupy 
cases on the floor of the Library, commencing with general Natural History, 
and followed by Botany, Conchology, Geology, Ornithology, &c. The remain- 
ing cases on the floor contain Anatomy and Physiology, the Journals, and the 
large and valuable collection of works on Antiquities and the Fine Arts. On 
the gallery, are the various Dictionaries of Arts and Sciences and Encyclo- 
paedias, Physical Science and Chemistry, History, Voyages and Travels, 
Biography, &c. 

By a late regulation of the Society, the Librarian is required to be in at- 
tendance at the Library daily during a part of the forenoon, and in the after- 
noon his place is supplied by the Chairman of the Curators. 

From these measures the happiest effects have already resulted, and have 
fully equalled expectation. Beside the greater protection necessarily afforded 
to the Library by a constant and daily supervision of it, they have tended, per- 



338 



[Dec. 1847. 



haps more than any others since the origin of the Institution, to produce a 
better knowledge, and more correct appreciation of the truly legitimate ob- 
jects of the latter, to invite and encourage study and research, and, not the 
least of all, to bring together, and to create more frequent intercourse be- 
tween, the members of the Society. 

The number of additions of all descriptions to the Library in the various 
departments, during the presentyear, is exhibited in the following table : 



General Nat. History > 



and Zoology, 
Botany, 
Conchology, 
Geology, 
Ornithology, 
Herpetology, 
Ichthyology, 
Entomology, 
Mineralogy, 
Anatomy and "I 

Physiology, J 
Helminthology, 
Physical Science ? 

and Chemistry, 5 
Medicine, 

Carried over, 



r 



m 
"o 
> 


m 
o . 

-^ X 

M > 
OS-- 
ft-3 


a. 

a 

ft 


184 


103 


3 


21 


28 


8 


41 


13 


6 


60 


38 


25 


79 


55 


9 


12 






2 






6 


12 


1 


2 






11 




9 


1 






31 


1 


8 


3 




4 
73 


453 


250 



Brought over, 

Agriculture, 

Voyages and Travels, 

Languages, 

Bibliography, 

Education, 

Geography, 

Journals, Annals, 
Trans. & Proceed, of 
Soc, Memoirs, &c 

Biography, 

History, 

Useful Arts, 

Antiquities, 

Addresses, Reports, &c 



Totals, 



.) 



453 
1 

34 
1 

17 
2 

11 

97 

1 

2 
2 
8 
1 



o . 






250 



109 



630 359 82 



p. 

a 

3 

ft 



73 

3 
1 

1 



Making a total of 1072 additions of all descriptions to the Library in 1847. 

Of the whole number, there were presented by authors 54 ; by editors 31 ; 
by members, correspondents and others 119; by Societies 56 ; obtained by 
purchase or exchange 25 ; deposited by Dr. Thomas B. Wilson 586 ; by Dr. 
R. E. Griffith 163 ; and by J. Price Wetherill, Esq., 96. Two charts were 
derived from the TJ. S. Treasury Department ; one from Mr. R. C. Taylor, and 
one from Dr. Wilson. 

The above statements show a greater increase in the Library during the 
last twelve months, than has occurred at any period since that in which it re- 
ceived the noble contributions of its early benefactor William Maclure. It 
will be seen also how very large a proportion of the whole number of additions 
has been derived from our fellow member Dr. Wilson. From a reluctance to 
occupy the time of the Society too long with this report,I refrain from a reca- 
pitulation of the titles of the numerous splendid works deposited by this gentle- 
man, and must content myself therefore with referring those, who may be de- 
sirous of forming some estimate of their great value, both in actual cost, and as 
works of Science, to the printed Proceedings, in which they have been already 
fully announced. Nearly all of them have been imported from abroad expressly 



Dec. 1847.] 339 

for this Library, and have been placed here by him with the sole object and 
desire to foster and encourage a spirit of investigation, especially in the de- 
partments of Ornithology, Geology and Conchology. 

In these acts the depositor has evinced an amount of disinterested gene- 
rosity, and of zeal for the promotion of science, rarely to be found combined 
in the same individual, and which have secured for him the lasting esteem 
and gratitude of all connected with the Institution. 

To Dr. Griffith, the Society owes its highest acknowledgements for the 
deposit of a large number of works in the various branches of Science, many 
of them very rare and old, and probably contained in few public or private 
Libraries in this country. 

Through Mr. Wetherill, the Library has been enriched the present year, 
with several important and valuable Geological works, and it is also in- 
debted to him for completing its series of others, parts only of which it 
previously possessed. 

In closing this report, an opportunity is afforded me of stating to the Society 
that, during the ensuing year, the Library Committee, in conjunction with 
the Librarian, propose to select from the numerous miscellaneous works in 
the collection, such of them as may appear either extraneous to the objects of 
the Society, or of little value or utility in any form to the members, and to 
exchange these for other works, either on subjects of Natural History, or of 
an otherwise really useful character, and also to allow room for further 
additions of the latter description. 

A list of those proposed to be rejected will, however, be first submitted to 
the Society, and its consent fully obtained, before any action will be taken 
by the Committee. 

Wm. S. Zantzinger, 
December 28M, 1847. Librarian. 



REPORT 

OP THE CURATORS 

for the year 1847. 

At no time since the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia was 
instituted, has its condition been more prosperous than at present; and 
indeed, it is such as to form an important epoch in the progress of Natural 
Science in America. This successful state is mainly attributable to the 
interest which our fellow-member and co-labourer, Dr. Thomas B. Wilson, 
has latterly taken in it. In 1846, this gentleman, through his brother, Mr. 
Edward Wilson, of Lydstep House, South Wales, a Correspondent of the 
Academy, purchased, in Paris, the large and magnificent collection in orni- 
thology of the Due de Rivoli, which, upon importing to this country, he 
resolved to deposit in the Academy, and at his private expense increased 
the building to an extent commensurate with the end in view the accom- 
modation of this vast addition to the Musuem. More space was, also 



340 [Dec. 1847 

obtained in the museum, by removing the library, which had occupied several 
ranges of cases, into the basement room of the new part of the building. 

In May, 1847, Dr. Wilson made a second large purchase in Ornithology, 
in England, of Mr. A. Gould's splendid collection of Australian birds, 
which renders a further increase of space necessary for its accommo- 
dation. For this purpose, Dr. Wilson obtained ready permission of the 
Academy to convert its little used lecture room into part of the museumi 
which work is rapidly progressing towards completion. The north east 
basement room is also undergoing change for the same object. In accordance 
with the original plan of the building, all the additions and improvements 
to it have been made fire-proof. When completed, the collections of the 
Academy will be contained in three rooms, as follow : 

The first or upper room, or hall, is one hundred and ten feet in length, 
by forty-two in breadth, and is lighted from above, and from the east 
and west extremities. On the north and south sides are three galleries, 
and four ranges of vertical cases, and a range of foot cases at the outer 
edge of the second gallery. On the west side are three galleries and four 
ranges of vertical cases, on the east side two galleries and two ranges of 
vertical cases. The two lower ranges of cases on the south side, for two- 
thirds the length of the room, corresponding to the old part, are occupied by 
Dr. S. G. Morton's extensive series of human and other crania, and the col- 
lection in Comparative Anatomy. The lowest range of cases on the north 
side, for the same extent as those just mentioned, contains the collection of 
Mammalia ; and the range above this, Dr. Dickeson's collection of Ameri- 
can antiquities and the Carpological cabinet, and leads into the herba- 
rium room in the north east corner. All the remaining ranges of cases 
mentioned contain the Ornithological collection. The floor of the hall is to 
be occupied by ranges of horizontal, centrally vertical, double cases for the 
reception of the collection in Palaeontology. One of these ranges has been 
already finished, and part of the collection arranged in it ; the others are in 
progress of construction. At the east extremity, on each side, is a strong 
vertical case, containing the skeletons of large fossil Sauri in massive slabs 
of lias limestone. 

The second or east basement room is forty-one feet in length by forty in 
breadth, with a gallery all around it and communicating with another 
running through its centre. This room will be appropriated to the Minera- 
logical, Conchological, Herpetological, and Ichthyological collections. 

Tbe third, or north east basement room is sixteen feet by nine feet, has a 
gallery on three of its sides, and is to accommodate the collections of 
Crustacea and Entomology. 

The state of the different departments of the museum, as they at present 
exist, with the additions which have been made during the past year, will 
now be briefly referred to. 

Mammalogy. The expensive character of the larger objects in this branch 
of Zoology, as well as the amount of space required for their proper accom- 
modation, have prevented the Academy from accumulating any great 
number of them. We possess most of the North American species, besides 



Dec. 1847.] 341 

a few foreign ones. During the past year a comparatively large number 
has been received, and it is to be hoped that efforts -will be made towards a 
further increase. We enumerate for 1847, eighty mounted specimens and 
five skins of Mammalia, chiefly of foreign species, presented by Dr. Wilson, 
and six specimens presented by Dr. Thomas S. Savage, Mr. Germain, &c. 

Ornithology. Of this department, in which at this time we stand equal 
to any in the world, a special report is hereto appended, prepared by Mr. 
John Cassin, who, with Mr. Wm. Gambel, has particularly attended to its 
arrangement. 

In Oology, belonging to the department of Ornithology, in the past year 
we received in donations, eggs of 79 species of birds, principally from Dr. 
Wilson and Mr. William H. Edwards. 

Herpctology. Our collection of Reptilia is a large and valuable one. A 
part of it, however, is not in the best state of preservation, but will be early 
attended to in the coming year, and before any loss of consequence is sus- 
tained. During the past year 88 species of Reptilia have been presented, 
chiefly by Drs. Hallowell, Savage, Wilson, and Hildreth. 

Ichthyology. In this department we have not made much advance. It is 
to be hoped the Academy will hereafter encourage this branch more than it 
has done. During the past year, Dr. Thomas S, Savage presented several 
jars of fishes from Western Africa, many of which are probably new, and 
we are indebted to several members for a large specimen of the rare Squatina 
Dumerili. 

Mollusca. The arrangement of the conchological cabinet has been kindly 
undertaken by Dr. R. E. Griffith, who with the greatest liberality is also in- 
corporating with it his own private collection, which, as he progresses, he 
presents to the Academy. In this step he has been followed by the ever 
liberal Wilson, so that when the collection is fully arranged, with the addi- 
tion of the two private cabinets, it will contain between 9 and 10,000 spe- 
cies, many of them of the most valuable character. 

During the past year there have been presented 1209 species of shells by 
Dr. R. E. Griffith; 383 species by Dr. T. B. Wilson; 200 species by Wm. 
Thompson, Esquire, of Ireland ; 40 species by Mr. C B. Adams ; 31 species 
by Mr. T. A. Conrad; and 30 species by several others, inall 1893 species, 
and almost 2300 varieties. 

Entomology . The destruction of the Academy's once fine collection of 
Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, for a while quite discouraged those members 
who were particularly interested in this department, but the general stimulus 
which has been infused into the Academy by the rich contributions to other 
departments, has aroused them once more to exertion in the formation of a 
new collection, which already bids fair to surpass the one lost. Our fellow 
member, Mr. R. Kilvington, during the past year, made a liberal dona- 
tion of 1035 specimens, comprising 345 species of British Lepidoptera. and 
Dr. T. S. Savage has recently presented a collection in alcohol, of large and 



342 [Dec. 1847. 

magnificent Coleoptera from Western Africa, many of which are new spe- 
cies. 

Crustacea. Our collection of Crustacea, numbers 162 species, and was 
carefully arranged during the past summer by Dr. Lewis R. Gibbes, of 
South Carolina, and catalogued by Dr. R. Bridges. Twelve species have 
been presented the past year by several of the members. 

Zoophytes Eighty-nine specimens of fifty-nine species of corallines and 

sponges, and three species of Echinodermata have been presented in the 
course of the last year. 

Comparative Anatomy. Additions still continue to be made to Dr. S. 
G. Morton's large and magnificent series of human crania, which now con- 
tains upwards of seven hundred specimens of many nations and of various 
epochs. 

At present there appears to be a strong disposition amongst the members 
to attend more particularly to the heretofore rather neglected department of 
Comparatve Anatomy. During the past year 3S5 crania, comprising 260 
species of animals, have been presented, principally by Drs. Wilson, Morton, 
and HufTnagle. Among the number may be particularly mentioned the 
very large and perfect specimens of crania of Crocodilus vulgaris and 
Gavialis gangeticus. Eight mounted skeletons have also been presented, 
among which are a fine and large skeleton of Felis tigris from Dr. HufTnagle, 
and a beautiful skeleton 12 feet long of Boa Constrictor from several of the 
members. 

Botany. The botanical collection comprises upwards of 40,000 species 
of dried plants, and about 1000 species of dried fruits. It has been kept in 
a good state of preservation up to the present time, but has lately been 
slightly injured by insects; the further ravages of which, will however, be 
prevented. 

Talaontology. The collection of organic remains which occupied the 
range of cases on the upper gallery of the south side of the hall, has been 
removed to the cases prepared for its reception on the floor of the hall, and 
is in progress of arrangement by Dr. Wilson. It has received very exten- 
sive and invaluable accessions during the past year, and when completely 
arranged will contain in the neighbourhood of 20,000 specimens. In it are 
the valuable collections of Mr. R. C. Taylor, J. Price Wetherill, Esq., Dr. 
Morton, Mr. T. A. Conrad, Dr. Dickeson, Miss Benett, &c. The last year 
Dr. Wilson deposited in the Academy five very nearly perfect skeletons of 
large fossil Saurians. One of these is the Plesiosaurus Hawkinsii, three are 
species of Ichthyosauri, and the fifth is the Telosaurus, or Gavial de Boll of 
Cuvier. 

Mr. Conrad presented 2000 specimens from the Miocene of France, the 
Eocene, Cretaceous, Oolitic, mountain limestone, and Salurian formations of 
England and France. Mr. R. C. Taylor has presented an extensive collec- 
tion of very large and beautiful specimens of coal plants of Pennsylvania, be- 
sides numerous other fossils, which have not yet been examined. Numerous 



Dec. 1847.] 343 

specimens of coal plants from Prof. W. R. Johnson, Green sand fossils of 
Germany, from Dr. F. Roemer, Silurian fossils of New York from Mr. W. A. 
Pease, and many others, have been received. Dr. Wilson has also deposited 
about 10,000 fossils, which are already in progress of arrangement, and 
which he intends presenting to the Academy so soon as a list can be made out. 
Mineralogy and Geology The mineralogical collection is at present 
carefully packed up in boxes, preparatory to its removal to the north-east 
basement room, now undergoing alteration. We are indebted to the gene- 
rosity of Mr. R. C. Taylor for a donation during the iast year, of a large col- 
lection of rocks, comprising several thousand varieties from different parts of 
North America and the West India Islands. 

Forty specimens of minerals, some of them very beautiful, have been pre- 
sented by members and others during the past year. 

In the course of the arrangement of the mineralogical collection, which 
several gentlemen have kindly consented to undertake, we have good reason 
to believe that large additions will be made from the private cabinets of 
members interested in this department. 

Physics. The last year Mr. Henry Seybert deposited in the Academy a 
valuable chemical apparatus for the use of the members, which we hope ere 
long may prove of essential service to the Institution. 

The great increase and importance of the museum and library of the Aca- 
demy, have rendered it necessary that both should be under regular daily 
supervision. The Academy, therefore, has made it the duty of the chairman 
of the. Curators and Librarian to be present alternately during certain hours 
daily for this purpose. 

We conclude this report by stating that the greatest good feeling and har- 
mony prevails among the members of the Society, all of whom desire to 
promote the interests of this noble Institution and the cause of science in 
general. 

Joseph Leidy, 
December 28th, 1847. Chairman of Curators. 



SPECIAL REPORT 

ON THE * 

ORNITHOLOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 

The operations in the Ornithological department of the Academy have been 
of so highly important, not to say of so extraordinary a character, during the 
year now about closing, that the undersigned Curator, who has been exclu- 
sively engaged in that department, hopes he may be allowed to submit a 
special report, in compliance with a request made by the chairman of the 
Curators. 

I have the high gratification of reporting, that through the ardent attach- 
ment to the study of the Natural Sciences, and the great personal enterprize 
also, of a member of this Society, a collection has been organized, which, as 



344 [Dec. 1847. 

it now stands, is one of the first extant, and when further additions already 
engaged shall have arrived, the Ornithological collection of this Academy 
will be probably the most extensive and complete in the world. 

The collection, well known in Europe as that of the Prince Massena, Duke 
of Rivoli, has been received. This large collection, the arrangement of 
which is now nearly completed, consists of not less than twelve thousand 
five hundred specimens, from all parts of the world, and in a very superior 
state of preservation. 

Where so many of the families and genera of birds are alike fully repre- 
sented, it is not easy to pronounce in which of these a collection is most 
remarkable ; this distinction, however, in the Rivoli collection, I am in- 
clined to award to the Rapacious birds, in the various genera of which it is 
not only almost absolutely complete, but very many of the species are illus- 
trated by series of specimens showing varieties of plumage, or distinctions 
of sex, age and season, in the most satisfactory manner. Of the Aquila 
ehrysaetos, (Linn.) or Golden Eagle, for instance, there are six specimens : 
of the Aquila Bonellii, (Bonap.) also six: of the Aquila naevia, (Gm.) five; 
of the Aquila vulturina. (Daud.) a large black Eagle from South Africa, four 
specimens ; of the Haliaetus vocifer, (Daud.) six ; of the Helotarsus ecauda- 
tus, (Daud.) six; of the Pernis apivorus. (Linn.) ten; of theButeounicinctus, 
(Temm.) nine; of the Buteo aguia, (Temm.) nine specimens; and many of 
the smaller or more variable species are even more fully represented. Of the 
Astur magnirostris, (Gm.) for instance, we have fifteen specimens, of the 
Accipiter nisus, (Linn.) thirteen, of the Meliecrax musicus, (Daud. twelve, 
of the Circus cinerascens, (Mont.) fifteen, of the Falco peregrinus, Gm., 
fourteen, and of one species, the Falco sparverius, Linn., twenty-six speci- 
mens were not considered too many to illustrate its supposed changes and 
varieties ; and even with these the Duke or his Curator appears to have been 
scarcely satisfied, for among the specimens in the collection, marked as un- 
determined, were six others of this species. I mention this case, more par- 
ticularly, because it affords an example of the extraordinary care and atten- 
tion shown by the former proprietor of this collection ; not even a variety, of 
any possible consequence in the representation of a species, having been 
neglected, when attainable, notwithstanding the previous existence in the 
collection of numerous specimens of the same species. 

Of Vultures, all the known species, except three, are in the Rivoli col- 
lection ; one of which, I may observe, has been obtained from another 
source. 

Taking into consideration the comparative difficulty of collecting Rapa- 
cious birds, and more especially of forming such series of specimens as are 
to be found in this collection, its great scientific value in the Order Rap- 
tores ; is sufficiently evident. 

Nor are other Orders far behind the Raptores, and it is rather a remark- 
able as well as interesting character, that in many genera the species of 
which are of more difficult attainment, such as the larger swimmers, 
waders and gallinaceous birds, the Rivoli collection is particularly complete. 

Of the Natatorcs, or swimming birds, the collection is scarcely second to 



Dec. 1847.] 345 

that of the Rapacious birds. I beg leave to refer to the splendid collections 
of the species constituting the various genera of geese, ducks, cormorants 
ind gull3, now beautifully arranged by Mr. Gambel, for the truth of my 
assertion. The genera Diomedea, Porcellaria and Thalassidroma, are also 
yery amply illustrated. The specimens of the several species of Pelicans, 
are highly interesting, as are also those of Alca impennis, Linn., Phaleris 
ristatella, Gm., Mormon glacialis, Linn., and others of species which like 
xhese, only inhabit the Arctic regions. 

The magnificent series of specimens of the Flamingos, also wiil be found 
especially worthy of notice. 

The order Grallatores, or wading birds, is very extensively represented ; 
the various genera of plovers, herons, storks, ibises, in fact, scarcely a genus 
can be named which is not fully illustrated. The genus Grus, or cranes, is 
especially worthy of attention. I may notice, too, the various species of 
Ibis, particulaly the Ibis religiosa, Cuv., or sacred Ibis of the Ancient 
Egyptians, of which a suite of specimens will be found in its proper place. 

Of the Rasores or Gallinaceous birds, the Pigeons number one hundred and 
twenty species. 

The genera Perdix, Phasianus, Pterocles, Tetrao and Otis are richly repre- 
sented, as are also the beautiful genera Gallus, Lophopharus and Tragopan. 

I may be allowed to notice especially, splendid specimens of Pano muti- 
cus, Linn. of the Phasiani Scemmeringii, Temm., Stacei, Vigors, and 
veneratus, Temm., of Gallus Sonneratii, Temm., of Gallus Lafayettii, Less., 
of the Polyplectron emphanum, Temm., very fine specimens of the Argus 
giganteus, Temm., and also a specimen of that singular bird, the Apteryx 
australis, Shaw, of which, at quite a recent period, but one specimen was 
known in Europe. 

In the great order Incessores or Perching birds, the Garrulinse, Icterinae, 
Tanagrinae, Laniinae, Turdinae, Caprimulgime, and theScansorial subfamilies 
generally deserve particular notice. 

Of Paradise birds there are all the known species. 

Of the Hornbills, (Buceros,) six species only are wanting. 

Of the various genera of Parrots, there are upwards of two hundred 
species. 

In short, so extensive and comprehensive is the Rivoli collection, that it 
is evident an extraordinary attachment to natural history, a superior 
knowledge of Ornithology, constant assiduity during a long period, and 
opportunities of no common order, must alike have contributed to its for- 
mation. 

Besides the Rivoli collection, others of great interest have been received, 
one of the most important of which is that of M. Bourcier, an Ornithologist 
of the city of Lyons, well known by his papers in the Annales des Sciences 
Physiques et Naturelles de Lyons, the Revue Zoologique and other journals. 

The collection consists of .about one thousand specimens, and is almost 
xclusively composed of Conirostre3, and Scansores ; a large portion of 



346 [Dec. 1847. 

which are South American and Mexican species. M. Bourcier's col- 
lections contains specimens of nearly all the little known species of New 
Grenada, and is especially rich in the beautiful Tanagers of that country. 

The collection made in California by Mr. Wm. Gambel, I am happy to 
state, has also been added to the collection of this Society. This collection 
contains numerous and remarkably beautiful specimens of the birds of 
Western America, many of which were not previously in any collection in 
the United States, and are of rare occurrence in those of Europe. 

The specimens of the hitherto unknown species described by this enter- 
prising young naturalist, in the Proceedings and Journal of this Academy, 
are especiolly interesting, as well as those of Tyrannulae Saya (Bonap.) and 
nigricans, Sw., Ptilogonys Townsendii, Aud., Pica Nuttallii, Aud., Pipilo 
fascus, Sw., Picus Harri3ii, Aud., Picus scalaris, Wagler, Lanius elegans, 
Sw., Hasmatopus Bachmannii, Aud., Strepsilas melanocephalus, Vigors, and 
many others. 

Mr. Edward Harris has presented to the Society several specimens of un- 
usual value to the collection, of which may be mentioned a specimen of 
Tyrannus verticalis, (Say,) shot near his residence at Moorestown, N. J., 
being the first instances of the appearance of this species so far west or 
north. 

A series of specimens of the genus Parus, including the Parus septentrio- 
nalis, Harris, has also been presented by this gentleman. 

A collection made by the writer during a period of about fifteen years 
is also merged into that of the Academy. It is composed principally o r 
birds from Western Africa, collected under some advantages, and of the 
rarer birds of North America. Of the African species, I may be allowed 
to mention a series of specimens of Musophaga violacea, Isert, including 
males, females and young birds ; specimens of Taracus giganteus, Vieill. 
Buceros elatus, Temm. Cuculus Klaasii, Le Vaill. Pyrenestes ostrina. 
Vieill. and others. 

Of the American species, those of most interest are a series of specimens 
of Archibuteo sanctijohannis, (Gm.) including the perfectly adult bird, and 
the rare stage of plumage figured by Wilson as a variety ; also several spe- 
cimens including the perfect adult of Buteo Pennsylvanicus, (Wilson,) or 
broad winged Hawk ; a specimen of Astur atricapillus, Wilson, from New 
Jersey; a series of nine specimens of Astur Cooperi, (Bonaparte;) also a 
specimen of Bombycilla garrula, (Linn.) shot near this city; several speci- 
mens of Trichas Philadelphia, Wilson, Sylvicolae maritima, (Wilson,) agillis. 
(Wilson,) coerulea, (Wilson,) and many others of this genus. 

There will also be found several specimens of Rallus Jamaicensis, Briss. 
obtained near this city ; a series of specimens of Anser hyperboreus, (Gm.) 
also a specimen of Bernicla nigricans, (Lawrence,) a recently discovered 
American species, of which this is the third specimen. 

Various collections, including several hundred specimens from the cele- 
brated Ornithologist M. Temminck of Leyden, and a large number from the 



Dec. 1847.] 347 

British Museum, have been secured for this Society through the exertions of 
Mr. Edward Wilson, now residing in England. 

To this gentleman the collections of the Society are indebted in a de- 
gree second only to that of his distinguished brother. 

Independently of his immediate agency in obtaining the Rivoli collection 
and that of M. Bourcier, the collections made by him, personally, in various 
cities of Europe, evince at once his love of Natural History, his excellent 
judgment and his just appreciation of the wants of the natural sciences in 
this his native country. 

Mr. Wilson's ornithological collections, in the aggregate, amount to 
several thousand specimens, a portion of which, only, has been received ; 
but that portion contains some of our most valuable acquisitions. I will 
mention a fine specimen of Haliaetus pelagicus, (Pall.) from Behring's 
Straits, a species which is probably the largest of known FalconidaE, and is 
especially interesting to American Ornithologists from the fact of its being 
an inhabitant of the northern regions of this continent ; also a beautiful 
specimen of the Meleagris ocellata, Temm., the second species of Turkey 
discovered a few years since in Yucatan. 

For almost the whole of the large collection of Humming Birds the 
Society is indebted to the same gentleman. 

One other collection, which is to be delivered to this Society early in the 
coming year, remains to be noticed, and that is Mr. John Gould's collection 
of the birds of Australia. 

When I inform the Society that this collection contains specimens of all 
the known Australian birds, except five species, and of the nests and eggs 
of a large number, its peculiar value will be immediately understood. I 
may be excused for remarking, however, that Mr. Gould's collection acquires 
additional interest from the consideration that it contains the original speci- 
mens from which many of the numerous species described by him were first 
characterized, and that the specimens comprised in his collection are those 
from which the drawings were made for his latest and splendid work, " The 
Birds of Australia." 

The number of specimens now contained in the collection and those 
which will be received in the course of the ensuing year, according to ar- 
rangements now completed, may be estimated as follows : 

Duke of Rivoli's collection, .... 12,500 specimens 

M. Bourcier's collection, 1,000 " 

Mr. Edward Wilson's collections . . . 4,000 " 

Mr. Gambel's and Mr. Cassin's collections . . 1,000 " 

Mr. Gould's collection, 2,000 " 

Former collections of the Academy . . . 2,500 " 

23,000 
As premised at the commencement of this report, this magnificent result 
is the work of an individual member of this Society, himself a naturalist of 
excellent and varied acquirements, who in the formation of this and other 



348 [Dec. 1847. 

collections, and a library also, in natural history, may be said to have real- 
ized the happiest hopes of the American student and the American natural- 
ist and to have marked an era which must ever be acknowledged as the 
most important in the history of the Zoological sciences in this country. 

The arrangement of this immense collection, excluding duplicates, will, 
in all probability be completed during the coming year, and it is also pro- 
bable that at the next annual meeting of the Academy, a report can be made 
of the exact number of species aud specimens exhibited. 

It is to be understood, however, that other extensive additions are con- 
templated, which if received and incorporated into the present collection, 
may, of course, naturallly affect the issue to which I allude. 

All of which is respectfully submitted by 

John Cassin, 

December 28th, 1847. Curator. 

A note was read from Prof. Haldeman, dated Columbia, 
Penn., Dec. 27, 1847, requesting that the following correction 
of his published papers may be noticed in the present No. 
of the Proceedings. 

The genus Heterodromia, Raid., Proceedings Academy, vol. 3, 
p. 127, seems to be identical with Psammcechus, Boudier, although 
the prothorax is not wider than long, as described by Latreille. 

The proposed genus Chorea, Raid., Proceedings Academy, 
vol. 3, p. 150, is founded upon the female of Cerophytum, unless 
the structure of the posterior femora should be found to differ. 
Neither of these rare genera has been yet announced as Ameri- 
can, and but one species of each is found in Europe. M. Lucas 
has described a species of Psammoechus from Algeria, which he 
names Boudieri. 



The Academy then proceeded to an election for Officers for 
1848. The following result was announced by the Teller?: 

President. 
William Hembel. 



vice-presidents. 
J. Price Wetherill, 
Samuel George Morton. 

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY. 

Walter R. Johnson. 

RECORDING SECRETARY. 

John Lambert. 



Dec, 1847.] 349 

librarian. 

Wm. S. Zantzinger. 

TREASURER. 

George W. Carpenter. 

CURATORS. 

Joseph S. Leidy, 
William S. Vaux, 
Samuel Ashmead, 
John Cassin. 

AUDITORS. 

Robert Pearsall, 
William S. Vaux, 
Robert Bridges. 

PUBLICATION COMMITTEE, 

William S. Vaux, 
Walter R. Johnson, 
Robert E. Griffith, 
Samuel Ashmead, 
William Gambel. 



ELECTION OF MEMBERS AND CORRESPONDENTS. 

Joseph Pancoast, M. D., of Philadelphia, was elected a 
Member, and the following were elected Correspondents of 
the Academy : 

William Lonsdale, Esq., F. G. S., of London. 

Sir J. F. W. Herschell, do. 

Michael Faraday, Esq., F. R. S., do. 

Prideaux John Selby, Esq., Northumberland, England. 

Prof. Nillson, of Lund, Sweden. 




31 



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